Abstract:
Here, we performed a systematic analysis of transcription promoters and gene expression, as well as of epigenetic histone behaviors, including genomic position, stability within the chromatin, and several modifications. We found that, in humans, broad promoters, but not peak promoters, generally had significant associations with nucleosome positioning and modification. Specifically, around broad promoters histones were highly distributed and aligned in an orderly fashion. This feature was more evident with histones that were methylated or acetylated; moreover, the nucleosome positions around the broad promoters were more stable than those around the peak ones. More strikingly, the overall expression levels of genes associated with broad promoters (but not peak promoters) with modified histones were significantly higher than the levels of genes associated with broad promoters with unmodified histones.These results shed light on how epigenetic regulatory networks of histone modifications are associated with promoter architecture.Recent progress in high-throughput technologies has made it possible to collect a variety of "omics" data on transcripts and on the epigenetic behaviors of the histones that are often associated with these transcripts [1-5].Cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) is a high-throughput method that enables large-scale identification of transcription start sites (TSSs) of eukaryotic species. This method measures gene expression levels simultaneously with TSS identification by counting the sequenced 5' ends of full-length cDNAs, termed CAGE tags [2,6]. With the development of deep sequencing methods, more high-throughput, and high resolution "tag depth" measurements have become available (DeepCAGE, nanoCAGE and CAGEscan) [1,7]. Such recent whole-cell-level pictures of quantitative transcriptomes have revealed the complex transcriptional network of mammalian species [1,2,6]. According to recent CAGE-based analyses of human TSSs, the human "promotome"

It has been
reported that steering systems with derivative terms have a heightened lateral
acceleration and yaw rate response in the normal driving range. However, in
ranges where the lateral acceleration is high, the cornering force of the front
wheels decreases and hence becomes less effective. Therefore, we applied
traction control for the inner and outer wheels based on the steering angle
velocity to improve the steering effectiveness at high lateral accelerations.
An experiment using a driving simulator showed that the vehicle’s yaw rate
response improved for a double lane change to avoid a hazard; this improves
hazard avoidance performance. Regarding improved vehicle control in the
cornering margins, traction control for the inner and outer wheels is being
developed further, and much research and development has been reported.
However, in the total skid margin, where few margin remains in the forward and
reverse drive forces on the tires, spinout is unavoidable. Therefore, we
applied tire camber angle control to improve vehicle maneuverability in the
total skid margin. An experiment using a driving simulator has confirmed that
the vehicle’s lateral acceleration at the turning limit can be improved by
controlling the camber angle. Because of this, camber angle control promises to
be more effective than traction control for the inner and outer wheels. By
applying this type of steering control, it is possible to increase maneuverability
and stability in the cornering margins.

Abstract:
In recent years, the conversion of vehicles to electric power has been
accelerating, and if a full conversion to electric power is achieved, further
advancements in vehicle kinematic control technology are expected. Therefore,
it is thought that kinematic performance in the critical cornering range could
be further improved by significantly controlling not only the steering angle
but also the camber angle of the tires through the use of electromagnetic
actuators. This research focused on a method of ground negative camber angle
control that is proportional to the steering angle as a technique to improve
maneuverability and stability to support the new era of electric vehicles, and
the effectiveness thereof was clarified. As a result, it was found that in the
critical cornering range as well, camber angle control can control both the yaw
moment and lateral acceleration at the turning limit. It was also confirmed
that both stability and the steering effect in the critical cornering range are
improved by implementing ground negative camber angle control that is
proportional to the steering angle using actuators. Dramatic improvements in
cornering limit performance can be achieved by implementing ground negative
camber angle control that is proportional to the steering angle.

Vehicles with
variable steering characteristics have long been studied and compared with
those having typical fixed gear ratio steering, and the variable gear ratio
properties are reported to have improved maneuverability and stability in
high-speed lane changes and on slippery low-friction road surfaces. However, it
is not clear how gear ratios should be set for individual vehicle characteristics.
Therefore, the present study has investigated a variable steering gear system
using body slip angle feedback for the purpose of improved maneuverability and
stability in the critical cornering range and upwards, in excess of the
critical limit, and into the countersteer range. The results of a driving
simulator experiment show that the steering effect improves and maneuverability
and stability increase in the critical cornering range and upwards, in excess
of the critical limit, and into the countersteer range by applying
linear-variable control to the steering ratio from a body slip angle of 5?.
This result is seen both in double lane changes, such as in hazard avoidance,
and in J-turns with long drifting. Moreover, it shows an improvement in drift
controllability through prompt countersteering. Overall, the present system can
enhance the driver’s hazard avoidance capability.

Abstract:
The hypothalamic-pituitary system is considered to be a seminal event that emerged prior to or during the differentiation of the ancestral agnathans (jawless vertebrates). Hagfishes as one of the only two extant members of the class of agnathans are considered the most primitive vertebrates known, living or extinct. Accordingly, studies on their reproduction are important for understanding the evolution and phylogenetic aspects of the vertebrate reproductive endocrine system. In gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), the hormones of the hypothalamus and pituitary have been extensively studied and shown to have well-defined roles in the control of reproduction. In hagfish, it was thought that they did not have the same neuroendocrine control of reproduction as gnathostomes, since it was not clear whether the hagfish pituitary gland contained tropic hormones of any kind. This review highlights the recent findings of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine system in the hagfish. In contrast to gnathostomes that have two gonadotropins (GTH: luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone), only one pituitary GTH has been identified in the hagfish. Immunohistochemical and functional studies confirmed that this hagfish GTH was significantly correlated with the developmental stages of the gonads and showed the presence of a steroid (estradiol) feedback system at the hypothalamic-pituitary levels. Moreover, while the identity of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has not been determined, immunoreactive (ir) GnRH has been shown in the hagfish brain including seasonal changes of ir-GnRH corresponding to gonadal reproductive stages. In addition, a hagfish PQRFamide peptide was identified and shown to stimulate the expression of hagfish GTHβ mRNA in the hagfish pituitary. These findings provide evidence that there are neuroendocrine-pituitary hormones that share common structure and functional features compared to later evolved vertebrates.

Abstract:
This is an expanded version of the short report arXiv:1401.0539, where we stud- ied the (Renyi) entanglement entropies for the excited state defined by acting a given local operator on the ground state. We introduced the (Renyi) entanglement entropies of given local operators which measure the degrees of freedom of local operators and characterize them in conformal field theories from the viewpoint of quantum entanglement. In present paper, we explain how to compute them in free massless scalar field theories and we also investigate their time evolution. The results are interpreted in terms of relativistic propagation of an entangled pair. The main new results which we acquire in the present paper are as follows. Firstly, we provide an explanation which shows that the (Renyi) entanglement entropies of a specific operator are given by (Renyi) entanglement entropies of binomial distribution by the replica method. That operator is constructed of only scalar field. Secondly, we found the sum rule which (Renyi) entanglement entropies of those local operators obey. Those local operators are located separately. Moreover we argue that (Renyi) entanglement entropies of specific operators in conformal field theories are given by (Renyi) entanglement entropies of binomial distribution. These specific operators are constructed of single-species operator. We also argue that general operators obey the sum rule which we mentioned above.

Abstract:
We study D-branes in Kazama-Suzuki models by means of the boundary state description. We can identify the boundary states of Kazama-Suzuki models with the solitons in N=2 Landau-Ginzburg theories. We also propose a geometrical interpretation of the boundary states in Kazama-Suzuki models.

Abstract:
We have the Fisher type inequality and the linear programming bound as upper bounds for the cardinalities of $s$-distance sets on $S^{d-1}$. In this paper, we give a new upper bound for the cardinalities of $s$-distance sets on $S^{d-1}$ for any $s$. This upper bound improves the Fisher typer inequality and is useful for $s$-distance sets which are not applicable to the linear programming bound.

Abstract:
A finite set X in the d-dimensional Euclidean space is called an s-distance set if the set of Euclidean distances between any two distinct points of X has size s. Larman--Rogers--Seidel proved that if the cardinality of a two-distance set is greater than 2d+3, then there exists an integer k such that a^2/b^2=(k-1)/k, where a and b are the distances. In this paper, we give an extension of this theorem for any s. Namely, if the size of an s-distance set is greater than some value depending on d and s, then certain functions of s distances become integers. Moreover, we prove that if the size of X is greater than the value, then the number of s-distance sets is finite.

Abstract:
Delsarte, Goethals, and Seidel (1977) used the linear programming method in order to find bounds for the size of spherical codes endowed with prescribed inner products between distinct points in the code. In this paper, we develop the linear programming method to obtain bounds for the number of vertices of connected regular graphs endowed with given distinct eigenvalues. This method is proved by some "dual" technique of the spherical case, motivated from the theory of association scheme. As an application of this bound, we prove that a connected $k$-regular graph satisfying $g>2d-1$ has the minimum second-largest eigenvalue of all $k$-regular graphs of the same size, where $d$ is the number of distinct non-trivial eigenvalues, and $g$ is the girth. The known graphs satisfying $g>2d-1$ are Moore graphs, incidence graphs of regular generalized polygons of order $(s,s)$, triangle-free strongly regular graphs, and the odd graph of degree $4$.