Abstract:
An opaque set (or a barrier) for $U \subseteq \mathbb{R}^2$ is a set $B$ of finite-length curves such that any line intersecting $U$ also intersects $B$. In this paper, we consider the lower bound for the shortest barrier when $U$ is the unit equilateral triangle. The known best lower bound for triangles is the classic one by Jones [Jones,1964], which exhibits that the length of the shortest barrier for any convex polygon is at least the half of its perimeter. That is, for the unit equilateral triangle, it must be at least $3/2$. Very recently, this lower bounds are improved for convex $k$-gons for any $k\geq 4$ [Kawamura et al. 2014], but the case of triangles still lack the bound better than Jones' one. The main result of this paper is to fill this missing piece: We give the lower bound of $3/2 + 5 \cdot 10^{-13}$ for the unit-size equilateral triangle. The proof is based on two new ideas, angle-restricted barriers and a weighted sum of projection-cover conditions, which may be of independently interest.

Abstract:
In this paper, we present a new exact algorithm for counting perfect matchings, which relies on neither inclusion-exclusion principle nor tree-decompositions. For any bipartite graph of $2n$ nodes and $\Delta n$ edges such that $\Delta \geq 3$, our algorithm runs with $O^{\ast}(2^{(1 - 1/O(\Delta \log \Delta))n})$ time and exponential space. Compared to the previous algorithms, it achieves a better time bound in the sense that the performance degradation to the increase of $\Delta$ is quite slower. The main idea of our algorithm is a new reduction to the problem of computing the cut-weight distribution of the input graph. The primary ingredient of this reduction is MacWilliams Identity derived from elementary coding theory. The whole of our algorithm is designed by combining that reduction with a non-trivial fast algorithm computing the cut-weight distribution. To the best of our knowledge, the approach posed in this paper is new and may be of independent interest.

Abstract:
In this paper, an exact bitwise MAP (Maximum A Posteriori) estimation algorithm for group testing problems is presented. We assume a simplest non-adaptive group testing scenario including N-objects with binary status and M-disjunctive tests. If a group contains a positive object, the test result for the group is assumed to be one; otherwise, the test result becomes zero. Our inference problem is to evaluate the posterior probabilities of the objects from the observation of M-test results and from our knowledge on the prior probabilities for objects. The heart of the algorithm is the dual expression of the posterior values. The derivation of the dual expression can be naturally described based on a holographic transformation to the normal factor graph (NFG) representing the inference problem.

Abstract:
Given an n-vertex graph G=(V,E) and a set R \subseteq {{x,y} | x,y \in V} of requests, we consider to assign a set of edges to each vertex in G so that for every request {u, v} in R the union of the edge sets assigned to u and v contains a path from u to v. The Minimum Certificate Dispersal Problem (MCD) is defined as one to find an assignment that minimizes the sum of the cardinality of the edge set assigned to each vertex. This problem has been shown to be LOGAPX-complete for the most general setting, and APX-hard and 2-approximable in polynomial time for dense request sets, where R forms a clique. In this paper, we investigate the complexity of MCD with sparse (tree) structures. We first show that MCD is APX-hard when R is a tree, even a star. We then explore the problem from the viewpoint of the maximum degree \Delta of the tree: MCD for tree request set with constant \Delta is solvable in polynomial time, while that with \Delta=\Omega(n) is 2.56-approximable in polynomial time but hard to approximate within 1.01 unless P=NP. As for the structure of G itself, we show that the problem can be solved in polynomial time if G is a tree.

Abstract:
This paper investigates the task solvability of mobile robot systems subject to Byzantine faults. We first consider the gathering problem, which requires all robots to meet in finite time at a non-predefined location. It is known that the solvability of Byzantine gathering strongly depends on a number of system attributes, such as synchrony, the number of Byzantine robots, scheduling strategy, obliviousness, orientation of local coordinate systems and so on. However, the complete characterization of the attributes making Byzantine gathering solvable still remains open. In this paper, we show strong impossibility results of Byzantine gathering. Namely, we prove that Byzantine gathering is impossible even if we assume one Byzantine fault, an atomic execution system, the n-bounded centralized scheduler, non-oblivious robots, instantaneous movements and a common orientation of local coordinate systems (where n denote the number of correct robots). Those hypotheses are much weaker than used in previous work, inducing a much stronger impossibility result. At the core of our impossibility result is a reduction from the distributed consensus problem in asynchronous shared-memory systems. In more details, we newly construct a generic reduction scheme based on the distributed BG-simulation. Interestingly, because of its versatility, we can easily extend our impossibility result for general pattern formation problems.

Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a new construction of constantdegree expanders motivated by their application in P2P overlay networks and in particular in the design of robust trees overlay. Our key result can be stated as follows. Consider a complete binary tree T and construct a random pairing {\Pi} between leaf nodes and internal nodes. We prove that the graph G\Pi obtained from T by contracting all pairs (leaf-internal nodes) achieves a constant node expansion with high probability. The use of our result in improving the robustness of tree overlays is straightforward. That is, if each physical node participating to the overlay manages a random pair that couples one virtual internal node and one virtual leaf node then the physical-node layer exhibits a constant expansion with high probability. We encompass the difficulty of obtaining this random tree virtualization by proposing a local, selforganizing and churn resilient uniformly-random pairing algorithm with O(log2 n) running time. Our algorithm has the merit to not modify the original tree virtual overlay (we just control the mapping between physical nodes and virtual nodes). Therefore, our scheme is general and can be applied to a large number of tree overlay implementations. We validate its performances in dynamic environments via extensive simulations.

Abstract:
In the context of designing a scalable overlay network to support decentralized topic-based pub/sub communication, the Minimum Topic-Connected Overlay problem (Min-TCO in short) has been investigated: Given a set of t topics and a collection of n users together with the lists of topics they are interested in, the aim is to connect these users to a network by a minimum number of edges such that every graph induced by users interested in a common topic is connected. It is known that Min-TCO is NP-hard and approximable within O(log t) in polynomial time. In this paper, we further investigate the problem and some of its special instances. We give various hardness results for instances where the number of topics in which an user is interested in is bounded by a constant, and also for the instances where the number of users interested in a common topic is constant. For the latter case, we present a ?rst constant approximation algorithm. We also present some polynomial-time algorithms for very restricted instances of Min-TCO.

Abstract:
Anonymous mobile robots are often classified into synchronous, semi-synchronous and asynchronous robots when discussing the pattern formation problem. For semi-synchronous robots, all patterns formable with memory are also formable without memory, with the single exception of forming a point (i.e., the gathering) by two robots. However, the gathering problem for two semi-synchronous robots without memory is trivially solvable when their local coordinate systems are consistent, and the impossibility proof essentially uses the inconsistencies in their coordinate systems. Motivated by this, this paper investigates the magnitude of consistency between the local coordinate systems necessary and sufficient to solve the gathering problem for two oblivious robots under semi-synchronous and asynchronous models. To discuss the magnitude of consistency, we assume that each robot is equipped with an unreliable compass, the bearings of which may deviate from an absolute reference direction, and that the local coordinate system of each robot is determined by its compass. We consider two families of unreliable compasses, namely,static compasses with constant bearings, and dynamic compasses the bearings of which can change arbitrarily. For each of the combinations of robot and compass models, we establish the condition on deviation \phi that allows an algorithm to solve the gathering problem, where the deviation is measured by the largest angle formed between the x-axis of a compass and the reference direction of the global coordinate system: \phi < \pi/2 for semi-synchronous and asynchronous robots with static compasses, \phi < \pi/4 for semi-synchronous robots with dynamic compasses, and \phi < \pi/6 for asynchronous robots with dynamic compasses. Except for asynchronous robots with dynamic compasses, these sufficient conditions are also necessary.

Abstract:
In this paper we propose and prove correct a new self-stabilizing velocity agreement (flocking) algorithm for oblivious and asynchronous robot networks. Our algorithm allows a flock of uniform robots to follow a flock head emergent during the computation whatever its direction in plane. Robots are asynchronous, oblivious and do not share a common coordinate system. Our solution includes three modules architectured as follows: creation of a common coordinate system that also allows the emergence of a flock-head, setting up the flock pattern and moving the flock. The novelty of our approach steams in identifying the necessary conditions on the flock pattern placement and the velocity of the flock-head (rotation, translation or speed) that allow the flock to both follow the exact same head and to preserve the flock pattern. Additionally, our system is self-healing and self-stabilizing. In the event of the head leave (the leading robot disappears or is damaged and cannot be recognized by the other robots) the flock agrees on another head and follows the trajectory of the new head. Also, robots are oblivious (they do not recall the result of their previous computations) and we make no assumption on their initial position. The step complexity of our solution is O(n).

Abstract:
As a white pigment, titanium oxide is used for cosmetic application. This oxide is well known to have the photo catalytic activity. Therefore a certain degree of sebum is decomposed by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. In this work, titanium phosphates were prepared with additives (urea, sodium lactate, and glycerin) as a novel white pigment. Their chemical composition, powder properties, photo catalytic activity, moisture retention, and smoothness were studied. These white pigments had little photo catalytic activity. The addition of sodium lactate and glycerin improved the moisture retention of titanium phosphates. The slipping resistance of samples became small by the addition of sodium lactate and glycerin. The roughness of samples became small by heating.