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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 47601 matches for " Tai-Jin Kim "
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Prevention of Avian Influenza Virus by Ultraviolet Radiation and Prediction of Outbreak by Satellite Parameters  [PDF]
Tai-Jin Kim
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2018.117015
Abstract: The present study showed that avian influenza virus (AIV) occurred in the regions with rice and wheat productions under low ultraviolet (UV) radiation while there were negligible AIV outbreaks in the regions with a high rate of skin cancer due to extensive UV radiation. It is therefore proposed that having artificial UV radiation with poultry farmhouses is a simple solution to suppress AIV outbreaks. AIV outbreaks can be predicted a few months in advance by remote sensing satellite parameters such as Cosmos (minimum sunspot number, 10.7 cm solar flux, high UV radiation), Poles (CO2, O3 hole deterioration, hydroxyl layer temperature, ice-melting, chlorophyll or algae, krill, penguin, guillemot), and Continents (migratory birds, desert dust, low UV radiation, waters, fish, rice and wheat, climate). Since there was an abrupt 2% rise of global CO2 emissions in 2017, while the minimum sunspot number is simultaneously reached at the end of 2018, there can be an extensive UV radiation for mutant AIV in the Poles to have the highest degree of damage by AIV in regions such as U.S., East Asia, China, South Korea, Japan, west Africa, and Europe from November of 2018 till April of 2019.
Earthquakes in Cretaceous Granites Associated with North Korean Nuclear Tests  [PDF]
Tai-Jin Kim
Open Journal of Earthquake Research (OJER) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojer.2018.73011
The goal of this study was to examine the danger of six North Korean underground nuclear tests to the regional safety associated with deadly earthquakes and volcanoes. Geological instabilities at Cretaceous granites were triggered by North Korean nuclear tests to induce the enhanced seismic impacts on earthquakes in China, Russia, Japan, Taiwan (China), South Korea, USA, Ecuador, Vanuatu, Indonesia, and Mexico after lag times between the nuclear test site and individual epicenters. It is urgent to prohibit North Korean nuclear tests for the regional stability of surrounding countries with Cretaceous granites.
Mitigation of Ecuadorian Earthquake Impact  [PDF]
Tai-Jin Kim
Open Journal of Earthquake Research (OJER) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojer.2018.73012
The mechanism of “Bing-Bang-Channeling-Cut” was proposed to reduce the volcanic energy (“Bing”) from the Galapagos Hot Spot (GHS) for the mitigation of Ecuadorian earthquake impact (“Bang”). The lag time between the volcanic eruptions in the GHS and Ecuadorian earthquake was probably caused by the undersea seamounts of the Carnegie Ridge (CAR) (“Channeling”). Experimental results from the water reservoir showed that the lag time decreased when increasing the number of drilled holes (“Cut”) in the bottom of reservoir. The present study showed that there was an additional vector initiating the Ecuadorian earthquake from the volcanic eruption in the GHS through the CAR. It was concluded that the harmful effects of Ecuadorian earthquakes could be mitigated by releasing the volcanic energy through the enlarged exit diameters in Holes of Site 1239 (A, B, C) with the presently productive upwelling chlorophyll system at the northeastern CAR.
Prevention of Harmful Algal Blooms by Control of Growth Parameters  [PDF]
Tai-Jin Kim
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2018.911043
Abstract: Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) were investigated to prevent the outbreak of HAB in both freshwater and seawater. Parameters inducing HAB were volcanic eruption, sunlight, aeolian dust, environmental factors (current, pH, dissolved oxygen, food web, turbulence, growth phase), enzyme, iron, nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, minerals) while the critical growth parameter for the outbreak of HAB was iron (Fe). HAB development was halted in freshwater and seawater due to the sulfur compounds (H2S, sulfates) inducing the deficiency of the dissolved Fe in the water. The atomic ratio of N/P is commonly known to be 16/1 in freshwater and 176/1 in seawater for HAB. Therefore, nitrogen can be a relatively limiting factor in seawater while phosphorus in freshwater. HAB could be prevented by control of growth parameters such as pH, temperature, sunlight, turbulence, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and sulfur compounds prior to reaching the early exponential phase of algal growth.
Transmission of Avian Influenza Virus by Humpback Whale and Its Stranding along the Atlantic Coast with CO2 Emissions  [PDF]
Tai-Jin Kim
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2018.1112030
Abstract: Humpback whales are migratory, spending summers in cooler, high-latitude waters and mating and calving in tropical and subtropical waters in 14 identified district population segments. It may be possible that the coastal areas are infected with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) during the release of infected humpback whale feces. Therefore, humpback whales can be an effective reservoir of the avian influenza virus (AIV) from the Poles to the Continents to spread AIV to coastal animals. Strong ultraviolet (UV) exposure amidst CO2 emission increase and minimal sunspot number might cause mutations of aquatic virus and humpback whale in the Antarctic and the Arctic. LPAI or highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is expressed in the Continents under appropriate environmental factors. Since penguins are birds while humpback whales are marine mammals, the humpback whales infected by the mutant virus might cause interspecies transmission to a new host with evolutionary changes. The migration pattern is seasonally similar between migratory bird and humpback whale except: 1) different species of bird versus whale, 2) different landing area of land versus coast, 3) similar infection means of bird feces versus humpback whale feces. The contribution of AIV transmission by whales was several times larger than that by migratory birds. Therefore, the routes of humpback whales should be considered to prevent AIV outbreaks in addition to the flyways of migratory birds. Humpback whale stranding (y) along the Atlantic Coast of the USA was correlated with CO2 emissions (x) to have y = 0.3515x + 18.595 (R2 = 0.4069) during 1992-2016 while y = 0.0652x + 4.5847, (R2 = 0.6128) during 2016-2018. AIV outbreak in 2010 (y) along the Atlantic Coast was also correlated with humpback whale stranding (2016-2018) (x) as y = 0.1387x + 6.8184 (R2 = 0.3966). Since AIV outbreak was linearly (R2 = 0.9967) correlated with the minimum sunspot number, it was postulated that the unusual mortality events of humpback whale stranding might be caused by an infected mutant virus in the Arctic. Consequently, the humpback whales were stranded along major CO2 producing Atlantic Coast States toward the winter habitat of the West Indies during the CO2 emissions and the minimal sunspot number with strong UV radiation. The stranded dead whales should be burned as soon as possible to prevent further deadly viral interspecies
Spanish Flu, SARS, MERS-CoV by CO2 Emission and Maximal Sunspot Number  [PDF]
Tai-Jin Kim
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2019.121005
Abstract: The 1918 Spanish flu, 2002 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and 2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) were investigated to reveal their causes and routes of transmission. They have the common features such as 1) the induction by viruses (Spanish flu; avian influenza virus (AIV), SARS and MERS-CoV; coronavirus), 2) the outbreak during the maximal sunspot number, 3) the aeolian desert dust region (Spanish flu; Saharan, SARS; Asian, MERS-CoV; Arabian), and 4) similar incubation period (AIV; 5, SARS; 2 - 7, MERS-CoV; 5 days), 5) different transmission reservoir (Spanish flu; aquatic bird/swine, SARS; bat, MERS-CoV; bat/dromedary camel). When carbon dioxide (CO2) combustion emissions were simultaneously high at the maximal sunspot number, UV radiation in the Poles was so extensive to mutate the aquatic virus through the food web to be the fundamental reason for these pandemic. Guangdong Province and Hong Kong in China are the source of 2002-2003 SARS. The stranded dead whales and dolphins along the coast of the Persian Gulf might be fed on by coastal animals in the Arabian Desert to transmit MERS-CoV. Mutations in the hot temperature in the Arabian Desert and Persian Gulf, and the maximal sunspot numbers were observed in Saudi Arabia. Saudi crude burn in power plants since 2009 with coincidental outbreaks of MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia since 2012 peaking in 2014. The reduction of CO2 emissions by nuclear power plants is a unique solution to decrease MERS-CoV outbreaks.
Predictions of El Niño, La Niña and Record Low Chicago Temperature by Sunspot Number  [PDF]
Tai-Jin Kim
Natural Science (NS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2019.116021
Abstract: The El Nino Index, defined as 4 intensities (very strong, strong, moderate, weak) in Oceanic Niño Index (ONI), was positively correlated with the average sunspot number at each intensity. The La Niña Index, defined as 3 intensities (strong, moderate, weak) in ONI, was negatively correlated with the average sunspot number from 1954 to 2017. It appears that very strong El Niño events occur frequently during the maximal sunspot number while strong La Niña events more often occur during the minimal sunspot number. Since greenhouse-gas is continuously increased, it is therefore proposed that the maximal sunspot number is a major parameter for prediction of El Niño while the minimal sunspot number applies in the same way for La Niña. El Nino/La Nina events can be classified as four typical cases depending upon the submarine volcanic activities at seamounts in Antarctica and South America. The Sea Surface Temperature (SST) of the South and Central Americas are warmer than SST of East Australian Current (EAC), due to the strong volcanic eruptions in the Seamounts and the Ridges in South and Central Americas. This results in the Central Pacific Current (CPC) flowing from east to west due to the second law of thermodynamics for thermal flow from hot source to cold sink. In contrast the opposite direction is made if SST in EAC is warmer than SST in the Central/South American Seamounts and Ridges, due to the strong volcanic eruptions in the Antarctic Seamounts and Ridges. Chicago was selected as a case study for the relationship between extreme cold weather conditions and minimal sunspot number. Previous
Transmission and Suppression of Avian Influenza Virus  [PDF]
Tai-Jin Kim, Kyung-Hoon Jung, Yeong-Sang Kim
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2018.912045
Abstract: The growth of AIV is possible with supply of minerals from aeolian desert dust, as cofactors of enzymes, and thus the blockage of the aeolian desert dusts to the poultry farmhouse is important to suppress the enzymatic activity of AIV. South Georgia of Subantarctic Islands may be the source of Continental AIV, so that Continental AIV can become endemic within the local bird population when surrounding environments are close to Subantarctica of South Georgia. There are food webs in sequence of aquatic virus, bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, krill, fish and squid while penguins feed on the fish or squid infected by mutant virus to generate LPAI after an incubation period. When migratory birds move to the Continents, HPAI can spread in the Continents due to low UV-B radiation, enough feed of rice, wheat, corn, wetland, and mineral-enriched desert dust. The clean room is equipped with air washers to remove aeolian dusts and migratory birds feces from working personnel and equipments, heaters to keep the pasteurisation of ultra-high temperature at 135°C for 1 - 2 seconds to inactivate AIV, humidifier to keep wet state above 65% relative humidity for weak virus activity, and the UV-C lamps (254 nm) to finally inactivate AIV. Since AIV doesn’t like the high salinity and high relative humidity, seawater is blanketed as sprayer to maintain high salinity (>20 ppt) and high relative humidity (>65%) from the top to the bottom of the poultry farmhouses for suppression of AIV transmission from infected aeolian dust coming from outside.
Iron Fertilization with Enhanced Phytoplankton Productivity under Minimal Sulfur Compounds and Grazing Control Analysis in HNLC Region  [PDF]
Tai-Jin Kim, G. H. Hong, D. G. Kim, Mark Baskaran
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2019.81002
Abstract: The present study investigated quantitatively the significance of HNLC (high-nutrient low-chlorophyll) regions and its grazing control with the improved iron fertilization for climate change. The limitation of iron (Fe) for phytoplankton growth in HNLC regions was confirmed by sulfur compounds (S) such as volcanic ash and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in batch cultures, whose chemical sediment of Fe3S4 showed 4.06 wt%. The technologies developed for iron fertilization since 1993 till now were not practical to provide sufficient amounts of bioavailable iron due to sedimentary iron sulfides induced by undersea volcanic sulfur compounds. The proposed technology for iron fertilization was improved to enhance the bioavailable iron to phytoplankton by keeping minimal sulfur compounds in HNLC regions. The low productivity of phytoplankton by grazing control in HNLC regions was 6% diatoms whose 52% was grazed by copepods and 42% by krill on the basis of data analysis in 2000 EisenEx Experiment at boundary of Antarctic and African tectonic plates. All of the previous iron fertilization experiments were conducted at volcanic sulfur compounds enriched HNLC regions. The present study revealed that the enhanced phytoplankton productivity in batch culture without sedimentary iron sulfides can be possible only if sulfur compounds are minimal, as is in Shag Rocks (53°S, 42°W) of South Georgia in Scotia Sea in the Southern Ocean.
Development Strategy of Infrastructure Risk Assessment Based Disaster Response and Management System  [PDF]
Eun-Ho Oh, Kyoon-Tai Kim, Kyong-Hoon Kim, Jin-Man Kim, Jin-Woo Cho
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2014.23B005

Major infrastructures such as levee, dam, bridge, road, etc. have a significant meaning in that they are the means to support ordinary social and industrial activities and also protect human and physical assets at the occurrence of disaster. Especially, integrated risk management of SOC facilities provides the policy maker in charge of SOC facility safety and related disaster prevention with a reasonable means of decision making and ultimately contributes to improving the safety of the applicable SOC facility. Furthermore, a variety of issues raised in the Sewol ferry disaster that occurred recently in Korea, such as, a proper response method and the relevant Golden time decision making at the occurrence of disaster, rapid grasping and reporting the situation on disaster sites, management and mobilization of resources for rescue and recover, loss of integrated control tower function, etc., might occur as well in facility disaster management. As the method of solving such issues adequately, this study suggests a strategy of new disaster response and management system. The analyses of Hazus-MH (FEMA) and DIMSuS (Purdue University) were comprehensively conducted, and based on the results required functions of new disaster response system of major infrastructure and its development directions were suggested.

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