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Transmitted Drug Resistance among People Living with HIV/Aids at Major Cities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil
Joao Leandro Paula Ferreira,Rosangela Rodrigues,Andre Minhoto Lan?a,Valeria Correia de Almeida,Simone Queiroz Rocha,Taisa Grotta Ragazzo,Denise Lotufo Estevam,Luis Fernando de Macedo Brigido
Advances in Virology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/878237
Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is an important public health issue. In Brazil, low to intermediate resistance levels have been described. We assessed 225 HIV-1 infected, antiretroviral na?ve individuals, from HIV Reference Centers at two major metropolitan areas of Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo and Campinas), the state that concentrates most of the Brazilian Aids cases. TDR was analyzed by Stanford Calibrated Population Resistance criteria (CPR), and mutations were observed in 17 individuals (7.6%, 95% CI: 4.5%–11.9%). Seventy-six percent of genomes (13/17) with TDR carried a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance mutation, mostly K103N/S (9/13, 69%), potentially compromising the preferential first-line therapy suggested by the Brazilian HIV Treatment Guideline that recommends efavirenz-based combinations. Moreover, 6/17 (35%) had multiple mutations associated with resistance to one or more classes. HIV-1 B was the prevalent subtype (80%); other subtypes include HIV-1 F and C, mosaics BC, BF, and single cases of subtype A1 and CRF02_AG. The HIV Reference Center of Campinas presented more cases with TDR, with a significant association of TDR with clade B infection ( ). 1. Introduction Access to free antiretroviral therapy (ART) is part of the Brazilian response to the Aids epidemic and transmitted drug resistance (TDR); it has been a concern since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the late 1990s [1]. TDR surveillance is an important strategy to monitor the emergence of genetic resistance as it may impact ART efficacy [2]. This issue was especially sensible in Brazil that deployed a free ARV program in the late 90s amidst a suboptimal health care system. This initiative could boost the emergence of transmitted drug resistance variants and jeopardize Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) treatment [3]. However, most studies in Brazil have shown TDR prevalence similar to that observed among developed countries. Two recent Brazilian national surveys had accessed this issue [4, 5] but included a small representation of S?o Paulo metropolitan areas. We and others have analyzed mutations in treatment-naive individuals [6–12]; but to trace trends for TDR prevalence, continual monitoring is necessary. We analyzed ARV na?ve individuals living with HIV/Aids, recruited at HIV Reference Centers from the two major metropolitan areas of Sao Paulo state to investigate the TDR prevalence. These metropolitan areas concentrate 44% of notified Aids cases of Sao Paulo state and
Metastable periodic patterns in singularly perturbed state dependent delayed equations
Xavier Pellegrin,Clodoaldo Grotta Ragazzo,Coraci Malta,Khashayar Pakdaman
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: We consider the scalar delayed differential equation $\ep\dot x(t)=-x(t)+f(x(t-r))$, where $\ep>0$, $r=r(x,\ep)$ and $f$ represents either a positive feedback $df/dx>0$ or a negative feedback $df/dx<0$. When the delay is a constant, i.e. $r(x,\ep)=1$, this equation admits metastable rapidly oscillating solutions that are transients whose duration is of order $\exp(c/\ep)$, for some $c>0$. In this paper we investigate whether this metastable behavior persists when the delay $r(x,\ep)$ depends non trivially on the state variable $x$. Our conclusion is that for negative feedback, the persistence of the metastable behavior depends only on the way $r(x,\ep)$ depends on $\ep$ and not on the feedback $f$. In contrast, for positive feedback, for metastable solutions to exist it is further required that the feedback $f$ is an odd function and the delay $r(x,\ep)$ is an even function. Our analysis hinges upon the introduction of state dependent transition layer equations that describe the profiles of the transient oscillations. One novel result is that state dependent delays may lead to metastable dynamics in equations that cannot support such regimes when the delay is constant.
Introductions notes about the principle of the free competition Notas introdutórias sobre o princípio da livre concorrência
Carlos Emmanuel Joppert Ragazzo
Scientia Iuris , 2006,
Abstract: The articulate present has for objective to bring some reflections on the beginning of the free competition. Firstly, the benefits of an economic model will be approached based on the free competition and the objective tutored by the same, in the case the preservation of the competition process and not the competitors. Soon after, some alterations of the structures of market to get of the classic liberalism will be presented and of the free competition, standing out the limits to the free initiative. Finally, he/she will make himself a caught historical of the free competition in Brazil, leaving of the first legislations concerning the intervention of the state in the economy, that if modify in rules against the abuse of the power and arriving to the Economic Constitution of 1988 and the law of Defense of the Competition (Law 8884/94), indispensable instruments for a protection of the widest competition, what allows the free initiative to assist its social function. O presente articulado tem por objetivo trazer algumas reflex es sobre o princípio da livre concorrência. Primeiramente, ser o abordados os benefícios de um modelo econ mico baseado na livre concorrência e o objetivo tutelado pela mesma, no caso a preserva o do processo de competi o e n o os competidores. Em seguida, ser o apresentadas algumas altera es das estruturas de mercado advindas do liberalismo clássico e da livre concorrência, ressaltando os limites à livre iniciativa. Por fim, far-se-á um apanhado histórico da livre concorrência no Brasil, partindo das primeiras legisla es acerca da interven o do estado na economia, que se consubstanciaram em regras contra o abuso do poder e chegando à Constitui o Econ mica de 1988 e à lei de Defesa da Concorrência (Lei 8884/94), instrumentos imprescindíveis para uma prote o da concorrência mais ampla, o que permite a livre iniciativa atender a sua fun o social.
Monitoring of Lactic Fermentation with a Coupling Electronic Nose and Gas Chromatography  [PDF]
Montserrat Calderon-Santoyo, Pedro Ulises Bautista-Rosales, Guadalupe Luna-Solano, Charles Ghommidh, Juan Arturo Ragazzo-Sanchez
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.59A002

In this work, the performance of dehydratation-desalcoholization system based on an electronic nose coupled to gas chromatography was tested. The system was used for monitoring the volatile compounds produced during a lactic fermentation with a heterofermentative bacteria (Lactobacillus fermentum Ogi E1). The monitoring was carried out with dehydratation and desalcoholization or dehydratation only, on the basis of low ethanol concentration produced by this bacteria. In the first case, fermentation head-space analyses showed low signals from each gas sensor, then the principal components analyses (PCA) resulted confused. However with the only dehydratation system, the electronic nose was able to detect some volatile compounds during bioprocess. The PCA showed a single distribution, permitting to conclude that principal component 1 represented the ethanol concentration. The system is appropriate to monitor some parameters during the fermentations process as ethanol, lactate and biomass concentration.

O dobro ou nada: a regula o de jogos de azar Double or nothing: gambling games regulation
Carlos Emmanuel Joppert Ragazzo,Gustavo Sampaio de Abreu Ribeiro
Revista Direito GV , 2012,
Abstract: Este artigo discute a possível legaliza o de jogos de azar no brasil a partir de uma abordagem racional sobre os objetivos regulatórios a serem perseguidos. inicialmente s o analisados os principais argumentos utilizados para legal izar os jogos no Brasil. A seguir os autores identificam e elaboram os potenciais custos e benefícios associados pela literatura a determinados tipos de jogos. Por fim, também ser o apresentados e discutidos elementos atualmente fora do, ou marginais ao debate, os quais os autores consideram para se pensar em diferentes linhas de a o para regular jogos de azar, e uma análise mais pormenorizada de variáveis importantes para a regula o do setor. A proposta deste artigo é apontar um direcionamento para o debate sobre jogos de azar no Brasil de forma a torná-los viáveis. This article discusses the possible legalization of gambling in brazil from a rational approach on regulatory objectives to be pursued. First, the main arguments that are used for legalizing the games in Brazil are analyzed. Next, the authors identify and establish the potential costs and benefits that specialized literature associates with certain types of games. Variables and elements currently on the outskirts of debate and that the authors consider important for the reflection of different lines of action to regulate gambling will be discussed. Also, this article will bring forward a more detailed analysis of important variables for sector. The aim of this paper is to point the debate on gambling in Brazil towards a direction that will make this economic activity viable.
Bloch's fish collection in the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt Universit t zu Berlin: an illustrated catalog and historical account
M?nica Toledo Piza-Ragazzo,Mário de Pinna
Neotropical Ichthyology , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/s1679-62252003000100009
Paradigma da complexidade e teoria das organiza??es: uma reflex?o epistemológica
Serva, Maurício;Dias, Taisa;Alperstedt, Graziela Dias;
Revista de Administra??o de Empresas , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-75902010000300004
Abstract: this essay is the product of a reflection on the epistemology of complexity and its importance to the epistemology of business administration and organizational theory. it is proposed to assist in the understanding of its emergence, by indicating its potential contribution to the advance of the epistemology of management and organizational theory. to do so, it first addresses the emergence of a specific epistemology of administration and the need to take a new look at it. then, it summarizes epistemology and the complexity paradigm, and subsequently moves on to discuss the relationship and potential contributions of this knowledge to the advance of epistemological reflection in administration and in improving organizational theories. finally, it highlights some of the issues that arise from this reflection, by considering the possibility of adopting the epistemology of complexity for carrying out organizational studies from a critical perspective.
Maurício Serva,Taisa Dias,Graziela Dias Alperstedt
Revista de Administra??o de Empresas , 2010,
Abstract: This essay is the product of a reflection on the epistemology of complexity and its importance to the epistemology of businessadministration and organizational theory. It is proposed to assist in the understanding of its emergence, by indicating its potential contribution tothe advance of the epistemology of management and organizational theory. To do so, it first addresses the emergence of a specific epistemology ofadministration and the need to take a new look at it. Then, it summarizes epistemology and the complexity paradigm, and subsequently moveson to discuss the relationship and potential contributions of this knowledge to the advance of epistemological reflection in administration and inimproving organizational theories. Finally, it highlights some of the issues that arise from this reflection, by considering the possibility of adoptingthe epistemology of complexity for carrying out organizational studies from a critical perspective.
Estado e planejamento: o plano de metas do governo de Santa Catarina (1961 – 1970) – PLAMEG i e ii – enquanto instrumento de política desenvolvimentista State and planning: ‘PLAMEG i’ and ‘PLAMEG ii’ as instruments to improve the development in state of Santa Catarina (Brazil) during the years 1961 and 1970
Caio Lauth Gualberto,Silvio Antonio Ferraz Cario,Taisa Dias
Revista Eletr?nica de Estratégia e Negócios , 2013,
Abstract: Este texto refere-se a uma pesquisa predominantemente qualitativa, fruto de um estudo exploratório-descritivo acerca das experiências de planejamento econ mico realizadas pelo governo estadual em Santa Catarina, elaboradas durante o período compreendido entre 1961 e 1970, durante as gest es de Celso Ramos e Ivo Silveira e que ficaram conhecidas como Plano de Metas do Governo - PLAMEG I e II. Com o propósito de superar pontos de estrangulamentos que limitavam a expans o do setor produtivo, o governo estadual investiu nas áreas de educa o, transporte, energia, sistema de crédito e agricultura e os resultados alcan ados nesse decênio se refletiram na expans o no número de salas de aulas, ginásios de esporte, qualifica o de professores, tempo de estudo de alunos, implanta o e reformas de rodovias, expans o da oferta de energia, cria o de sistema de crédito estadual, aumento da oferta agrícola, integra o de produtores rurais, entre outros. Os dados coletados revelam que ao fim desse período, Santa Catarina pode contar com melhores condi es infraestruturais para participar do movimento de crescimento da economia nacional. Em consequência disso, os resultados da pesquisa de maneira geral apontam que os ideais defendidos pela corrente desenvolvimentista, ou seja, aquela que entende que o Estado é o agente responsável pela garantia da cria o das condi es favoráveis à expans o das atividades produtivas e, consequentemente, pelo avan o em rela o aos indicadores de desenvolvimento, ficam fortalecidos. This paper describe the result of a descriptive and exploratory study that refers to an predominantly qualitative research about the experiences of economic planning carried out by the government of Santa Catarina (Brazil) during the period between 1961 and 1970 and which became known as PLAMEG I and PLAMEG II. In order to overcome the limits to the expansion of the productive sector, the government has invested in education, transportation, energy and agriculture credit system. The results were more classrooms, gymnasiums, qualification of teachers, more highways, expanding the supply of energy and also integration of rural producers. After this time, the State of Santa Catarina can count on better structure to participate in the movement of national economic growth. The search results show that the goals planned by the people who understand that the government is an agent that must ensure the creation of favorable conditions for the expansion of productive activities as a way to improve the development.
Concep es De Leitura E A Quest o Da Capacita o Docente
Sérgio Antonio da Silva Leite,Ellen Cristina Baptistella Grotta
Nuances : Estudos sobre Educa??o , 2009,
Abstract: O presente artigo descreve pesquisa desenvolvida junto a professores das 3as. e 4as. séries de escolas da rede estadual da regi o de Campinas (SP), onde se analisaram suas concep es de leitura. Os dados revelaram que tais docentes demonstram, ao nível do discurso oral, concep es que podem ser consideradas teoricamente mais avan adas; entretanto, simultaneamente, relatam praticas de sala de aula que podem ser consideradas tradicionais. A partir dai, discutem-se os procedimentos de capacita o utilizados na rede de ensino e indicam-se alternativas.
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