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Issues of Transformation in the Ideas of Curriculum Reform, Curriculum Standards and Textbooks -A Japanese Perspective
Tadahiko Abiko
Journal of Textbook Research , 2010,
Abstract: In recent times, the Japanese government has faced difficulties in reforming school and social education despite the amendment of the Fundamental Law of Education 2006. With the revision of the main laws of education, the government has been transforming the public education system in terms of “educational accountability” by establishing a national test related to national curriculum standards. However, in Japan, there has been much less criticism of standard-oriented education than there has been in the U.S. or Europe.Interestingly enough, the educational problems in public schools are almost all found at the upper grades of elementary school and all grades of junior high school with young adolescent students aged 10-15. In the past two decades, Japan has been in the midst of a so-called “Age of the 3rd Educational Reform.” We have been coping with school refusal, bullying, and delinquency, along with lower than expected student scores on OECD/PISA 2003 and 2006, which mostly occur among students of the age range mentioned above.Therefore, in 2008, the government revised the National Course of Study, the national curriculum standards, in order to raise thinking abilities effectively as the core of the “Zest for Living” campaign. Under the new laws concerning public education, the revised curriculum standards stressed compulsory education, moral education, language activities, mathematics and science education, traditional culture education, experiential activities, and foreign language activities in the elementary curriculum.In addition, mastering basic knowledge and skills, increasing the number of hours of instruction per week, enhancing learning motivation, and establishing learning habits are all emphasized. All of these should help reach the final objective of improving thinking abilities. However, the Central Council for Education has not discussed our middle level education in any thorough way, though junior high school students are standing at the crossroads of their lives and suffer considerable stress.
Enhancement of Error-Correction Coding of Spatial Watermarks in Gray Code  [PDF]
Tadahiko Kimoto
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2013.41007

This paper demonstrates how channel coding can improve the robustness of spatial image watermarks against signal distortion caused by lossy data compression such as the JPEG scheme by taking advantage of the properties of Gray code. Two error-correction coding (ECC) schemes are used here: One scheme, referred to as the vertical ECC (VECC), is to encode information bits in a pixel by error-correction coding where the Gray code is used to improve the performance. The other scheme, referred to as the horizontal ECC (HECC), is to encode information bits in an image plane. In watermarking, HECC generates a codeword representing watermark bits, and each bit of the codeword is encoded by VECC. Simple single-error-correcting block codes are used in VECC and HECC. Several experiments of these schemes were conducted on test images. The result demonstrates that the error-correcting performance of HECC just depends on that of VECC, and accordingly, HECC enhances the capability of VECC. Consequently, HECC with appropriate codes can achieve stronger robustness to JPEG—caused distortions than non-channel-coding watermarking schemes.

Spatial Image Watermarking by Error-Correction Coding in Gray Codes  [PDF]
Tadahiko Kimoto
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2013.43034

In this paper, error-correction coding (ECC) in Gray codes is considered and its performance in the protecting of spatial image watermarks against lossy data compression is demonstrated. For this purpose, the differences between bit patterns of two Gray codewords are analyzed in detail. On the basis of the properties, a method for encoding watermark bits in the Gray codewords that represent signal levels by a single-error-correcting (SEC) code is developed, which is referred to as the Gray-ECC method in this paper. The two codewords of the SEC code corresponding to respective watermark bits are determined so as to minimize the expected amount of distortion caused by the watermark embedding. The stochastic analyses show that an error-correcting capacity of the Gray-ECC method is superior to that of the ECC in natural binary codes for changes in signal codewords. Experiments of the Gray-ECC method were conducted on 8-bit monochrome images to evaluate both the features of watermarked images and the performance of robustness for image distortion resulting from the JPEG DCT-baseline coding scheme. The results demonstrate that, compared with a conventional averaging-based method, the Gray-ECC method yields watermarked images with less amount of signal distortion and also makes the watermark comparably robust for lossy data compression.

Multi-Level Halftoning by IGS Quantization  [PDF]
Tadahiko Kimoto
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2013.44044
Abstract: Improved gray-scale (IGS) quantization is a known method for re-quantizing digital gray-scale images for data compression while producing halftones by adding a level of randomness to improve visual quality of the resultant images. In this paper, first, analyzing the IGS quantizing operations reveals the capability of conserving a DC signal level of a source image through the quantization. Then, a complete procedure for producing a multi-level halftone image by IGS quantization that can achieve the DC conservation is presented. Also, the procedure uses the scanning of source pixels in an order such that geometric patterns can be prevented from occurring in the resulting halftone image. Next, the performance of the multi-level IGS halftoning is evaluated by experiments conducted on 8-bit gray-scale test images in comparison with the halftoning by error diffusion. The experimental result demonstrates that a signal level to be quantized in the IGS halftoning varies more randomly than that in the error diffusion halftoning, but not entirely randomly. Also, visual quality of the resulting halftone images was measured by subjective evaluations of viewers. The result indicates that for 3 or more-bit, in other words, 8 or more-level halftones, the IGS halftoning achieves image quality comparable to that by the error diffusion.
A Natural Language Dialogue System for Impression-based Music Retrieval
Kumamoto, Tadahiko;
Polibits , 2010,
Abstract: impression-based music retrieval is the best way to find pieces of music that suit the preferences, senses, or mental states of users. a natural language interface (nli) is more useful and effective than a graphical user interface for impression-based music retrieval since an nli interprets users' spontaneous input sentences to represent musical impressions and generates query vectors for music retrieval. existing impression-based music retrieval systems, however, have no dialogue capabilities for modifying the most recently used query vector. we evaluated a natural language dialogue system we developed that deals not only with 164 impression words but also with 14 comparative expressions, such as "a little more" and "more and more," and, if necessary, modifies the most recently used query vector through a dialogue. we also evaluated performance using 35 participants to determine the effectiveness of our dialogue system.
A Parity Invariant Regularization in 3-D Quantum Electrodynamics
Tadahiko Kimura
Physics , 1994, DOI: 10.1143/PTP.92.693
Abstract: We regularize the 3-D quantum electrodynamics by a parity invariant Pauli-Villars regularization method. We find that in the perturbation theory the Chern-Simons term is not induced in the massless fermion case and induced in the massive fermion case.
Self-Duality of Super D3-brane Action on $AdS_{5}\times S^{5}$ Background
Tadahiko Kimura
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1142/S0217732399000377
Abstract: We show that the super D3-brane action on $AdS_5 \times S^5$ background recently constructed by Metsaev and Tseytlin is exactly invariant under the combination of the electric-magnetic duality transformation of the worldvolume gauge field and the SO(2) rotaion of N=2 spinor coordinates. The action is shown to satisfy the Gaillard-Zumino duality condition, which is a necessary and sufficient condition for a action to be self-dual. Our proof needs no gauge fixing for the $\kappa$-symmetry.
Syntheses of two deacetyl-thymosin β4 analogs and their anti-inflammatory effect on carrageenin-induced edema in the mouse paw
T. Abiko,R. Ogawa
Mediators of Inflammation , 2001, DOI: 10.1080/09629350120054563
Abstract: Two {Met(0)6}deacetyl-thymosin β4 analogs containing Phe(4F) or Tyr(Me) at position 12 were synthesized by the manual solid-phase method, and their anti-inflammatory effect on carrageenin-induced edema in the mouse paw was studied. Fluorination of the para-position of Phe12 resulted in a marked antiinflammatory effect on carrageenin-induced edema in the mouse paw compared with that of our synthetic {Met(0)6}deacetyl-thymosin β4, but the other analog, {Met(0)6, Tyr(Me)12}deacetyl-thymosin β4, showed a marked reduction of the anti-inflammatory effect.
Synthesis of [l-Nal3] thymopoietin II and examination of its immunological effect on the uremic T-lymphocytes
T. Abiko,S. Nakatsubo
Mediators of Inflammation , 2000, DOI: 10.1080/09629350020002930
Abstract: A TP II analogue, [l-Nal3] TP II, was synthesized by a conventional solution method, followed by deprotection with 1M TFMSA-thioanisole (molar ratio 1:1) in TFA in the presence of Me2Se and m-cresol as scavengers. The synthetic [l-Nal3] TP II, TP II and [Phe (4 F)3] TP II were tested for comparative effect on the impaired T-lymphocyte transformation by PHA in uremic patients suffering from recurrent infectious diseases. The synthetic analogue was found to have stronger restorative activity than those of our synthetic TP II and [Phe (4 F)3] TP II.
Syntheses of two deacetyl-thymosin α1 analogues and their effects on low E-rosette-forming lymphocytes of uraemic patients
T. Abiko,H. Sekino
Mediators of Inflammation , 1996, DOI: 10.1155/s0962935196000439
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