Abstract:
We investigate low-energy cosmic-ray antiprotons ($\bar{p}$'s) arising from the fragmentation of quarks and gluons emitted from evaporating primordial black holes (PBHs). To calculate the local interstellar flux of these $\bar{p}$'s, their propagation in the Galaxy is described by a 3-D Monte Carlo simulation based on the diffusion model. This flux is used with recent observations to derive new upper limits on (i) the local PBH explosion rate ${\cal R}<1.7\times10^{-2}$ pc$^{-3}$yr$^{-1}$, (ii) the fraction of the Universe's mass going into PBHs with particular mass, and (iii) the average density of PBHs in the Universe.

Abstract:
We calculate the solar-modulated energy spectra of cosmic-ray antiprotons ($\bar{p}$'s) from two candidate primary sources, i.e., evaporating primordial black holes and the annihilation of neutralino dark matter, as well as for the secondary $\bar{p}$'s produced by cosmic-ray interactions with interstellar gas. A large enhancement toward the solar minimum phase emerges in the low-energy flux of $\bar{p}$'s from the primary sources, whereas the flux of the secondary $\bar{p}$'s, falling steeply below 2 GeV, does not significantly vary. This enables us to conduct a very sensitive search for primary $\bar{p}$ components by precisely measuring the $\bar{p}$ spectrum, especially at low energies, throughout the forthcoming solar minimum phase.

Abstract:
Rate- and state-dependent friction law for velocity-step and healing are analysed from a thermodynamic point of view. Assuming a logarithmic deviation from steady-state a unification of the classical Dieterich and Ruina models of rock friction is proposed.

Abstract:
In the measurement of atmospheric nu_e and nu_mu fluxes, the calculations of the Super Kamiokande group for the distinction between muon-like and electronlike events observed in the water Cerenkov detector have initially assumed a misidentification probability of less than 1 % and later 2 % for the sub-GeV range. In the multi-GeV range, they compared only the observed behaviors of ring patterns of muon and electron events, and claimed a 3 % mis-identification. However, the expressions and the calculation method do not include the fluctuation properties due to the stochastic nature of the processes which determine the expected number of photoelectrons (p.e.) produced by muons and electrons. Our full Monte Carlo (MC) simulations including the fluctuations of photoelectron production show that the total mis-identification rate for electrons and muons should be larger than or equal to 20 % for sub-GeV region. Even in the multi-GeV region we expect a mis-identification rate of several % based on our MC simulations taking into account the ring patterns. The mis-identified events are mostly of muonic origin.

Abstract:
A one-dimensional dynamical system with a marginal quasiperiodic gradient is presented as a mathematical extension of a nonuniform oscillator. The system exhibits a nonchaotic stagnant motion, which is reminiscent of intermittent chaos. In fact, the density function of residence times near stagnation points obeys an inverse-square law, due to a mechanism similar to type-I intermittency. However, unlike intermittent chaos, in which the alternation between long stagnant phases and rapid moving phases occurs in a random manner, here the alternation occurs in a quasiperiodic manner. In particular, in case of a gradient with the golden ratio, the renewal of the largest residence time occurs at positions corresponding to the Fibonacci sequence. Finally, the asymptotic long-time behavior, in the form of a nested logarithm, is theoretically derived. Compared with the Pomeau-Manneville intermittency, a significant difference in the relaxation property of the long-time average of the dynamical variable is found.

Abstract:
We describe the design and performance of a large-area scintillator hodoscope onboard the BESS rigidity spectrometer; an instrument with an acceptance of 0.3 m^{2}sr. The hodoscope is configured such that 10 and 12 counters are respectively situated in upper and lower layers. Each counter is viewed from its ends by 2.5 inch fine-mesh photomultiplier tubes placed in a stray magnetic field of 0.2 Tesla. Various beam-test data are presented. Use of cosmic-ray muons at ground-level confirmed 50 ps timing resolution for each layer, giving an overall time-of-flight resolution of 70 ps rms using a pure Gaussian resolution function. Comparison with previous measurements on a similar scintillator hodoscope indicates good agreement with the scaling law that timing resolution is proportional to 1/$\sqrt{N_{\rm pe}}$, where $N_{\rm pe}$ is the effective number of photoelectrons.

Abstract:
The 57Fe M\"ossbauer spectroscopy was applied to an iron-based layered superconductor LaO0.89F0.11FeAs with a transition temperature of 26 K and its parent material LaOFeAs. Throughout the temperature range from 4.2 to 298 K, a singlet spectrum with no magnetic splitting was observed as a main component of each M\"ossbauer spectrum of the F-doped superconductor. No additional internal magnetic field was observed for the spectrum measured at 4.2 K under a magnetic field of 7 T. On the other hand, the parent LaOFeAs shows a magnetic transition at around 140 K, and this temperature is slightly lower than that of a structural phase transition from tetragonal to orthorhombic phase, which accompanies the resistivity anomaly at around 150 K. The magnetic moment is estimated to be ~0.35 $\mu$B/Fe at 4.2 K in the orthorhombic phase, and the spin disorder remains in the magnetic ordered state even at 4.2 K. The fact that no magnetic transition in LaO0.89F0.11FeAs was observed even at 4.2 K under 7 T implies a strong spin fluctuation above Tc or small magnetic moment in this system. Therefore, the present results show that the F-doping effectively suppresses the magnetic and structural transitions in the parent material and the suppression leads to emergence of superconductivity in this system.

Abstract:
Muscle contraction mechanism is discussed by reforming the model described in an article by Mitsui (Adv. Biophys. 1999, 36, 107-158). A simple thermodynamic relationship is presented, which indicates that there is an inconsistency in the power stroke model or the swinging lever model. To avoid this difficulty, a new model is proposed. It is assumed that a myosin head forms a polaron-like complex with about three actin molecules when it attaches to an actin filament and the complex translates along the actin filament producing force. Various experimental data on the muscle contraction are well explained based upon the model.

Abstract:
Most bacteria that swim are propelled by flagellar filaments, which are driven by a rotary motor powered by proton flux. The mechanism of the flagellar motor is discussed by reforming the model proposed by the present authors in 2005. It is shown that the mean strength of Coulomb field produced by a proton passing the channel is very strong in the Mot assembly so that the Mot assembly can be a shear force generator and induce the flagellar rotation. The model gives clear calculation results in agreement with experimental observations, e g., for the charasteristic torque-velocity relationship of the flagellar rotation.

Abstract:
Muscle contraction mechanism is discussed by reforming the model described in an article by Mitsui (Adv. Biophys. 1999, 36, 107-158). A simple thermodynamic relationship is presented, which indicates that there is an inconsistency in the power stroke model or the swinging lever model. To avoid this difficulty, a new model is proposed. It is assumed that a myosin head forms a polaron-like complex with about three actin molecules when it attaches to an actin filament and the complex translates along the actin filament producing force. Various experimental data on the muscle contraction are well explained based upon the model.