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Multi-Name Extension to the Credit Grades and an Efficient Monte Carlo Method  [PDF]
Hideyuki Takada
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2014.43017
Abstract:

In this paper, we present a multi-name incomplete information structural model which possess the contagion mechanism and its efficient Monte Carlo algorithm based on Interacting Particle System. Along with the Credit Grades, which is industrially used single-name credit model, we suppose that investors can observe firm values and defaults but are not informed of the threshold level at which a firm is deemed to default. Additionally, in order to model the possibility of crisis normalization, we introduce the concept of memory period after default. During the memory period after a default, public investors remember when the previous default occurred and directly reflect that information for updating their belief. When the memory period after a default finish, investors forget about that default and shift their interest to recent defaults if exist. One of the variance reduction techniques, relying upon Interacting Particle System, is combined with the standard Monte Carlo method to address the rare but critical events represented by the tail of loss distribution of portfolio.

Potential Role of Kringle-Integrin Interaction in Plasmin and uPA Actions (A Hypothesis)
Yoshikazu Takada
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/136302
Abstract: We previously showed that the kringle domains of plasmin and angiostatin, the N-terminal four kringles (K1–4) of plasminogen, directly bind to integrins. Angiostatin blocks tumor-mediated angiogenesis and has great therapeutic potential. Angiostatin binding to integrins may be related to the antiinflammatory action of angiostatin. We reported that plasmin induces signals through protease-activated receptor (PAR-1), and plasmin-integrin interaction may be required for enhancing plasmin concentration on the cell surface, and enhances its signaling function. Angiostatin binding to integrin does not seem to induce proliferative signals. One possible mechanism of angiostatin's inhibitory action is that angiostatin suppresses plasmin-induced PAR-1 activation by competing with plasmin for binding to integrins. Interestingly, plasminogen did not interact with v3, suggesting that the v3-binding sites in the kringle domains of plasminogen are cryptic. The kringle domain of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) also binds to integrins. The uPA-integrin interaction enhances uPA concentrations on the cell surface and enhances plasminogen activation on the cell surface. It is likely that integrins bind to the kringle domain, and uPAR binds to the growth factor-like domain (GFD) of uPA simultaneously, making the uPAR-uPA-integrin ternary complex. We present a docking model of the ternary complex.
Japanese Interest in “Hotaru” (Fireflies) and “Kabuto-Mushi” (Japanese Rhinoceros Beetles) Corresponds with Seasonality in Visible Abundance
Kenta Takada
Insects , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/insects3020424
Abstract: Seasonal changes in the popularity of fireflies [usually Genji-fireflies ( Luciola cruciata Motschulsky) in Japan] and Japanese rhinoceros beetles [ Allomyrina dichotoma (Linne)] were investigated to examine whether contemporary Japanese are interested in visible emergence of these insects as seasonal events. The popularity of fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was assessed by the Google search volume of their Japanese names, “Hotaru” and “Kabuto-mushi” in Japanese Katakana script using Google Trends. The search volume index for fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was distributed across seasons with a clear peak in only particular times of each year from 2004 to 2011. In addition, the seasonal peak of popularity for fireflies occurred at the beginning of June, whereas that for Japanese rhinoceros beetles occurred from the middle of July to the beginning of August. Thus seasonal peak of each species coincided with the peak period of the emergence of each adult stage. These findings indicated that the Japanese are interested in these insects primarily during the time when the two species are most visibly abundant. Although untested, this could suggest that fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles are perceived by the general public as indicators or symbols of summer in Japan.
Popularity of Different Lampyrid Species in Japanese Culture as Measured by Google Search Volume
Kenta Takada
Insects , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/insects2030336
Abstract: I investigated the popularity of different lampyrid species (34 species) in Japanese culture as part of a study on cultural entomology. Popularity was assessed by the Google search volume for Japanese lampyrid species names in katakana and hiragana scripts, using the Keyword Tool of Google AdWords. The search volume of lampyrid species as “Genji-botaru” ( Luciola cruciata Motschulsky), “Heike-botaru” ( Luciola lateralis Motschulsky) and “Hime-botaru” ( Hotaria parvula Kiesenwetter), in either or both katakana and hiragana syllabic scripts, was enormously high relative to other lampyrid species, indicating the biased attention of Japanese to these lampyrid species. In addition, search volumes for familial or common lampyrid name (“Hotaru”) was assessed and compared with that of 34 lampyrid species. This analyzing result showed that: (1) the search volumes for katakana and hiragana were 37.7 and 773.1 times higher for “Hotaru” than “Genji-botaru”, respectively; and (2) the search volume for all lampyrid species was clearly higher in katakana than hiragana, whereas the search volumes for “Hotaru” were clearly higher in hiragana than katakana. These results suggest that: (1) the Japanese public tends to perceive lampyrids with not a clear but an ambiguous taxonomic view; and (2) the attitude of the Japanese public toward lampyrids differs between those who perceive lampyrids with a clear taxonomic view (at species level) and with an ambiguous taxonomic view.
Post-Embryonic Induction of ATML1-SRDX Alters the Morphology of Seedlings
Shinobu Takada
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079312
Abstract: Arabidopsis thaliana MERISTEM LAYER 1 (ATML1), an HD-ZIP class IV homeobox gene, is one of the key regulators promoting epidermal cell differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. We recently showed that ATML1 was able to confer an ectopic shoot epidermis cell fate to non-epidermal tissues of seedlings, suggesting that ATML1 is a master regulator of epidermal cell fate. To further assess the roles of ATML1 and its homologs in epidermal cell differentiation, I generated transgenic plants expressing ATML1 fused with a transcriptional repressor sequence (ATML1-SRDX). Estradiol-induced expression of ATML1-SRDX in the seedlings decreased transcript levels of several epidermis-related genes. Moreover, these transgenic plants exhibited phenotypes such as increased permeability to a hydrophilic dye and fusion of leaves and cotyledons, which are reminiscent of epidermis and/or cuticle-deficient mutants. Epidermal cell morphology was severely affected in the strong lines: filamentous protrusions were formed on the surface of the cotyledons. Marker gene analyses showed that these protrusions did not have epidermis, mesophyll, root hair, or trichome cell identity, suggesting that post-embryonic expression of ATML1-SRDX was sufficient to alter cell identity in pre-existing protodermal cells of the cotyledons. Taken together, these results suggest that ATML1 and/or its target genes are not only necessary for the initial specification of epidermal cell fate but also may be necessary for the maintenance of epidermal cells in later stages.
Statistical challenges in weak lensing cosmology
Masahiro Takada
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: Cosmological weak lensing is the powerful probe of cosmology. Here we address one of the most fundamental, statistical questions inherent in weak lensing cosmology: whether or not we can recover the initial Gaussian information content of large-scale structure by combining the weak lensing observables, here focused on the weak lensing power spectrum and bispectrum. To address this question we fully take into account correlations between the power spectra of different multipoles and the bispectra of different triangle configurations, measured from a finite area survey. In particular we show that super-survey modes whose length scale is larger than or comparable with the survey size cause significant sample variance in the weak lensing correlations via the mode-coupling with sub-survey modes due to nonlinear gravitational clustering -- the so-called super-sample variance. In this paper we discuss the origin of the super-sample variance and then study the information content inherent in the weak lensing correlation functions up to three-point level.
Lensing-induced Non-Gaussian Signatures in the Cosmic Microwave Background
Masahiro Takada
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/322456
Abstract: We propose a new method for extracting the non-Gaussian signatures on the isotemperature statistics in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky, which is induced by the gravitational lensing due to the intervening large-scale structure of the universe. To develop the method, we focus on a specific statistical property of the intrinsic Gaussian CMB field; a field point in the map that has a larger absolute value of the temperature threshold tends to have a larger absolute value of the curvature parameter defined by a trace of second derivative matrix of the temperature field, while the ellipticity parameter similarly defined is uniformly distributed independently of the threshold because of the isotropic nature of the Gaussian field. The weak lensing then causes a stronger distortion effect on the isotemperature contours with higher threshold and especially induces a coherent distribution of the ellipticity parameter correlated with the threshold as a result of the coupling between the CMB curvature parameter and the gravitational tidal shear in the observed map. These characteristic patterns can be statistically picked up by considering three independent characteristic functions, which are obtained from the averages of quadratic combinations of the second derivative fields of CMB over isotemperature contours with each threshold. Consequently, we find that the lensing effect generates non-Gaussian signatures on those functions that have a distinct functional dependence of the threshold. We test the method using numerical simulations of CMB maps and show that the lensing signals can be measured definitely, provided that we use CMB data with sufficiently low noise and high angular resolution.
The $E\otimes e$ Jahn-Teller Polaron in Comparison with the Holstein Polaron
Yasutami Takada
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.61.8631
Abstract: Based on an exact expression for the self-energy of the Jahn-Teller polaron, we find that symmetry of pseudospin rotation makes the vertex correction much less effective than that for the Holstein polaron. This ineffectiveness brings about a smaller effective mass m^* and a quantitatively differenent large-to-small polaron crossover, as examined by exact diagonalization in a two-site system. In the strong-coupling and antiadiabatic region, a rigorous analytic expression is found for m^*.
A Carbon Monoxide Sensing Film Based on Hemoglobin Allostery  [PDF]
Yoriko Takada, Risa Otsuka, Kosuke Tsukada
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2014.74021
Abstract: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous mediator, which is generated via anenzymatic reaction of heme oxygenase, and it plays physiological roles to regulate cellular respiration and blood flow in the liver. The concentration and distribution of CO molecules in the living body is unknown owing to a lack of a suitable technique for measuring them in vivo. A needle-type CO sensor has been used for bioinstrumentation, but it is inappropriate for implantation in vivo and long-term monitoring. We developed a CO sensor sheet based on hemoglobin (Hb) allostery, as Hb undergoes a conformational change on CO binding. Hb was extracted from mice blood and mixed with agarose gel with a reducer to stabilize deoxy-Hb in the gel. CO-releasing molecules (CORM) were used to mimic CO-generating tissue, and the sensitivity of the Hb gel could be regulated by Hb concentration. We defined the CO–Hb index, an absorbance ratio at 539 and 557 nm, to estimate the accumulation of captured CO in the gel. It correlatively increased with CORM dose, indicating that gel-embedded Hb underwent a conformational change on CO binding, thereby acting as a CO sensor. We subsequently used the Hb-sensor sheet for two-dimensional imaging of CO distribution. CORM-containing gels with different sizes and doses were layered on this sheet. Size- and dose-dependent CO distribution was visualized by scanning the CO-Hb index in the sheet. Our Hb-based CO sensor sheet is composed of biocompatible materials and can be applied to detect low-level CO sources in the living body.
The Chemokine Fractalkine Can Activate Integrins without CX3CR1 through Direct Binding to a Ligand-Binding Site Distinct from the Classical RGD-Binding Site
Masaaki Fujita, Yoko K. Takada, Yoshikazu Takada
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096372
Abstract: The chemokine domain of fractalkine (FKN-CD) binds to the classical RGD-binding site of αvβ3 and that the resulting ternary complex formation (integrin-FKN-CX3CR1) is critical for CX3CR1 signaling and FKN-induced integrin activation. However, only certain cell types express CX3CR1. Here we studied if FKN-CD can activate integrins in the absence of CX3CR1. We describe that WT FKN-CD activated recombinant soluble αvβ3 in cell-free conditions, but the integrin-binding defective mutant of FKN-CD (K36E/R37E) did not. This suggests that FKN-CD can activate αvβ3 in the absence of CX3CR1 through the direct binding of FKN-CD to αvβ3. WT FKN-CD activated αvβ3 on CX3CR1-negative cells (K562 and CHO) but K36E/R37E did not, suggesting that FKN-CD can activate integrin at the cellular levels in a manner similar to that in cell-free conditions. We hypothesized that FKN-CD enhances ligand binding to the classical RGD-binding site (site 1) through binding to a second binding site (site 2) that is distinct from site 1 in αvβ3. To identify the possible second FKN-CD binding site we performed docking simulation of αvβ3-FKN-CD interaction using αvβ3 with a closed inactive conformation as a target. The simulation predicted a potential FKN-CD-binding site in inactive αvβ3 (site 2), which is located at a crevice between αv and β3 on the opposite side of site 1 in the αvβ3 headpiece. We studied if FKN-CD really binds to site 2 using a peptide that is predicted to interact with FKN-CD in site 2. Notably the peptide specifically bound to FKN-CD and effectively suppressed integrin activation by FKN-CD. This suggests that FKN-CD actually binds to site 2, and this leads to integrin activation. We obtained very similar results in α4β1 and α5β1. The FKN binding to site 2 and resulting integrin activation may be a novel mechanism of integrin activation and of FKN signaling.
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