Abstract:
This study compares institutional development of legislative bodies in post-communist Romania and Kazakhstan. Despite having shared a communist past experience, Kazakhstan and Romania have followed a quite different path in their post-communist political order: Kazakhstan is unwillingly accepted the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991 and peacefully declared its independence, while Romanian Revolution of 1989 was the most bloody of all in East Central Europe. However, in spite of their geographical remoteness, different cultural and historical backgrounds, various ethnic and religious compositions, as well as different economic profiles, Romania and Kazakhstan have shared some common elements of communist legacy and its side-effects during the post-communist development of political institutions. It does not necessarily mean that their respective experiences with communist rule and transition to democracy were the same. The parliamentary development in the two countries differs from each other, both in terms of stability and the level of institutionalization. The goal of this article is twofold. First and foremost aim of the paper is to explain parliamentary development in post-communist Romania and Kazakhstan from historical point of view and to identify what contributes to changes and different outcomes in legislatures of the respective countries. Second goal is to compare two parliaments and identify similarities and differences with making some inferences about the strength of legislatures compared to each other and to other major political institutions.

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the investigation of the politicalrepresentation of different ethnic groups in multinational Kazakhstan. With gaining the independence, the Republic became home to more than 100 nations, which in turn raise the question of their equal representation in political and social spheres. The general theory on political representation, which was developed in the political literature, is investigated in the article.However, the work is mainly focused on the opportunities for all citizens’ representation, where the legal basis and the political context in the society play a crucial role. For that purpose the Political Opportunity Structure approach is seen as the most suitable, while the special attention is given to the analysis of three components of this method – electoral system, citizenship regime and political party.

Abstract:
Let - be i.i.d. random variables taking values in a measurable space ( Χ, B ). Let φ_{1}: Χ →□ and φ: Χ^{2}→□ be measurable functions. Assume that φ is symmetric, i.e. φ(x,y)=φ(y.x), for any x,y∈Χ . Consider U-statistic, assuming that Eφ_{1}(Χ)=0, Eφ(x, X)=0 for all x∈X, Eφ^{2}(x,X)＜∞, Eφ^{2}_{1}(X)＜∞. We will provide bounds for Δ_{N}=sup_{x}|F(x)-F_{0}(x)-F_{1}(x)|, where F is a distribution function of T and F_{0} , F_{1} are its limiting distribution function and Edgeworth correction respectively. Applications of these results are also provided for von Mises statistics case.

Abstract:
Guidelines for geometric design of highways require that the inside of horizontal curves be cleared of obstructions to sight in order to provide necessary sight distance. Many of these guidelines use one analytical model for determining minimum clearance offsets. These offsets are suitable for middle sections of long curves because the analytical model was derived with consideration that drivers on the curves are able to see downstream curved sections whose lengths are equal to stopping sight distance. Applying these offsets to straight sections near beginnings and ends of the curves results in unnecessary clearance costs since sightlines are accommodated within lanes and wide shoulders. This paper presents a new analytical model for gradual transition of clearance from zero on straight sections to the minimum value required at the middle of horizontal curves. The model is based on new spiral curves whose mathematical equations incorporate driver location, object location, radius of horizontal curve, length of horizontal curve, and design sight distance. Moreover, the already known Euler’s spiral curve is examined whether or not it is also suitable for transitioning clearance. It is found that the Euler’s spiral consistently underestimates clearance offsets. Underestimation of the offsets is due to high degree of sharpness of the Euler’s spiral which renders the spiral unsuitable for transitioning clearance. Finally, the analytical model is presented in the form of a design chart. Without compromising safety and mobility of highways, use of either the design chart or the analytical equations will help agencies save money that would otherwise be spent for unnecessary extra clearance of roadside areas near beginnings and ends of horizontal curves.

Abstract:
Design guidelines require that high objects on the inside of horizontal curves be cleared so as to provide sufficient sight distance. An example of the guidelines that require such clearance is the AASHTO’s Green Book. The Green Book has an analytical model for determining minimum clearance for a given design sight distance. The model is well suited for middle sections of long curves. Applying such clearance to sections near beginnings and ends of the curves and to sections where there is reverse of curvature will result in over-clearance. Over-clearance implies extra cost of earthwork where highways pass in cut zones. To avoid such extra costs the guideline suggests using the graphical method to determine exact clearance offsets. The graphical method is accurate but it is also tedious and time consuming. This study developed analytical models for efficiently determining clearance offsets that match the offsets determined with the graphical method. The offsets are ordinates from driver paths to flat roadside spirals that make the boundary of the roadside area to clear. Mathematical equations for the spirals comprise of terms related to highway speed (in the form of design sight distance), curve features, and driver locations. In turn, these terms define magnitudes of the offsets to the spirals. Combination of the terms results in many parameters to the extent of making difficult development of design charts for offsets. However, examining suitability of published offset charts for simple curves as estimates of offsets for sites with reverse curves leads to finding that the charts are suitable as long as the reverse curves have common tangents that are at least as long as 25% of design sight distance. For reverse curves with no common tangents, offset charts have been developed and presented in this paper. Practitioners can use these charts or the derived equations to determine clearance offsets for new sites as well as for existing sites that are deficient in design sight distance.

Abstract:
The history of Turkish Military Band is as old as Turkish history. These bands have been developed with different cadres and names until today. This band was named after "Mehter" in Ottoman period and it has gained the organizational structure which a source of inspiration of world military bands. In this study, which has been exhibited that organization of Mehter and Mehter's historical adventure, it has been emphasized that this band's structure in the light of information obtained literature research.

Abstract:
It is well known that the effect of gamma-ray absorption on extragalactic background light (EBL) is weakly expressed in the spectra of some blazars. It is shown that a secondary component generated by electromagnetic cascades might considerably decrease the statistical significance of this anomaly. Observational results indicate the existence of the cascade component in the spectra of extragalactic gamma-ray sources, thus supporting the proposed model.

Abstract:
A Newtonian mechanics model is essentially the model of a point body in an inertial reference frame. How to describe extended bodies in non-inertial (vibrational) reference frames with the random initial conditions? One of the most general description (known as the higher derivatives formalism) consists in taking into account the infinite number of the higher order temporal derivatives of the coordinates in the Lagrange function. Such formalism describes physical objects in the in?finite dimensional space does not contradict quantum mechanics and infinite dimensional Hilbert space.

Abstract:
For an operator $T \in B(X,Y)$, we denote by $a_m(T)$, $c_m(T)$, $d_m(T)$, and $t_m(T)$ its approximation, Gelfand, Kolmogorov, and absolute numbers. We show that, for any infinite dimensional Banach spaces $X$ and $Y$, and any sequence $\alpha_m \searrow 0$, there exists $T \in B(X,Y)$ for which the inequality $$ 3 \alpha_{\lceil m/6 \rceil} \geq a_m(T) \geq \max\{c_m(t), d_m(T)\} \geq \min\{c_m(t), d_m(T)\} \geq t_m(T) \geq \alpha_m/9 $$ holds for every $m \in \N$. Similar results are obtained for other $s$-scales.

Abstract:
In this article we prove local well-posedness of quasilinear dispersive systems of PDE generalizing KdV. These results adapt the ideas of Kenig- Ponce-Vega from the Quasi-Linear Schr\"odinger equations to the third order dispersive problems. The main ingredient of the proof is a local smoothing estimate for a general linear problem that allows us to proceed via the artificial viscosity method.