Abstract:
An upperbound on the mass of the lightest neutral scalar Higgs boson is calculated in an extended version of the minimal supersymmetric standard model that contains an additional Higgs singlet. We integrate the renormalization group equations of the model, and impose low energy boundary conditions consistent with present experimental results, and ultra-violet conditions following from triviality. Radiative corrections induced by a large top quark Yukawa coupling are included in our analysis, and we find the allowed values for the mass of the Higgs boson as a function of the mass of the top quark. Typically, for a top quark mass $m_t=150\ GeV$, the upper bound on the Higgs boson mass is about $25 \ GeV$ higher than in the minimal model.

Abstract:
Generalized Wess-Zumino models which admit topologically non-trivial BPS saturated configurations along one compact, spatial dimension are investigated in various dimensions of space-time. We show that, in a representative model and for sufficiently large circumference, there are BPS configurations along the compact dimension containing an arbitrary number of equidistant, well-separated domain walls. We analyze the spectrum of the bosonic and fermionic light and massless modes that are localized on these walls. The masses of the light modes are exponentially suppressed by the ratio of the distance between the walls and their width. States that are initially localized on one wall oscillate in time between all the walls. In (2+1) dimensions the ``chirality'' of localized, massless fermions is determined. In the (1+1)-dimensional case we show how the mass of certain classically BPS saturated solitons is lifted above the BPS bound by instanton tunneling.

Abstract:
We study BPS saturated objects with axial geometry (wall junctions, vortices) in generalized Wess-Zumino models. It is observed that the tension of such objects is negative in general (although ``exceptional'' models are possible). We show how an ambiguity in the definition of central charges does not affect physical quantities, and we comment on the stability of the junctions and vortices. We illustrate these issues in two classes of models with Z_N symmetry. On the basis of analytical large N calculations and numerical calculations at finite N, we argue that the domain wall junctions in these models are indeed BPS saturated, and we calculate the junction tensions explicitly.

Abstract:
We investigate domain wall junctions in a generalized Wess-Zumino model with a Z(N) symmetry. We present a method to identify the junctions which are potentially BPS saturated. We then use a numerical simulation to show that those junctions indeed saturate the BPS bound for N=4. In addition, we study the decay of unstable non-BPS junctions.

Abstract:
We discuss quantum tunneling between classically BPS saturated solitons in two-dimensional theories with N=2 supersymmetry and a compact space dimension. Genuine BPS states form shortened multiplets of dimension two. In the models we consider there are two degenerate shortened multiplets at the classical level, but there is no obstruction to pairing up through quantum tunneling. The tunneling amplitude in the imaginary time is described by instantons. We find that the instanton is nothing but the 1/4 BPS saturated ``wall junction,'' considered previously in the literature in other contexts. Two central charges of the superalgebra allow us to calculate the instanton action without finding the explicit solution (it is checked, though, numerically, that the saturated solution does exist). We present a quantum-mechanical interpretation of the soliton tunneling.

Abstract:
The action for a non-BPS p=2 brane embedded in a flat N=1, D=4 target superspace is obtained through the method of nonlinear realizations of the associated super-Poincare symmetries. The brane excitation modes correspond to the Nambu-Goldstone degrees of freedom resulting from the broken space translational symmetry and the target space supersymmetries. The action for this p=2 brane is found to be an invariant synthesis of the Akulov-Volkov and Nambu-Goto actions. The dual D2-brane Born-Infeld action is derived. The invariant coupling of matter fields localized on the brane to the Nambu-Goldstone modes is also obtained.

Abstract:
The low energy effective action including gauge field degrees of freedom on a non-BPS p=2 brane embedded in a N=1, D=4 target superspace is obtained through the method of nonlinear realizations of the associated super-Poincare symmetries. The invariant interactions of the gauge fields and the brane excitation modes corresponding to the Nambu-Goldstone degrees of freedom resulting from the broken space translational symmetry and the target space supersymmetries are determined. Brane localized matter field interactions with the gauge fields are obtained through the construction of the combined gauge and super-Poincare covariant derivatives for the matter fields.

Abstract:
Renormalizable lepton number violating interactions that break R-parity can induce a Majorana mass for neutrinos. Based on this, we show that it is possible to obtain a phenomenologically viable neutrino mass matrix that can accommodate atmospheric neutrino data via $\nu_{\mu}$--$\nu_{\tau}$ mixing and the solar neutrino data via either the large or small angle MSW effect. We argue that such a mass matrix could result from an approximate discrete symmetry of the superpotential that forbids renormalizable baryon number violating couplings.

Abstract:
We propose the simplest possible renormalizable extension of the Standard Model - the addition of just one singlet scalar field - as a minimalist model for non-baryonic dark matter. Such a model is characterized by only three parameters in addition to those already appearing within the Standard Model: a dimensionless self-coupling and a mass for the new scalar, and a dimensionless coupling, \lambda, to the Higgs field. If the singlet is the dark matter, these parameters are related to one another by the cosmological abundance constraint, implying that the coupling of the singlet to the Higgs field is large, \lambda \sim O(0.1 - 1). Since this parameter also controls couplings to ordinary matter, we obtain predictions for the elastic cross section of the singlet with nuclei. The resulting scattering rates are close to current limits from both direct and indirect searches. The existence of the singlet also has implications for current Higgs searches, as it gives a large contribution to the invisible Higgs width for much of parameter space. These scalars can be strongly self-coupled in the cosmologically interesting sense recently proposed by Spergel and Steinhardt, but only for very low masses (< 1 GeV), which is possible only at the expense of some fine-tuning of parameters.

Abstract:
Brane world oscillations manifest themselves as massive vector gauge fields. Their coupling to the Standard Model is deduced using the method of nonlinear realizations of the spontaneously broken higher dimensional space-time symmetries. Brane vectors are stable and weakly interacting, and therefore escape particle detectors unnoticed. LEP and Tevatron data on the production of a single photon in conjunction with missing energy are used to delineate experimentally excluded regions of brane vector parameter space. The additional region of parameter space accessible to the LHC as well as a future lepton linear collider is also determined by means of this process.