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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3625 matches for " Takahashi "
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Emotion Interference Solves Social Dilemma  [PDF]
Taiki Takahashi
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.25083
Abstract: Roles of emotion in decision-making have been attracting attention in neuroeconomics and behavioral game theory. We mathematically demonstrate that “emotion interference”, a recently-discovered psychological phenomenon [1] helps to solve social dilemma in a one-shot prisoner’s dilemma game. Furthermore, the present theory also accounts for the violation of Savage’s sure-thing principle in the prisoner’s dilemma [2]. Furthermore, it is also explained that why people in the society with higher social mobility are more cooperative. Relations of the present work to recently evolving fields of neuroeconomics and quantum decision theory are discussed.
Multiple Intelligence Theory Can Help Promote Inclusive Education for Children with Intellectual Disabilities and Developmental Disorders: Historical Reviews of Intelligence Theory, Measurement Methods, and Suggestions for Inclusive Education  [PDF]
Junichi Takahashi
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.49086

Inclusive education, based on the principle that all children (including those with disabilities) should receive similar education, has been recently adopted in primary and secondary schools throughout several countries. Within an inclusive education context, teachers are faced with the challenge of developing their knowledge and skills necessary to properly assess the intellectual abilities of a wide range of children. Although intelligence has been examined for over 100 years, researchers are still debating what abilities should or should not be classified as belonging to the domain of intelligence. In order to effectively apply intelligence theory and assessment methods for inclusive education, we compared traditional intelligence theory (Spearman’s two-factor model) with a more recent intelligence theory (Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory). Spearman’s theory focuses on elementary perceptual processes by using the single g factor, whereas Gardner’s theory recognizes several types of intelligence. On the basis of these reviews, we propose the utility of multiple intelligence theory for inclusive education, considering the various profiles of intelligence shown by children with intellectual disabilities and developmental disorders.

Suggestions for a Teacher Training Program for Inclusive Education in a Japanese University  [PDF]
Junichi Takahashi
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.48074

Inclusive education has been recently proposed in primary and secondary educations in many countries. Children who need special education support should be educated together with typically developing children in general classes. Although many studies have examined the effectiveness of inclusive education, researchers have pointed out that some general education teachers experience problems in their relationships with children who have disabilities such as developmental disorders and intellectual disabilities. In this paper, we review teacher training programs in a Japanese university and offer suggestions to enhance teachers’ relationships with disabled children. In our discussion, we focused on adult attachment theory, which is an affective connection and interactions between self and others. First, we reviewed the importance of teachers’ relationships with disabled children. Second, we reviewed attachment theories with respect to the quality of teacher-child relationships, and lastly, we proposed that adult attachment theory is a mediator in the quality of teacher-child relationships. We proposed a direction for the application of these conceptual assumptions to the teacher-training program for inclusive education in a Japanese university.

The q-Exponential Social Discounting Functions of Gain and Loss  [PDF]
Taiki Takahashi
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.43066

Social discounting has been attracting attention in behavioral psychology, econophysics, and neuroeconomics. Several mathematical models have been proposed for social discounting; exponential discounting, hyperbolic discounting, a q-exponential discounting model based on Tsallis’ statistics. In order to experimentally examine the mathematical characteristics of the q-exponential social discounting models for gain and loss in humans, we estimated the parameters of the q-exponential social discounting models by assessing the points of subjective equality (indifference points) at seven social distances. We observed that gain was more steeply social-discounted than loss. Usefulness of the q-exponential social discounting model in social physics, econophysics, and cultural neuroeconomics are discussed.

Excessive Base Money and Global Financial Crisis in Relation to the Essence of the So-Called “Abenomics”  [PDF]
Goro Takahashi
Journal of Financial Risk Management (JFRM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jfrm.2013.24013
Abstract: After the financial crisis of 2008, we are facing possibility of a global financial crisis further. Most of the financial crises have occurred in situations when there is so much money in the financial market, but they have not often occurred in cases when the market does not have enough money. This thought, however, is not general common sense in the financial academic field. Based on general understanding, the cause of financial crisis is the lack of money with the rise of interest rates in the financial market. If the lack of money is the reason for financial crisis, then we have never met with any financial crisis, because most leading countries have much money in the financial market in nowadays. According to theory of Economics, government deficit plus current account surplus means surplus of savings in the private sector of the country. Currently, most countries with big-scale economy have big deficits in their national accounts. But there is enough money in the business sector. I focus on this aspect and then analyze the base money policy of the central bank of some countries, and analyze its effect or the meaning of excessive base money in the financial market. As a general economic rule, the excess of money in a financial market causes a low interest rate. On the other hand, governments are faced with less money. If enough money in the money market flows to the treasury account, the government gets national fiscal balance. But it is not easy for most governments to create the balance. The reason behind this is the failure of a national economic and fiscal policy, including tax policy. Many countries and communities are facing problems with the flow of money from the private sector to the government. This problem is one of the biggest international issues which should be solved immediately (Taylor, 2009). Of course, we cannot neglect the fact that there are countries having little money even their private sector like Greece, Italy, Spain, and so on. Economic growth is the only measure to solve the financial problem in these countries. I do not consider these countries in this paper. The financial markets that I focus on in this paper are the US, the EURO Area, China and Japan. Many experts and economic politician worldwide consider “Abenomics” noteworthy. It aims at increasing base money in the financial market of Japan. The biggest purpose of this policy is for breaking away from deflation. Japanese Prime minister Abe also expects devaluation of the Yen, and increase in Japanese export. Later in this paper, we will see that the amount of
Two-water-assisted racemization of the succinimide intermediate formed in proteins. A computational model study  [PDF]
Ohgi Takahashi
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.512273

Racemization of aspartic acid (Asp) residues in proteins plays an important role in the molecular biology of aging. In the widely accepted mechanism of the Asp racemization, a succinimide (SI) intermediate is the species which actually undergo the direct racemization. In the present study, a two-water-assisted mechanism of the SI racemization was computationally investigated using a model compound in which an aminosuccinyl (Asu) residue is capped with acetyl and NMe groups on the N-and C-termini, respectively. The two water molecules catalyze the enolization of the Hα-Cα-C=O portion in the Asu residue by mediating proton relay from the α-carbon atom to the carboxyl oxygen atom. After the enolization, migration of the water molecules and conformational change lead to the mirror image of the initially formed enol two-water complex, and the racemization is completed by the following ketonization. The overall activation barrier (28.2 kcal·mol-1) corresponds to the enolization and ketonization steps, and falls within the available experimental activation energies (21.4-29.0 kcal·mol-1). Therefore, the two-water-assisted mechanism investigated here is plausible for the in vivo and in vitro racemization reactions of the SI intermediates formed in peptides and proteins.

Two Main Conditions for Collapse of the Bubble Economy of China—Large Number of Unsold Houses and Deregulation of Deposit Interest Rates  [PDF]
Goro Takahashi
Journal of Financial Risk Management (JFRM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jfrm.2015.41005
Abstract: There are two kinds of asset bubble in China, and they are formed through these two assets, real estate assets and financial assets. Most studies looking into China’s economy said that the Chinese bubble will collapse soon. Majority of these studies, however, provide unclear reasons. In addition, they emphasize mostly on the bubble as the reason of the predicted collapse. Data gathered through fieldwork concerning real estate developers, non-banking companies, normal banks, local governments, and various housing construction sites in three cities of China and through analyses of literature, this paper studied two kinds of asset bubbles which are developing in China. And this research done through the fieldwork is insisted on that the bubble economy of China will not collapse easily. But when some conditions occur, the bubble economy will collapse. One of the conditions of the collapse is the number of unsold houses keeps increasing further. Many developers are facing financing problems. If the number of bankrupt developers increases, the bubble will collapse. Another important condition is that the deregulation of the deposit interest rate by PCB. Therefore, the most important thing is the authorities involved must strengthen the management ability of developers. In addition, the policy measure used to mitigate the deposit interest rates policy and its impact.
Distribution of Myxomycetes on Varied Leaf Litter Types in a Mixed Forest in Warm-Temperate Western Japan  [PDF]
Kazunari Takahashi
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2015.57061
Abstract: Myxomycete assemblages were compared on various leaf litters of different vegetation types in a local mixed forest consisting of deciduous and evergreen trees in western Japan. A total of 33 myxomycete species were recorded and associated with the chemical and biological environments of leaf litters under natural condition of the forest floor. Different myxomycete assemblages were found on different sites under the dominant trees in a short distance apart (300 m). A site of Prunus jamasakura tree yielded 21 species, a Quercus glauca tree yielded 20 species, an Ilex pedunculosa tree yielded 12 species, and two Quercus serrata trees yielded 13 and 14 species, respectively. Non-metric multidimensional scaling demonstrated that the myxomycete assemblages were closely related to the litter types of deciduous and evergreen trees, and both litter pH and cellulolytic activity influenced distribution of myxomycete species. Species richness was higher in leaf litters with higher pH than in leaf litters with more acidic pH such as I. pedunculosa litter. The dominant tree litter and litter pH strongly influenced the species distribution of foliicolous myxomycetes in a local mixed forest.
Regeneration Traits of Four Dominant Species in a Cool-Temperate Conifer-Hardwood Mixed Forest, Northern Japan  [PDF]
Koichi Takahashi
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.813223
Abstract: Regeneration traits of four dominant species were studied during a decade in a cool-temperate conifer-hardwood mixed forest, northern Japan. Dominant species were three canopy species (Tilia japonica, Acer mono and Abies sachalinensis) and a subcanopy species Prunus ssiori. Regeneration traits differed among the four dominant species. The regeneration of a conifer Abies sachalinensis largely depends on major disturbances because its size structure was a bell-shaped pattern. The growth rate of the sub-canopy species Prunus ssiori increased faster with tree size than the other three species, and therefore, this species can reach reproductive stage faster. Although the number of recruits of Tilia japonica was less than the other three dominant species, about one-fourth of Tilia japonica regenerated by the sprouts. Thus, vegetative reproduction is important for the regeneration of Tilia japonica. On the contrary, many recruits were observed in Acer mono, and its recruits and saplings concentrated in canopy gaps, suggesting that the regeneration of Acer mono restricted to canopy gaps. Thus, clear differences in the regeneration traits were recognized in the four dominant species. This study suggests that the species-specific regeneration traits contribute to the species coexistence of the four dominant species through different regeneration niches.
Pre-Schoolers’ Reports of Conflicting Points Secretly Inserted into a Co-Witnessed Event: An Experimental Investigation Using the MORI Technique  [PDF]
Kazuo Mori, Ryuta Takahashi
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.31005
Abstract: Thirteen pre-school and ten undergraduate pairs participated as eyewitnesses to a simulated criminal event presented through animated cartoons using a presentation trick (MORI technique). Although there were two different versions, the MORI technique had participants observe only one version without being aware of the other. In three reporting sessions, participants recalled what they presumed they had jointly observed; individually immediately after the presentation, collaboratively after the individual recall, and again individually one week later. The main results were: pre-schoolers, as well as undergraduates, showed better recall in the collaborative tests, though the former generally showed poorer recall than the latter, pre-schoolers tended to conform more frequently than undergraduates in the week-later tests, and both pre-school and undergraduate pairs conformed more often for amendment than distortion.
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