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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 127524 matches for " T. Matthew Eison "
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Serum Galactose-Deficient IgA1 Level Is Not Associated with Proteinuria in Children with IgA Nephropathy
M. Colleen Hastings,Sabahat Afshan,John T. Sanders,Oulimata Kane,T. Matthew Eison,Keith K. Lau,Zina Moldoveanu,Bruce A. Julian,Jan Novak,Robert J. Wyatt
International Journal of Nephrology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/315467
Abstract: Introduction. Percentage of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) relative to total IgA in serum was recently reported to correlate with proteinuria at time of sampling and during follow-up for pediatric and adult patients with IgA nephropathy. We sought to determine whether this association exists in another cohort of pediatric patients with IgA nephropathy. Methods. Subjects were younger than 18 years at entry. Blood samples were collected on one or more occasions for determination of serum total IgA and Gd-IgA1. Gd-IgA1 was expressed as serum level and percent of total IgA. Urinary protein/creatinine ratio was calculated for random specimens. Spearman’s correlation coefficients assessed the relationship between study variables. Results. The cohort had 29 Caucasians and 11 African-Americans with a male?:?female ratio of 1.9?:?1. Mean age at diagnosis was 11.7 ± 3.7 years. No statistically significant correlation was identified between serum total IgA, Gd-IgA1, or percent Gd-IgA1 versus urinary protein/creatinine ratio determined contemporaneously with biopsy or between average serum Gd-IgA1 or average percent Gd-IgA1 and time-average urinary protein/creatinine ratio. Conclusion. The magnitude of proteinuria in this cohort of pediatric patients with IgA nephropathy was influenced by factors other than Gd-IgA1 level, consistent with the proposed multi-hit pathogenetic pathways for this renal disease. 1. Introduction IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of chronic glomerulonephritis for individuals of European and Asian descent [1, 2]. The level of proteinuria at diagnosis of IgAN has been associated with the primary endpoint of outcome (i.e., progression to chronic dialysis or transplantation) in adults [3–7] and children [8–11]. Data from clinical and basic research in IgAN has led to the hypothesis that four hits are responsible for clinical expression of IgAN [12]. The first hit is the presence of aberrantly glycosylated O-linked glycans on the heavy-chain hinge region of circulatory IgA1 that terminate in N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) rather than galactose [13]. Elevated serum levels of this galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) were found in 76% of 153 Caucasian adults with IgAN in the United States [14]. IgAN patients in Japan and China also had elevated serum Gd-IgA1 levels [15, 16], as did African-American patients in the southeastern United States [17]. In addition, elevated serum Gd-IgA1 levels were found in 77% of 22 African-American and Caucasian children with IgAN [18]. The second hit is the induction of circulating IgG or IgA
Happiness as Surplus or Freely Available Energy  [PDF]
Matthew T. Gailliot
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.39107
Abstract: This paper presents a literature review that indicate happiness as a state of freely available or surplus energy. Happiness is associated with good metabolism and glucose levels, fewer demands (from parenting, work, difficult social relationships, or personal threats), and goal achievement, as well as increased ease of processing, mental resources, social support, and monetary wealth. Each of these either provide or help conserve energy.
Mortality Salience and Metabolism: Glucose Drinks Reduce Worldview Defense Caused by Mortality Salience  [PDF]
Matthew T. Gailliot
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.311149
Abstract: The current work tested the hypothesis that a glucose drink would reduce worldview defense following mortality salience. Participants consumed either a glucose drink or placebo, wrote about either death or dental pain, and then completed a measure of worldview defense (viewing positively someone with pro-US views and viewing negatively someone with anti-US views). Mortality salience increased world- view defense among participants who consumed a placebo but not among participants who consumed a glucose drink. Glucose might reduce defensiveness after mortality salience by increasing the effectiveness of the self-controlled suppression of death-related thought, by providing resources to cope with mortality salience and reducing its threatening nature, or by distancing the individual from actual physical death.
Improved Self-Control Associated with Using Relatively Large Amounts of Glucose: Learning Self-Control Is Metabolically Expensive  [PDF]
Matthew T. Gailliot
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.311148
Abstract: The current study examined whether changes in glucose during a self-control task would predict changes in self-control performance later on. Participants attended two experimental sessions, spaced two weeks apart. During each session, they had their glucose measured, completed the Stroop task as a measure of self-control, and then had their glucose measured again. Larger decreases in glucose (from before to after the Stroop task) during the first session predicted larger increases in improvement on the Stroop task dur- ing the second session, in the form of increased speed. Learning self-controlmight benefit from using lar- ger amounts of glucose. Learning self-control is metabolically expensive. These findings raise the possi- bility that self-control fatigue occurs because metabolic energy is depleted during the learning of self- control.
Hunger and Reduced Self-Control in the Laboratory and across the World: Reducing Hunger as a Self-Control Panacea  [PDF]
Matthew T. Gailliot
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.41008
Abstract:

Ten studies link hunger to reduced self-control. Higher levels of hunger-as assessed by self-report, time since last eating, or physiology-predicted reduced self-control, as indicated by increased racial prejudice, (hypothetical) sexual infidelity, passivity, accessibility of death thoughts and perceptions of task difficulty, as well as impaired Stroop performance and decreased self-monitoring. Increased rates of hunger across 200 countries predicted increased war killings, suggestive of reduced aggressive restraint. In a final experiment, self-reported hunger mediated the effect of hungry (v fed) participants performing worse on the Stroop task, suggesting a causal relationship of hunger reducing self-control.

Identification of Bridge Movement Mechanisms  [PDF]
Matthew T. Yarnold
Engineering (ENG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2014.69059
Abstract:

Bridge behavior is highly dependent upon the movement mechanisms present throughout the structure. These mechanisms (e.g. bearing, joints, etc.) have a substantial impact on the long-term durability and potential safety of the structure. A major distinguisher between the varieties of movement systems is their operating timescale. In some cases, they function rapidly, within fractions of a second, and in other cases gradually over days, months or even years. However, in nearly all cases, the lifecycle of the movement system is shorter than that of the bridge assuring the need for future intervention. Breakdown of a movement system can produce unintended forces/deformations that progressively degrade the structure. Identification and tracking of movement mechanisms proactively address long-term durability by helping to avoid these unintended consequences. A general framework for characterization of these mechanisms was developed. This framework was applied to an operating bridge that includes several critical mechanisms operating over different timescales. As a result of this and other studies, recommendations are provided for identification of bridge movement systems.

 

A Theory of Political Entrepreneurship  [PDF]
Matthew McCaffrey, Joseph T. Salerno
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.24061
Abstract: This paper adapts the entrepreneurial theory developed by Richard Cantillon, Frank Knight, and Ludwig von Mises to the theory of “political entrepreneurship.” Political entrepreneurship is an outgrowth of the theory of the market entrepreneur, and derives from extending entrepreneurial theory from the market into the political sphere of action. By applying the theory of the entrepreneur to political behavior, we provide a basis for identifying political entrepreneurs, and for separating them analytically from other government agents. The essence of political entrepreneurship is the redirection of production from the path it would have taken in an unregulated market. Nevertheless, this production does produce an income stream to political entrepreneurs which closely resembles the profit of market entrepreneurs.
Validation of the Physical Education Teacher’s Efficacy for Standards-Based Instruction (ESBI) Scale  [PDF]
Matthew T. Buns, Katherine Thomas Thomas
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2015.53019
Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Efficacy for Standards-Based Instruction (ESBI) scale, developed by the current investigators, and to compare the ESBI with two other self-efficacy scales that had been used in physical education (TESPE, Chase, Lirgg, & Carson, 2001;TSES, Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2001). The ESBI, TESPE, and TSES were administered to 60 physical education teachers from 16 school districts in Iowa. Cronbach’s alpha (internal consistency) for the ESBI was .96, and the Equal-Length Spearman Brown split-half coefficient inferred good reliability (r = .90). The ESBI demonstrated better validity and reliability than the previously developed TESPE (Cronbach’s alpha = .89; Spearman Brown split-half coefficient = .86) and TSES (Cronbach’s alpha = .84; Spearman Brown split-half coefficient = .79). As a test of concurrent validity for ESBI, Pearson’s product moment correlations were performed to test the extent to which the total efficacy scores and subscales were related. The ESBI, TESPE, and TSES all had significant positive correlations with each other (p < .01). Validation of the three self- efficacy scales was also performed using the ranked Physical Education Curriculum Analysis Tool (PECAT) score for each district as an independent measure. The ESBI scale produced a low but significant correlation (r = .28, p < .05) with PECAT, but TSES and TESPE were not significant. This suggested that ESBI was more related to standards and benchmarks than the other two measures. These results indicate that the ESBI has shown good (versus TESPE) or better (versus TESES) validity and reliability compared with previous work. This work also supports Bandura’s (1986) notion of specificity for self-efficacy.
Effect of Induced Anxiety on Respiratory Resistance Using Virtual Reality Simulation  [PDF]
Matthew Bohensky, Arthur T. Johnson, Jafar Vossoughi
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2017.72008
Abstract: Background: The purpose of this research was to identify significant changes to respiratory resistance resulting from anxiety inducing simulations presented through the medium of virtual reality (VR) goggles. The tested hypothesis was that a virtual reality simulation would produce anxiety in the wearer, and, with it, a statistically significant change in subject respiratory resistance. It was also suggested that there may be a significant difference in the levels of respiratory resistance responses of males and females. The Oculus Rift DK2 VR goggles with video software designed for the Rift were used to induce anxiety in the wearers. Methods: Respiratory resistances in both inhalation and exhalation directions were measured with the Airflow Perturbation Device (APD), a medical instrument used noninvasively. Two groups of subjects were tested: the test group watched a simulation deemed to be anxiety inducing, and the Control group watched a simulation determined to be non-anxiety inducing. Anxiety levels and respiratory resistance were measured before and during the simulation with two anxiety measures, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Subjective Units of Distress Scale (SUDS). Results: Statistically significant increases in anxiety level and respiratory resistance were found in the Test group, but no significant differences in anxiety and respiratory resistance levels were found in the control group. Anxiety affected both breathing phases similarly. For the gender hypothesis, we found that one of the tests used to measure anxiety, (the SUDS difference) was statistically significant, while the other test and the difference in respiratory resistance were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Results from this experiment show that anxiety level can be a significant contributor to the physiological measurement of respiratory resistance, and this can have implications for pulmonary function test environments and the psychological conditions of the patients being tested.
When Corporal Acts Are Labeled Criminal: Lack of Privacy among the Homeless  [PDF]
Matthew R. Taylor, Eileen T. Walsh
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2018.82011
Abstract: This paper concerns homelessness and its strained relation to personal privacy. The homeless, by and large, have no access to truly private spaces they can lay legitimate claim to—places where they will not be potentially harassed or seen by the public or the police. In this paper, I illustrate some of the experiences the homeless have had while lacking privacy, the ways they adjust to and cope with the loss of privacy, and their attempts to find privacy, however temporarily. In addition, the relations between legality and homeless living are explored alongside some discussion of the homeless shelter system and how people that have stayed in shelters often view it. The methodology implemented in the study involved face-to-face contact and the use of a semi-structured instrument of interview questions concerning the lived experiences encountered by homeless individuals living on the streets in Anaheim and Fullerton in southern California. The direct evidence from the study suggests that many homeless individuals have their reasons for disliking homeless shelters, that their public experiences are inevitably trying and uncomfortable, and that public and police surveillance of their daily activities pose a sort of omnipresent threat to their privacy, possessions and even their bodies. And this threat is of a kind that they have minimal, if any, means to circumvent. I conclude with an examination of the kind of policy—Housing First—that is the best social tool we collectively have, so far, for reducing the number of actively homeless persons.
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