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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1654 matches for " Takahiro Osawa "
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Medium Spatial Resolution Satellite Imagery to Estimate Gross Primary Production in an Urban Area
A. Rahman As-syakur,Takahiro Osawa,I. Wayan S. Adnyana
Remote Sensing , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/rs2061496
Abstract: Remote sensing data with medium spatial resolution can provide useful information about Gross Primary Production (GPP), especially on the scale of urban areas. Most models of ecosystem carbon exchange that are based on remote sensing use some form of the light use efficiency (LUE) model. The aim of this work is to analyze the distribution of annual GPP in the urban area of Denpasar, Bali. Additional analysis using two types of satellite data (ALOS/AVNIR-2 and Aster) addresses the impact of spatial resolution on the detection of various ecosystem processes in Denpasar. Annual GPP estimated using ALOS/AVNIR-2 varied from 0.13 gC m?2 yr?1 to 2,586.18 gC m?2 yr?1. Meanwhile, the Aster estimate varied from 0.14 gC m?2 yr?1 to 2,595.26 gC m?2 yr?1. GPP as measured by ALOS/AVNIR-2 was lower than that from Aster because ALOS/AVNIR-2 has medium spatial resolution and a smaller spectral range than Aster. Variations in land use may influence the measured value of GPP via differences in vegetation type, distribution, and photosynthetic pathway type. The medium spatial resolution of the remote sensing data is crucial for discriminating different land cover types in heterogeneous urban areas. Given the heterogeneity of land cover over Denpasar, ALOS/AVNIR-2 detects a smaller maximum value of GPP than Aster, but the annual mean GPP from ALOS/AVNIR-2 is higher than that from Aster. Based on comparisons with previous work, we find that ALOS/AVNIR-2 and Aster satellite data provided more accurate estimates of maximum GPP in Denpasar and in the tropical Kalimantan-Indonesia and Amazon forest than estimates derived from the MODIS GPP product (MOD17).
Long-Term Renal Function Outcomes in Bladder Cancer After Radical Cystectomy
Takahiro Osawa,Nobuo Shinohara,Satoru Maruyama,Koji Oba
Urology Journal , 2013,
Abstract: PURPOSE: To evaluate postoperative renal function and risk factors for the loss of renal function in patients who had undergone radical cystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A retrospective single institutional study evaluated 70 patients, including 54 men and 16 women who underwent radical cystectomy. The median follow-up period was 34.5 months (range, 12 to 228 months). In this cohort, four types of urinary diversions were studied, including ilealneobladder (n = 24), ileocecalneobladder (n = 12), ileal conduit (n = 25), and cutaneous ureterostomy (n = 9). Postoperative changes in renal function were reviewed, and the estimated serum creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated. The variables analyzed were age, a prior history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus, pre-operative renal function, type of urinary diversion, the postoperative occurrence of acute pyelonephritis, and the presence of chemotherapy. RESULTS: The mean eGFR was 74.6 (range, 15.2 to 155.1) mL/min/1.73 m2 before surgery and 63.6 (range, 8.7 to 111.5) mL/min/1.73 m2 at the last follow-up. The 10-year renal deterioration-free interval was 63.8%. Multivariate analysis showed that a postoperative episode of acute pyelonephritis [Odds Ratio (OR), 3.21; 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.14 to 9.02; P = .03] and the presence of chemotherapy (OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.33 to 8.01; P = .01) were significant adverse factors. CONCLUSION: Twenty-four (34.2%) patients demonstrated reduced renal function during the follow-up period. Postoperative episodes of acute pyelonephritis and the presence of chemotherapy were found to be significant adverse factors.
Cecal vanishing tumor associated with cytomegalovirus infection in an immunocompetent elderly adult
Shinsuke Kawasaki,Satoshi Osawa,Ken Sugimoto,Takahiro Uotani
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology , 2010,
Abstract: Gastrointestinal involvement in cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is well documented among immunocompromised patients and is also observed in immunocompetent individuals. The presentation of this infection can sometimes mimic those of other diseases, thus making accurate diagnosis difficult. We herein report a rare case of an immunocompetent elderly adult with gastrointestinal CMV infection that presented as a vanishing tumor at the cecum. A 76-year old man initially presented with lower abdominal pain. Colonoscopy revealed a tumorous lesion with irregular ulceration observed at the ileocecal valve. Histological findings of a biopsy specimen revealed intranuclear inclusions which were positive for CMV on immunohistochemical staining. However, this tumorous lesion disappeared within 7 wk from the initial hospital visit without any further treatment. Inflammatory pseudotumors associated with CMV infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis of tumorous lesions in the colon, even in immunocompetent adults.
Spatial-Temporal Distribution and Characteristics of Internal Waves in the Lombok Strait Area Studied by Alos-Palsar Images
I Wayan Gede Astawa Karang,Fumihiko Nishio,Leonid Mitnik,Takahiro Osawa
Earth Science Research , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/esr.v1n2p11
Abstract: Numerous packets of internal waves were revealed in Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (ALOSPALSAR) images of the Lombok Strait area, and high-resolution and quick look images were used for their detection and analysis. The parameters of internal waves, such as the number of waves in a packet, crest length, and propagation velocity were estimated from the images. This paper describes the use of PALSAR imagery for internal wave frequency detection and presents the results of a survey that detected 90 internal wave occurrences with ScanSAR and Fine Mode PALSAR imagery over the period May 2006 to April 2011. The paper also discusses the spatial and temporal distribution of internal wave occurrences in the Lombok Strait area.
Multitemporal MODIS Data to Mapping Rice Field Distribution in Bali Province of Indonesia Based on the Temporal Dynamic Characteristics of the Rice Plant
Ida Ayu Gde Kurnia Jayanti,Takahiro Osawa,I. Wayan Sandi Adnyana,Tasuku Tanaka
Earth Science Research , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/esr.v1n1p64
Abstract: Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data has been widely employed for many applications. It has fine temporal, spectral and spatial resolution. This feature can be used for monitoring earth condition continuously, such as the rice field distribution. Rice fields can be known by detecting the rice plant in that area. Enhanced Vegetation Index 2 (EVI2) is one of the indexes, which describe vegetation conditions and was employed to mapping the rice field. Rice field area was identified using growth curve recognition of EVI2 MODIS data based on rice plant temporal dynamic characteristics. The rice field distributions in Bali that were estimated from MODIS data in 2009 show reasonable spatial agreement with rice field distribution from land use map of 2008. The total area of rice field from MODIS data is 101,218.75 hectare (accuracy 88.21% of reference data). The southern part of Bali has wider rice coverage compared to northern part of Bali because of the topographic condition in southern Bali is suitable for rice cultivation. The regency and district level comparison of rice field area in Bali Province showed a good spatial agreement of accuracy. This indicates that MODIS EVI2 250 m data can be used to mapping homogeneous areas in the small region of district scale. The accuracy identify rice field are affected by several factors, such as spatial resolution and cloud cover of satellite data, elevation of rice field area, and type of rice field.
Ni Wayan Ekayanti,Takahiro Osawa,I Wayan Kasa,A. Rahman As-syakur
Bumi Lestari , 2009,
Abstract: Peningkatan CO2 di atmosfer yang berpotensi menghasilkan pemanasan global telah menjadi perhatian bagi kehidupan manusia. Lautan mengandung lima puluh kali lebih besar CO2 daripada atmosfer dan menjadi penyangga yang membatasi konsentrasi CO2 dalam atmosfer. CO2 mengalami perubahan secara terus menerus antara udara-lautan dan konsentrasi CO2 di dalam laut dikendalikan oleh parameter fisika, kimia, dan biologi. Perubahan konsentrasi CO2 antara udara-lautan dapat ditentukan dari interaksi gas dan perbedaan konsentrasi CO2 antara udara-lautan. Perubahan CO2 antara udara-lautan dapat dikaji dari studi kecepatan angin, koefisien gesekan kecepatan angin yang diperoleh dari satelit ALOS/PALSAR di daerah Selat Badung dan Selat Lombok, salinitas, dan juga dengan SST yang diperoleh dari satelit MODIS. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa koefisien perubahan CO2, perbedaan tekanan CO2 antara udara-lautan, dan CO2 flux antara udara-lautan secara berturut-turut yaitu 0.303±0.006 (rata-rata±standar deviasi) (mol m-2 month-1μatm-1), 17.94±10.79 ?atm, and 5.35±3.26 (mol m-2 month-1), dengan nilai maksimum dan minimum dari koefisien perubahan CO2 secara berturut-turut terjadi pada bulan Agustus dan Februari.
Decline of VOC Concentrations with the Aging of Houses in Japan  [PDF]
Motoya Hayashi, Haruki Osawa
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.412A1004

The purpose of this investigation is to know the long-term characteristics of VOC concentrations in houses built before the building code in 2003 and to clarify the countermeasures against indoor air pollution in the houses already built. For example, the improvements of living habits, ventilation and the remove of building materials. The concentrations of VOCs were measured in these houses in summer and winter from 2000 to 2005. The results showed that the concentration of formaldehyde decreased in the first year. After that the decline of the concentration was not seen and the concentration changed only with the temperature. The characteristics of decline were thought to be caused by two sorts of emission. One is an emission of concealed formaldehyde in the process of material production and the other is an emission with the generation of formaldehyde from adhesives of urea resin and moisture. The concentration of toluene decreased rapidly in the first year. The concentrations of xylene, ethyl-benzene and styrene showed a similar change. But the concentrations of acetaldehyde which were measured from the summer of 2002 did not decrease and its concentration in some houses was higher than the guideline even in the winter of 2005.

Finite rank intermediate Hankel operators and the big Hankel operator
Tomoko Osawa
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2006, DOI: 10.1155/ijmms/2006/51705
Abstract: Let La2 be a Bergman space. We are interested in an intermediate Hankel operator HφM from La2 to a closed subspace M of L2 which is invariant under the multiplication by the coordinate function z. It is well known that there do not exist any nonzero finite rank big Hankel operators, but we are studying same types in case HφM is close to big Hankel operator. As a result, we give a necessary and sufficient condition about M that there does not exist a finite rank HφM except HφM=0.
Ghrelin and Helicobacter pylori infection
Hiroyuki Osawa
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: Ghrelin is primarily secreted from the stomach and has been implicated in the coordination of eating behavior and weight regulation. Ghrelin also plays an essential role in the mechanism of gastric mucosal defense. Thus, it is important to clarify which diseases primarily influence changes in plasma ghrelin concentrations. Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection is involved in the pathogenesis of gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. H pylori eradication is related to body weight change. Compared, H pylori infected and negative subjects with normal body mass index, plasma ghrelin concentration, gastric ghrelin mRNA, and the number of ghrelin producing cells in gastric mucosa are significantly lower in H pylori infected subjects than in H pylori-negative controls. Plasma ghrelin concentration decreases with the progression of gastric atrophy. Impaired gastric ghrelin production in association with atrophic gastritis induced by H pylori infection accounts for the decrease in plasma ghrelin concentration. However, the ratio of plasma acylated ghrelin to total ghrelin levels is higher in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis than in healthy subjects. This may result from the compensatory increase in plasma active ghrelin concentration in response to gastric atrophy. After H pylori eradication, gastric preproghrelin mRNA expression is increased nearly 4-fold in most cases. However, changes in plasma ghrelin concentrations before and after H pylori cure are not associated with the gastric ghrelin production. Plasma ghrelin changes are inversely correlated with both body weight change and initial plasma ghrelin levels.
Gene Polymorphisms and Chemotherapy in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer , 2009,
Abstract: The phamacogenetics is being used to predict whether the selected chemotherapy will be really effective and tolerable to the patient. Irinotecan, oxidized by CYP3A4 to produce inactive compounds, is used for treatment of various cancers including advanced non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. CYP3A4*16B polymorphism was associated with decreased metabolism of irrinotecan. Irinotecan is also metabolized by carboxylesterase to its principal active metabolite, SN-38, which is subsequently glucuronidated by UGT1As to form the inactive compound SN-38G. UGT1A1*28 and UGT1A1*6 polymorphisms were useful for predicting severe toxicity with NSCLC patients treated with irinotecan-based chemotherapy. Platinum-based compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) are being used in combination with new cytotoxic drugs such as gemcitabine, paclitaxel, docetaxel, or vinorelbine in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. Cisplatin activity is mediated through the formation of cisplatin-DNA adducts. Gene polymorphisms of DNA repair factors are therefore obvious candidates for determinants of repair capacity and chemotherapy efficacy. ERCC1, XRCC1 and XRCC3 gene polymorphisms were a useful marker for predicting better survival in advanced NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. XPA and XPD polymorphisms significantly increased response to platinum-based chemotherapy. These DNA repair gene polymorphisms were useful as a predictor of clinical outcome to the platinum-based chemotherapy. EGFR kinase inhibitors induce dramatic clinical responses in NSCLC patients with advanced disease. EGFR gene polymorphism in intron 1 contains a polymorphic single sequence dinucleotide repeat (CA-SSR) showed a statistically significant correlation with the gefitinib response and was appeared to be a useful predictive marker of the development of clinical outcome containing skin rashes with gefitinib treatment. The other polymorphisms of EGFR were also associated with increased EGFR promoter activity. EGFR gene mutations and polymorphisms were also associated with EGFR kinase inhibitors response and toxicity.
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