Abstract:
Nitrification acts as a key process in determining fertilizer use efficiency by crops as well as nitrogen losses from soils. Metal dithiocarbamates in addition to their pesticidal properties can also inhibit biological oxidation of ammonium(nitrification) in soil. Metal M = V(III), Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Co(II)] diethyldithiocarbamates (DEDTC) were synthesized by the reaction of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate with metal chloride in dichloromethane/water mixture. These metal diethyldithiocarbamates were screened for their ability to inhibit nitrification at different concentrations( 10 microg/g soil, 50 microg/g soil and 100 microg/g soil). With increasing concentration of the complex, capacity to retard nitrification increased but the extent of increase varied for different metals. At 100 microg/g soil, different complexes showed nitrification inhibition from 22.36% to 46.45% . Among the diethyldithiocarbamates tested, Zn(DEDTC)2 proved to be the most effective nitrification inhibitor at 100 microg/g soil. Manganese, iron and chromium diethyldithiocarbamates also proved to be effective nitrification inhibitors than the others at 100 microg/g soil. The order of percent nitrification inhibition in soil by metal diethyldithiocarbamates was: Zn(II) > Mn(II) > Fe(III) > Cr(III) > V(III) > Co(II) > Ni(II) > Cu(II).

Abstract:
By using $q$-Volkenborn integration and uniform differentiable on $\mathbb{Z}%_{p}$, we construct $p$-adic $q$-zeta functions. These functions interpolate the $q$-Bernoulli numbers and polynomials. The value of $p$-adic $q$-zeta functions at negative integers are given explicitly. We also define new generating functions of $q$-Bernoulli numbers and polynomials. By using these functions, we prove analytic continuation of some basic (or $q$-) $L$% -series. These generating functions also interpolate Barnes' type Changhee $% q $-Bernoulli numbers with attached to Dirichlet character as well. By applying Mellin transformation, we obtain relations between Barnes' type $q$% -zeta function and new Barnes' type Changhee $q$-Bernolli numbers. Furthermore, we construct the Dirichlet type Changhee (or $q$-) $L$% -functions.

Sufficient Fritz John optimality conditions are obtained for a control problem in which objective functional is pseudoconvex and constraint functions are quasiconvex or semi-strictly quasiconvex. A dual to the control problem is formulated using Fritz John type optimality criteria instead of Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality criteria and hence does not require a regularity condition. Various duality results amongst the control problem and its proposed dual are validated under suitable generalized convexity requirements. The relationship of our duality results to those of a nonlinear programming problem is also briefly outlined.

Abstract:
Injections are a skin procedure performed with a syringe and needle to introduce a substance for prophylactic, curative, or recreational purpose. Injections can be given intevenously, intramuscularly, intradermally, or subcutaneously. Injections are among the most frequently used medical procedures, with an estimated 12 billion injections administered worldwide. ？A large majority (more than 90%) of these injections are administered for curative purpose (for every vaccination, 20 curative injections are administered).

Abstract:
This paper deals with detailed corrosion analysis of explanted devices. The study of total 6 different types of orthopedic metallic implant was carried out after collecting the clinical report from the doctors, who performed these implantations. The clinical report covered the purpose of implantation, body part where implantation was done, and physiological reasons of removal of implant. The metallurgical investigation to study corrosion and any other mechanical damage to the implant surface during their service period was done using the Scanning Electron Micrography. SEM presented in this paper reveals the presence of in-vitro corrosion and mechanical damage as well, which are corroborating well with clinical reports.

Abstract:
Pancreatic cancer is expressed as a disorder of chaos that leads to impairment in biochemical and metabolic physiology of pancreas. It is considered as the most intractable and fatal among all gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. The early occurrence of metastatic spread and the development of intrinsic and acquired resistance during drug treatment limit its prognosis at the right time. The universalized treatment involves surgical resection in which only a minority (<20%) of patients qualify due to advanced stage of disease at the time of diagnosis. Despite the rigorous technological developments in understanding the molecular mechanism of pancreatic cancer, no significant advances in efficacy of chemotherapeutic treatment have been arisen till date and still present challenges to overcome. That leads to the scientists to undergo exhaustive research to find an alternative treatment and increasing focus have been given on the studies of symbiotic relationships between microbiota and host which confers benefits to the host in many key aspects of life and form a synergistic harmony so called “super-organism”. The perturbations in the regulatory circuits of the host that control homeostasis, or alterations of the microbiome, through environmental changes (infection, diet or lifestyle), may disturb this symbiotic relationship and favors carcinogenesis in the pancreas. Research studies speculating convincing evidence that, among the gut microbiota, probiotics have demonstrated their potential role in the prevention of all stages of cancer development, but the critical question has been arisen that Can probiotics be used as preventive targets for pancreatic cancer? Thus, the efforts have been directed towards to summarize the prospective and challenging role of probiotics as preventive approach for pancreatic cancer. Though prospects of probiotics in prevention of pancreatic cancer are being great challenge among research community therefore, more rigorous and well-designed in vitro, animal and clinical studies are required for worthy manifestations.

Abstract:
Hindi parser is a tool which takes Hindi sentence and verifies whether or not given Hindi sentence is correct according to Hindi language grammar. Parsing is important for Natural Language Processing tools. Hindi parser uses the CKY (Coke- Kasami-Younger) parsing algorithm for Parsing of Hindi language. It parses whole sentence and generate a matrix

Abstract:
In his Classical approximation to the Twin prime problem, Selberg proved that for $x$ sufficiently large, there is an $n \in (x,2x)$ such that $2^{\Omega(n)}+2^{\Omega(n+2)} \leq \lambda$ with $\lambda=14$, where $\Omega(n)$ is the number of prime factors of $n$ counted with multiplicity. This enabled him to show that for infinitely many $n$, $n(n+2)$ has atmost $5$ prime factors, with one having atmost $2$ and the other having atmost $3$ prime factors. By adopting Selberg's approach and using a refinement suggested by Selberg, we improve this value of $\lambda$ to about $\lambda=12.59$.

Abstract:
We consider the classical problem of scheduling $n$ jobs with release dates on both single and identical parallel machines. We measure the quality of service provided to each job by its stretch, which is defined as the ratio of its response time to processing time. Our objective is to schedule these jobs non-preemptively so as to minimize sum stretch. So far, there have been very few results for sum stretch minimization especially for the non-preemptive case. For the preemptive version, the Shortest remaining processing time (SRPT) algorithm is known to give $2$-competitive for sum stretch on single machine while its is $13$-competitive on identical parallel machines. Leonardi and Kellerer provided the strong lower bound for the more general problem of \textit{sum (weighted) flow time} in single machine and identical parallel machines, respectively . Therefore, we study this problem with some additional assumptions and present two new competitive ratio for existing algorithms. We show that the Shortest processing time (SPT) algorithm is $\Delta - \frac{1}{\Delta}+1$-competitive for non-preemptive sum stretch minimization on single machine and it is $\Delta - \frac{1}{\Delta}+ \frac{3}{2} -\frac{1}{2m}$ on $m$ identical parallel machines, where $\Delta$ is the upper bound on the ratio between the maximum and the minimum processing time of the jobs.

The prediction of riverflows requires the understanding of rainfall-runoff process which is highly nonlinear, dynamic and complex in nature. In this research streamflow decomposition based integrated ANN (SD-ANN) model is developed to improve the efficacy rather than using a single ANN model for the flow hydrograph. The streamflows are decomposed into two states namely 1) the rise state and 2) the fall state. The rainfall-runoff data obtained from the KolarRiver basin is used to test the efficacy of the proposed model when compared to feed-forward ANN model (FF-ANN). The results obtained in this study indicate that the proposed SD-ANN model outperforms the single ANN model in terms of both the statistical indices and the prediction of high flows.