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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2231 matches for " TA Otsaga "
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Les tons dans les dictionnaires de langues gabonaises: situation et perspectives
TA Otsaga
Lexikos , 2002,
Abstract: La plupart des dictionnaires des langues gabonaises, parus jusqu'à ce jour, n'ont pas vraiment tenu compte de la tonalité dans la rédaction des articles. Or, à présent, il est unanimement reconnu que le ton joue un r le important dans le fonctionnement des langues bantoues en général et des langues gabonaises en particulier. Les dictionnaires, outils d'apprentissage, de standardisation, de préservation et de l'emploi correct d'une langue, ne pourront plus négliger cet aspect dans leur traitement lexicographique. Malgré le grand nombre de tons qui existent dans les langues gabonaises et la difficulté de les noter tous dans la présentation des articles, il est néanmoins nécessaire de trouver des moyens de mettre en valeur chaque ton, sans néanmoins rendre trop compliqué l'emploi du dictionnaire. L'objectif de notre exposé est de formuler, pour ces dictionnaires, certaines directives qui permettront de prendre en considération la tonalité des langues gabonaises, tout en gardant accessible l'emploi du dictionnaire. Avant de formuler ces directives, notre exposé tente tout d'abord de clarifier le problème par l'analyse et l'énumération des différents tons identifiés jusqu'à ce jour dans les langues gabonaises. En outre, nous prenons en considération certains points de vue qui, dans les dictionnaires, ont voulu identifier les tons, en donnant des exemples du traitement de la tonalité dans certains dictionnaires des langues tonales autres que les langues gabonaises. Mots-clés: dictionnaires, langues gabonaises, tons, tonalité, rédaction des articles, perspectives, langues bantoues, traitement lexicographique, ouvrages de référence lexicographique, courbe mélodique, signes diacritiques, orthographe, prononciation
The Reproduction of Cultural Aspects in Dictionaries in French and the Gabonese Languages*
P.A Mavoungou, TA Otsaga, GR Mihindou
Lexikos , 2003,
Abstract: The reproduction of culture in dictionaries constitutes one of the fundamental prob-lems of lexicographers today. What is the nature of cultural data in dictionaries? To what extent should cultural aspects be transferred from one language to another? How should this transfer take place? This article attempts to discuss the relevance of the reproduction of Gabonese cultural aspects in dictionaries in French and the Gabonese languages. One of the main problems the compilers of these dictionaries encountered was the transfer and the translation of some cultural aspects. In order to discuss the nature and extent of cultural information in Gabonese dictionaries, this article will restrict itself to the following points: — The translation of different realities — The role of culture in the change of meaning — Dictionaries and cultural activities — Dictionaries and cultural ethics — Dictionaries and language registers — Dictionaries and culture maintenance — Dictionaries and the standardization of culture Prior to a discussion of the above-mentioned points, a brief description of the dictionaries investi-gated will be given. After a description of the influence of cultural contexts on lexicographers in the choice of macrostructural elements and their treatment, cultural differences between source and target languages in the dictionaries of Gabonese languages are discussed. The article concludes with the observation that the majority of existing lexicographic works tend to survey the full vocabulary of the language. The lexicographic treatment of some words is satisfactory because an account of the underlying worldview of the people is given. For example, in this article, the fol-lowing themes are considered: dietary practices, sexuality, mythology, traditional pharmacopoeia, the kinship system, hospitality, and respect for traditional authority and elders. However, to be used in the most efficient way, these lexicographic publications need to be revised.
Les tons dans les dictionnaires de langues gabonaises: situation et perspectives
Thierry Afane Otsaga
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/12--761
Abstract: Résumé: La plupart des dictionnaires des langues gabonaises, parus jusqu'à ce jour, n'ont pasvraiment tenu compte de la tonalité dans la rédaction des articles. Or, à présent, il est unanimementreconnu que le ton joue un r le important dans le fonctionnement des langues bantoues en généralet des langues gabonaises en particulier. Les dictionnaires, outils d'apprentissage, de standardisation,de préservation et de l'emploi correct d'une langue, ne pourront plus négliger cet aspect dansleur traitement lexicographique. Malgré le grand nombre de tons qui existent dans les languesgabonaises et la difficulté de les noter tous dans la présentation des articles, il est néanmoins nécessairede trouver des moyens de mettre en valeur chaque ton, sans néanmoins rendre trop compliquél'emploi du dictionnaire. L'objectif de notre exposé est de formuler, pour ces dictionnaires,certaines directives qui permettront de prendre en considération la tonalité des langues gabonaises,tout en gardant accessible l'emploi du dictionnaire. Avant de formuler ces directives, notre exposétente tout d'abord de clarifier le problème par l'analyse et l'énumération des différents tons identifiésjusqu'à ce jour dans les langues gabonaises. En outre, nous prenons en considération certainspoints de vue qui, dans les dictionnaires, ont voulu identifier les tons, en donnant des exemples dutraitement de la tonalité dans certains dictionnaires des langues tonales autres que les languesgabonaises. Mots-clés: DICTIONNAIRES, LANGUES GABONAISES, TONS, TONALITé, RéDACTIONDES ARTICLES, PERSPECTIVES, LANGUES BANTOUES, TRAITEMENT LEXICOGRAPHIQUE,OUVRAGES DE RéFéRENCE LEXICOGRAPHIQUE, COURBE MéLODIQUE, SIGNES DIACRITIQUES,ORTHOGRAPHE, PRONONCIATION Abstract: Tones in Dictionaries of the Gabonese Languages: State and Perspectives. Until now most dictionaries that have appeared in the Gabonese languages have not really taken tonality into account in the editing of articles. But at present it is unanimously recognized that tone plays an important role in the functioning of Bantu languages in general and Gabonese languages in particular. Dictionaries which are tools in the learning, standardization, preservation and correct usage of a language can no longer neglect this aspect in their lexicographic treatment. In spite of the large number of tones present in the Gabonese languages and the difficulty of attending to all of them in the presentation of the articles, it is nevertheless necessary to find means to account for each tone, without however rendering the use of the dictionary too complicated. The objecti
Metaphors: The Elementary School Teacher Candidates Come Up with Relation to the Concept of “Drama”  [PDF]
Ay?e Menti? Ta
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.47063
Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to uncover the perceptions of the elementary school teacher candidates who have related to the concept of “drama” through metaphors. The study group consisted of 129 third-year students taking the “Drama” course during the fall semester of the 2012-2013 academic year in the Department of Elementary School Teaching of Necmettin Erbakan University’s Faculty of Education. 66 of the teacher candidates, who participated in the study, were females and the 63 of them were males. The data of the study was obtained by students completing the sentence of “Drama is like… because…”. To do this, the teacher candidates were given a blank sheet of paper with the aforementioned sentence written at the top of the paper and were asked to express their thoughts by using that statement and by concentrating on only one metaphor. During the analysis of the data, frequency, percentage calculations and content analysis which is a qualitative method, were used. The process of analyzing and interpreting the metaphors developed by the teacher candidates was carried in five phases: (1) naming stage, (2) screening and clarifying phase, (3) compiling and category development phase, (4) proving the validity and reliability phase, (5) transferring the data into the computer. According to the findings of the study, the teacher candidates developed 30 valid metaphors related to the concept of “Drama”. These metaphors were then grouped under five different conceptual categories after examining them in terms of common characteristics.

Effect of Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction on Students’ Conceptual Understanding and Decreasing Their Misconceptions in DC Electric Circuits  [PDF]
Erdal Ta?l?dere
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.44041
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was twofold: first to investigate the effect of conceptual change oriented instruction accompanied by concept cartoon worksheet with simulation on students’ conceptual understanding and second to remedy their misconceptions of direct current electric circuits. Participants were 139 pre-service science teachers from four intact classes. A quasi-experimental design was used in the study. The experimental group studied the concept with the application of concept cartoon worksheet and simulation, and the control group studied it with traditional instruction. Students’ conceptual understanding and misconceptions were measured by a tree-tired misconception test. It was administered as pre-and-posttest. There was no significant difference between the means of pre-test scores of experimental and control groups. The main effect of treatment on post-test scores was examined via ANCOVA with pre-test scores used as covariate. The frequency of each misconception was calculated for both groups, from pre to post-tests regarding all tiers of items. The analysis yielded a significant treatment effect on students’ post-test performances. The findings indicated that the conceptual change oriented instruction accompanied by concept cartoon worksheet and simulation is likely to be effective for conceptual understanding and decreasing most of students’ misconceptions in direct current electric circuits.

The effects of smoking on periodontal disease: An evidence-based comprehensive literature review  [PDF]
Mahmoud Abu-Ta’a
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2014.41007
Abstract:

The direct link between smoking, lung diseases, cancer, cardiovascular disease and poor pregnancy outcomes, such as miscarriage and low birth weight, has been extensively studied. In the past three decades, there has also been an increasing awareness of the impact of smoking on periodontal disease. Smoking is considered the major environmental risk factor in the prevalence, extent and severity of periodontal disease. This review article will attempt to build on previous studies in the periodontal literature in order to present an evidence-based comprehensive literature review on the effects of smoking on periodontal disease.

The Effects of Smoking on Periodontal Therapy: An Evidence-Based Comprehensive Literature Review  [PDF]
Mahmoud Abu-Ta’a
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2014.43022
Abstract: The positive relationship between smoking and major general health diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease and negative pregnancy outcomes is already established. Moreover, the association between smoking as a major environmental risk factor for periodontal disease has also been established. Smoking is considered to have negative adverse effect on periodontal therapy ranging from non-surgical treatment, periodontal surgery, regenerative procedures and implants. This review article will attempt to build on previous studies in the periodontal literature in order to present an evidence-based comprehensive literature review on the effects of smoking on periodontal therapy.
Some Biological Features of Aphtona whitfieldi Bryant (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an Insect Pest of Jatropha curcas L. in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Alizèta Sawadogo, Souleymane Nacro
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2016.44024
Abstract: Aphthona whitfieldi Bryant (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a major insect pest of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiacae) in Burkina Faso and other countries in West Africa. The insect pest feeds on the roots and the leaves of the plant. When the attacks are heavy, the plant may lose all its leaves and die off. Unfortunately, little information is available on the biology of this insect pest. A study was conducted on the biology of this insect pest in the Sissili province, South Burkina Faso and resulted in the knowledge of some of the biological features of the insect pest. Aphthona whitfieldi was reared from 13th July to 22th October 2015. Larvae and pupae were collected in J. curcas plantations near Léo, the capital city of the Sissili province, and brought to the laboratory for rearing. The insects were observed daily and the dimensions and the duration of each stage were recorded. We recorded two larval stages (1st and 3rd): a pre-pupa and a pupal stage. The pupa was free and white milk-like. Both the pre-pupa and the pupal stages lasted for five days. The 1st instar larva was smaller than the third one.
The Effect of Aphthona whitfieldi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Populations’ Density on the Growth of Jatropha curcas in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Alizèta Sawadogo, Souleymane Nacro
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2017.54013
Abstract: Aphthona whitfieldi Bryant (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a major insect pest of Jatropha curcas L. in Burkina Faso. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of the insect pest populations’ density on the growth of the plant. To achieve this purpose, 90-day aged single plants were caged in a randomized complete block design experiment with 5 treatments and 5 replicates. The treatments consisted of increasing numbers of adults of A. whitfieldi used to infest the caged plants: T0 (0 adult = check), T1 (100 adults), T2 (200 adults), T3 (300 adults), T4 (400 adults). All caged plants were infested 21 days after transplantation and the evaluation started 14 days later one on every 2-week basis from September 18, 2014 to February 19, 2015. The growth parameters of the plant were assessed. The results showed that the intensity of damage caused by A. whitfieldi on the growth of young plants of J. curcas varied according to the treatment (i.e., according to the number of adult individuals infesting the plant at the beginning). The higher the number, the heavier the level of damage caused by the pest. So, the growth of the J. curcas plant was inversely proportional to the number of A. whitfieldi infesting individuals. There was also a positive linear correlation between the defoliation rate and the height of the seedlings. The status of this insect pest was confirmed by the results of this study.
Ecalmpsia: maternal and fetal outcome
TA Jido
African Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Objective: To determine the incidence of eclampsia and examine the maternal and fetal outcome. Methods: A hundred and twenty consecutive admissions with eclampsia managed in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria, were prospectively collated and analysed. Maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality were recorded. Results: The incidence of eclampsia was 1.2% of deliveries. Most (69.2%) of the patients had no antenatal care. In 93 (77.5%), the convulsions were controlled with diazepam, and 22.5% magnesium sulphate. Maternal complications rate was 39.2%, and use of Diazepam for control of convulsions increases complications (RR 3.12, 95% CI = 1.23-7.92, p= 0.02). Case fatality rate was 11.7%, diazepam use failed to achieve significant association with maternal death (RR 8.64, 95% CI = 0.53-140.29, p= 0.13). Stillbirth rate was 22.5% with significant association with diazepam use (RR 7.55, 95% CI= 1.07-53.09, p=0.04). Birth asphyxia was recorded in 39.1% and low birth weight in 25.8%. Conclusion: The incidence of eclampsia in our hospital was very high, with corresponding high maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Increased antenatal screening and use of magnesium sulphate to control convulsions will reduce the incidence and associated morbidity and mortality for both mother and fetus.
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