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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 473035 matches for " T. M. Heckman "
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The Evolution of Dust Opacity in Galaxies
D. Calzetti,T. M. Heckman
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/307338
Abstract: (Abridged) We investigate the evolution of the opacity of galaxies as a function of redshift, using simple assumptions about the metal and dust enrichment of the gas and the distribution of dust in galaxies. We use an iterative procedure to reconstruct the intrinsic Star Formation Rate (SFR) density of galaxies with redshift, by applying dust obscuration corrections to the observed UV emission. The iterative procedure converges to multiple solutions for the intrinsic SFR density, divided into two basic classes. The first class of solutions predicts relatively large UV attenuation at high redshift, with A(1500 A)=1.9 mag at z~3, and smaller attenuations at z<1, with A(2800 A)=1.25 mag. The SFR density of this set of solutions is constant for z>~1.2 and declines for z<1.2; it resembles in shape the ``monolithic collapse'' scenario for star formation. The second class of solutions predicts relatively low UV attenuations at high redshift, with A(1500 A)=0.75 mag at z~3, and larger attenuations at z<1, with A(2800 A)=1.50 mag. The SFR density in this case has a peak at z~1.2. The advantages and shortcomings of both classes are analyzed in the light of available observational constraints, including the opacity of galaxies at 0
On the fundamental dichotomy in the local radio-AGN population: accretion, evolution, and host galaxy properties
P. N. Best,T. M. Heckman
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20414.x
Abstract: A sample of 18286 radio-loud AGN is presented, constructed by combining the SDSS DR7 with the NVSS and FIRST radio surveys. Using this sample, the differences between `high-excitation' (or `quasar-mode'; HERG) and `low-excitation' (`radio-mode'; LERG) radio galaxies are investigated. A primary difference is the distinct nature of the Eddington-scaled accretion rate onto their central black holes: HERGs typically have accretion rates between 1 and 10% of Eddington, whereas LERGs predominatly accrete at a rate below 1% Eddington. This is consistent with models where the population dichotomy is caused by a switch between radiatively efficient and inefficient accretion modes at low accretion rates. Local radio luminosity functions are derived separately for the two populations, showing that although LERGs dominate at low luminosity and HERGs above 1e26 W/Hz, examples of both classes are found at all radio luminosities. Using the V/Vmax test it is shown that the populations show differential cosmic evolution at fixed radio luminosity: HERGs evolve strongly at all luminosities, while LERGs show weak or no evolution. This suggests that the luminosity-dependent evolution of the radio luminosity function is driven, at least in part, by the changing relative contributions of these two populations with luminosity. The host galaxies of the sources are also distinct: HERGs are typically of lower stellar mass, with lower black hole masses, bluer colours and weaker 4000-Ang breaks indicating younger stellar populations. These results offer strong support to the picture in which HERGs are fuelled at high rates through radiative accretion disks by cold gas, perhaps from mergers and interactions, while LERGs are fuelled via radiatively inefficient flows at low accretion rates, often by gas associated with the hot X-ray haloes of their host galaxy/cluster, as part of a radio-AGN feedback loop (abridged).
An X-ray Mini-survey of Nearby Edge-on Starburst Galaxies II. The Question of Metal Abundance
K. A. Weaver,T. Heckman,M. Dahlem
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/308786
Abstract: (abbreviated) We have undertaken an X-ray survey of a far-infrared flux limited sample of seven nearby edge-on starburst galaxies. Here, we examine the two X-ray-brightest sample members NGC 253 and M 82 in a self-consistent manner, taking account of the spatial distribution of the X-ray emission in choosing our spectral models. There is significant X-ray absorption in the disk of NGC 253. When this is accounted for we find that multi-temperature thermal plasma models with significant underlying soft X-ray absorption are more consistent with the imaging data than single-temperature models with highly subsolar abundances or models with minimal absorption and non-equilibrium thermal ionization conditions. Our models do not require absolute abundances that are inconsistent with solar values or unusually supersolar ratios of the alpha-burning elements with respect to Fe (as claimed previously). We conclude that with current data, the technique of measuring abundances in starburst galaxies via X-ray spectral modeling is highly uncertain. Based on the point-like nature of much of the X-ray emission in the PSPC hard-band image of NGC 253, we suggest that a significant fraction of the ``extended'' X-ray emission in the 3-10 keV band seen along the disk of the galaxy with ASCA and BeppoSAX (Cappi et al.) is comprised of discrete sources in the disk, as opposed to purely diffuse, hot gas. This could explain the low Fe abundances of ~1/4 solar derived for pure thermal models.
Very Extended X-ray and H-alpha Emission in M82: Implications for the Superwind Phenomenon
M. D. Lehnert,T. M. Heckman,K. A. Weaver
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/307762
Abstract: We discuss the properties and implications of a 3.7x0.9 kpc region of spatially-coincident X-ray and H-alpha emission about 11.6 kpc to the north of the galaxy M82 previously discussed by Devine and Bally (1999). The PSPC X-ray spectrum is fit by thermal plasma (kT=0.80+-0.17 keV) absorbed by only the Galactic foreground column density. We evaluate the relationship of the X-ray/H-alpha ridge to the M82 superwind. The main properties of the X-ray emission can all be explained as being due to shock-heating driven as the superwind encounters a massive ionized cloud in the halo of M82. This encounter drives a slow shock into the cloud, which contributes to the excitation of the observed H-alpha emission. At the same time, a fast bow-shock develops in the superwind just upstream of the cloud, and this produces the observed X-ray emission. This interpretation would imply that the superwind has an outflow speed of roughly 800 km/s, consistent with indirect estimates based on its general X-ray properties and the kinematics of the inner kpc-scale region of H-alpha filaments. The gas in the M82 ridge is roughly two orders-of-magnitude hotter than the minimum "escape temperature" at this radius, so this gas will not be retained by M82. (abridged)
NICMOS Imaging of the Host Galaxies of z ~ 2 - 3 Radio-Quiet Quasars
S. E. Ridgway,T. M. Heckman,D. Calzetti,M. Lehnert
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/319725
Abstract: We have made a deep NICMOS imaging study of a sample of 5 z ~ 2 - 3 radio-quiet quasars with low absolute nuclear luminosities, and we have detected apparent host galaxies in all of these. Most of the hosts have luminosities approximately equal to present-day L*, with a range from 0.2 L* to about 4 L*. These host galaxies have magnitudes and sizes consistent with those of the Lyman break galaxies at similar redshifts and at similar rest wavelengths, but are about two magnitudes fainter than high-z powerful radio galaxies. The hosts of our high-z sample are comparable to or less luminous than the hosts of the low-z RQQs with similar nuclear absolute magnitudes. However, the high z galaxies are more compact than the hosts of the low z quasars, and probably have only 10 - 20% of the stellar mass of their low-z counterparts. Application of the M(bulge)/M(BH) relation found for present-day spheroids to the stellar masses implied for the high z host galaxies would indicate that they contain black holes with masses around 10^8 Msolar. Comparison to their nuclear magnitudes implies accretion rates that are near or at the Eddington limit. Although these high z hosts already contain supermassive black holes, the galaxies will need to grow significantly to evolve into present-day L* galaxies. These results are basically consistent with theoretical predictions for the hierarchical buildup of the galaxy host and its relation to the central supermassive black hole.
Disentangling AGN and Star Formation in Soft X-rays
Stephanie M. LaMassa,T. M. Heckman,A. Ptak
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/758/2/82
Abstract: We have explored the interplay of star formation and AGN activity in soft X-rays (0.5-2 keV) in two samples of Seyfert 2 galaxies (Sy2s). Using a combination of low resolution CCD spectra from Chandra and XMM-Newton, we modeled the soft emission of 34 Sy2s using power law and thermal models. For the 11 sources with high signal-to-noise Chandra imaging of the diffuse host galaxy emission, we estimate the luminosity due to star formation by removing the AGN, fitting the residual emission. The AGN and star formation contributions to the soft X-ray luminosity (i.e. L$_{x,AGN}$ and L$_{x,SF}$) for the remaining 24 Sy2s were estimated from the power law and thermal luminosities derived from spectral fitting. These luminosities were scaled based on a template derived from XSINGS analysis of normal star forming galaxies. To account for errors in the luminosities derived from spectral fitting and the spread in the scaling factor, we estimated L$_{x,AGN}$ and L$_{x,SF}$ from Monte Carlo simulations. These simulated luminosities agree with L$_{x,AGN}$ and L$_{x,SF}$ derived from Chandra imaging analysis within a 3\sigma\ confidence level. Using the infrared [NeII]12.8\mu m and [OIV]26\mu m lines as a proxy of star formation and AGN activity, respectively, we independently disentangle the contributions of these two processes to the total soft X-ray emission. This decomposition generally agrees with L$_{x,SF}$ and L$_{x,AGN}$ at the 3\sigma\ level. In the absence of resolvable nuclear emission, our decomposition method provides a reasonable estimate of emission due to star formation in galaxies hosting type 2 AGN.
The Taxonomy of Blue Amorphous Galaxies: II. Structure and Evolution
Amanda T. Marlowe,Gerhardt R. Meurer,Timothy M. Heckman
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/307603
Abstract: Dwarf galaxies play an important role in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution, and starbursts are believed to strongly affect their structure and evolution. Here we present a study of 12 of the nearest dwarf galaxies thought to be undergoing starbursts as selected primarily by morphology. We show that these "blue amorphous galaxies" are not physically distinguishable from dwarfs selected as starbursting by other methods, such as blue compact dwarfs and HII galaxies. All these classes exhibit exponential surface brightness profiles in their outer regions but often have a central blue excess. Typically, these starbursting "cores" are young (0.01 - 0.1 Gyr) events compared to the older (1 - 10 Gyr) enveloping galaxy. The ratio of the core-to-envelope blue fluxes ranges from essentially zero to about two. These starbursts are therefore modest events involving only a few percent of the stellar mass. The envelopes have surface-brightnesses that are much higher than typical dwarf Irregular (dI) galaxies, so it is unlikely that there is a straightforward evolutionary relation between typical dIs and dwarf starburst galaxies. Instead BAGs may repeatedly cycle through starburst and quiescent phases, corresponding to the galaxies with strong and weak/absent cores respectively. Once BAGs use up the available gas (either through star-formation or galactic winds) so that star-formation is shut off, the faded remnants would strongly resemble dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies. However, in the current cosmological epoch this is a slow process that is the aftermath of a series of many weak, recurring bursts. Present-day dEs must have experienced more rapid and intense evolution than this in the distant past. (Abridged)
Star Formation in the Field and Clusters of NGC 5253
C. A. Tremonti,D. Calzetti,C. Leitherer,T. M. Heckman
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/321436
Abstract: We investigate the star formation history of both the bright star clusters and the diffuse `field star' population in the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 5253 using STIS longslit ultraviolet spectroscopy. Our slit covers a physical area of 370 x 1.6 pc and includes 8 apparent clusters and several inter-cluster regions of diffuse light which we take to be the field. The diffuse light spectrum lacks the strong O-star wind features which are clearly visible in spectra of the brightest clusters. This discrepancy provides compelling evidence that the diffuse light is not reflected light from nearby clusters, but originates in a UV-bright field star population, and it raises the issue of whether the star formation process may be operating differently in the field than in clusters. We compare our spectra to STARBURST99 evolutionary synthesis models which incorporate a new low metallicity atlas of O-star spectra. We favor a scenario which accounts for the paucity of O-stars in the field without requiring the field to have a different IMF than the clusters: stellar clusters form continuously and then dissolve on ~10 Myr timescales and disperse their remaining stars into the field. We consider the probable contribution of an O-star deficient field population to the spatially unresolved spectra of high redshift galaxies. (Abridged)
An X-ray and Optical Investigation of the Starburst-driven Superwind in the Galaxy Merger Arp 299
T. M. Heckman,L. Armus,K. A. Weaver,J. Wang
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/307193
Abstract: We present a detailed investigation of the X-ray and optical properties of the starburst-merger system Arp299 (NGC 3690, Mrk 171), with an emphasis on its spectacular gaseous nebula. We analyse \rosat and \asca X-ray data and optical spectra and narrow-band images. We suggest that the on-going galaxy collision has tidally-redistributed the ISM of the merging galaxies. The optical emission-line nebula results as this gas is photoionized by radiation that escapes from the starburst, and is shock-heated, accelerated, and pressurized by a `superwind' driven by the collective effect of the starburst supernovae and stellar winds. The X-ray nebula in Arp 299 is is plausibly a mass-loaded flow of adiabatically-cooling gas that carries out a substantial fraction of the energy and metals injected by the starburst at close to the escape velocity from Arp 299. The mass outflow rate likely exceeds the star-formation rate in this system. We conclude that powerful starbursts are able to heat (and possibly eject) a significant fraction of the ISM in merging galaxies.
The Evolution of the Interstellar Medium Around Young Stellar Clusters
D. Calzetti,C. A. Tremonti,T. M. Heckman,C. Leitherer
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: The interplay between the ISM and the massive stars formed in clusters and, more generally, in recent events of star formation is reviewed via the global effects each has on the other. The pre-existing environment affects the properties of the massive stars, the duration of the star-forming event and could potentially affect the IMF. The collective effect of massive-star winds and supernova explosions creates a structured ISM by forming bubbles, supershells and, in more extreme cases, by inducing large-scale gas outflows. Gas/dust removal may quench star formation in young stellar clusters. Conversely, supernova-driven shocks may trigger star formation in molecular clouds surrounding the stellar clusters. Metal ejection from the massive stars is responsible for the pollution of the ISM and, if the metal-rich gas can escape the galaxy's gravitational potential, of the IGM. The environment where stellar clusters form is populated by a diffuse stellar population which contributes between 50% and 80% of the total UV light. The investigation of the nature of the diffuse UV light is the subject of a study employing HST STIS spectroscopy, whose preliminary results are presented and briefly discussed.
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