Abstract:
The static as well as the dynamic behaviour of granular material are determined by dynamic {\it and} static friction. There are well known methods to include static friction in molecular dynamics simulations using scarcely understood forces. We propose an Ansatz based on the geometrical shape of nonspherical particles which does not involve an explicit expression for static friction. It is shown that the simulations based on this model are close to experimental results.

Abstract:
We report on a lattice based algorithm, completely vectorized for molecular dynamics simulations. Its algorithmic complexity is of the order O(N), where $N$ is the number of particles. The algorithm works very effectively when the particles have short range interaction, but it is applicable to each kind of interaction. The code was tested on a Cray ymp el in a simulation of flowing granular material.

Abstract:
We present a simple model for the friction of two solid bodies moving against each other. In a self consistent way we can obtain the dependence of the macroscopic friction force as a function of the driving velocity, the normal force and the ruggedness of the surfaces in contact. Our results are discussed in the context of friction laws used in earthquake models.

Abstract:
In a granular gas of rough particles the spin of a grain is correlated with its linear velocity. We develop an analytical theory to account for these correlations and compare its predictions to numerical simulations, using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo as well as Molecular Dynamics. The system is shown to relax from an arbitrary initial state to a quasi-stationary state, which is characterized by time-independent, finite correlations of spin and linear velocity. The latter are analysed systematically for a wide range of system parameters, including the coefficients of tangential and normal restitution as well as the moment of inertia of the particles. For most parameter values the axis of rotation and the direction of linear momentum are perpendicular like in a sliced tennis ball, while parallel orientation, like in a rifled bullet, occurs only for a small range of parameters. The limit of smooth spheres is singular: any arbitrarily small roughness unavoidably causes significant translation-rotation correlations, whereas for perfectly smooth spheres the rotational degrees of freedom are completely decoupled from the dynamic evolution of the gas.

Abstract:
Two-dimensional Molecular Dynamics simulations are used to model the free surface flow of spheres falling down an inclined chute. The interaction between the particles in our model is assumed to be subjected to the Hertzian contact force and normal as well as shear friction. The stream of particles shows a characteristic height profile, consisting of layers of different types of fluidization. The numerically observed flow properties agree qualitatively with experimental results.

Abstract:
We report on density waves in granular material, investigated both experimentally and numerically. When granular material falls through a long narrow pipe one observes recurrent clogging. The kinetic energy of the falling particles increases up to a characteristic threshold corresponding to the onset of recurrent clogging and density waves of no definite wavelength. The distances between regions of high density depend strongly on the initial conditions. They vary irregularly without any characteristic time and length scale. The particle-flow was investigated using 2D Molecular Dynamics simulations. Experimental investigations lead to equivalent results.

Abstract:
The evolution of a pile of granular material is investigated by molecular dynamics using a new model including nonsphericity of the particles instead of introducing static friction terms. The angle of repose of the piles as well as the avalanche statistics gathered by the simulation agree with experimental results. The angle of repose of the pile is determined by the shape of the grains. Our results are compared with simulations using spherical grains and static friction.

Abstract:
We propose a new model for the description of complex granular particles and their interaction in molecular dynamics simulations of granular material in two dimensions. The grains are composed of triangles which are connected by deformable beams. Particles are allowed to be convex or concave. We present first results of simulations using this particle model.

Abstract:
In horizontally shaken granular material different types of pattern formation have been reported. We want to deal with the convection instability which has been observed in experiments and which recently has been investigated numerically. Using two dimensional molecular dynamics we show that the convection pattern depends crucial on the inelastic properties of the material. The concept of restitution coefficient provides arguments for the change of the behaviour with variing inelasticity.

Abstract:
The numerical simulation of granular systems of even moderate size is a challenging computational problem. In most investigations, either Molecular Dynamics or Event-driven Molecular Dynamics is applied. Here we show that in certain cases, mainly (but not exclusively) for static granular packings, the Bottom-to-top Reconstruction method allows for the efficient simulation of very large systems. We apply the method to heap formation, granular flow in a rotating cylinder and to structure formation in nano-powders. We also present an efficient implementation of the algorithm in C++, including a benchmark.