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FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE PELLETS OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE
Baskara Haripriya,Devareddy Sandeep,T. Lavanya
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: The aim of the present research is to develop and evaluate a better sustained release multiple unit pellets (MUP) formulation of Tramadol hydrochloride. Dissolution and diffusion controlled systems have classically been of primary importance in oral delivery of medication because of their relative ease of production and cost compared with other methods of sustained or controlled delivery. Most of these systems are solids, although a few liquids and suspension have been recently introduced. The present work aimed at developing SR pellets of Tramadol HCl by Wurster process. FTIR studies showed no unacceptable extra peaks which confirm the absence of chemical interaction between the drug and polymer. Angle of repose, tapped density, bulk density values for the formulations were within the range which indicates that pellets prepared by Wurster process were satisfactory for further studies. The percentage drug content of Tramadol was determined by extraction with methanol and analyzed by using UV-visible spectrophotometer at 271nm.
Pharmacological Effects of Pimpinella tirupatiensis on Altered Urea Cycle and Liver Function Markers in Diabetic Rats
G. Narasimhulu,T. Lavanya,S. Rajeswara Reddy,K. Mallikarjuna
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2012,
Abstract: Recent studies are emphasizing on cure and or prevent the diabetes-associated complications by using herbal medicines, since complications are increasing around the world. The present study was aimed to investigate the pharmacological efficacies of Pimpinella tirupatiensis (Pt) extracts against diabetes-associated altered urea cycle and liver function markers. In this study, diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection (40 mg kg-1 b.wt.) in rats, and treated with P. tirupatiensis extracts for 30 days (750 mg kg-1 b.wt. orally). The significant (p<0.01) decrease in body weights, elevated serum glucose, urea, uric acid and creatinine levels along with elevated Aspartate amino transferase (AST) and Alanine amino transferase (ALT) activities were observed in diabetic rats. Interestingly, diabetic rats treated with P. tirupatiensis aqueous extracts showed significantly (p<0.01) lowered serum glucose levels and regained body weights compared to untreated diabetic rats. Elevated urea and uric acid contents were also significantly (p<0.01) controlled by P. tirupatiensis, which were similar to the standard anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide treatment. Furthermore, increased both AST and ALT activities were attenuated by P. tirupatiensis, which indicates diabetes-induced adverse effects on liver function markers were alleviated. These results clearly demonstrating that increased hostile milieu in urea cycle and liver function markers under diabetic condition could be reversed by P. tirupatiensis treatment. This study suggests that P. tirupatiensis aqueous extracts may be used as anti-diabetic remedy, however further confirmatory studies are necessary.
Effects of protocol utilized for collection of whole saliva stimulated by TENS in healthy adult Indians
Vijayalaxmi Bhoomanna Nimma,T Ramesh,Sudhakara Reddy,Reddy Lavanya
Cumhuriyet Dental Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.7126/cdj.2012.1462
Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Transcutaneous Electric Nerve stimulation (TENS) on whole salivary flow rate in healthy adult subjects and to find out whether the protocol utilized for collection of saliva influence the quantity of saliva stimulated. Materials and Methods: Using an extraoral TENS applied over parotid glands stimulated whole saliva flow rate in fifty healthy adult subjects was measured Collection of TENS stimulated saliva was performed on day 1 after collection of unstimulated saliva, on day 2 only TENS stimulated saliva was measured. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using paired ‘t’ test. Results: Thirty nine patients on day one and thirty six patients on day two out of 50 (75 % of the subjects tested) responded to TENS therapy with an increase of stimulated whole saliva flow rate .There was a reduction in quantity of TENS stimulated saliva on day one and two with a difference of 4% which statistically significant with p value 0.009. Conclusions: Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) as an extra-oral device can be considered as a safe, non-pharmacological measure in order to achieve an increase of the rate of unstimulated saliva. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the possibility of using TENS in relieving the symptoms of xerostomia.
Providing High and Controllable Performance in Multicore Systems Through Shared Resource Management
Lavanya Subramanian
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Multiple applications executing concurrently on a multicore system interfere with each other at different shared resources such as main memory and shared caches. Such inter-application interference, if uncontrolled, results in high system performance degradation and unpredictable application slowdowns. While previous work has proposed application-aware memory scheduling as a solution to mitigate inter-application interference and improve system performance, previously proposed memory scheduling techniques incur high hardware complexity and unfairly slowdown some applications. Furthermore, previously proposed memory-interference mitigation techniques are not designed to precisely control application performance. This dissertation seeks to achieve high and controllable performance in multicore systems by mitigating and quantifying the impact of shared resource interference. First, towards mitigating memory interference and achieving high performance, we propose the Blacklisting memory scheduler that achieves high performance and fairness at low complexity. Next, towards quantifying the impact of memory interference and achieving controllable performance in the presence of memory bandwidth interference, we propose the Memory Interference induced Slowdown Estimation (MISE) model. We propose and demonstrate two use cases that can leverage MISE to provide soft performance guarantees and high overall performance/fairness. Finally, we seek to quantify the impact of shared cache interference on application slowdowns, in addition to memory bandwidth interference. Towards this end, we propose the Application Slowdown Model (ASM). We propose and demonstrate several use cases of ASM that leverage it to provide soft performance guarantees and improve performance and fairness.
Transcriptome Changes Associated with Anaerobic Growth in Yersinia intermedia (ATCC29909)
Lavanya Babujee, Venkatesh Balakrishnan, Patricia J. Kiley, Jeremy D. Glasner, Nicole T. Perna
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076567
Abstract: Background The yersiniae (Enterobacteriaceae) occupy a variety of niches, including some in human and flea hosts. Metabolic adaptations of the yersiniae, which contribute to their success in these specialized environments, remain largely unknown. We report results of an investigation of the transcriptome under aerobic and anaerobic conditions for Y. intermedia, a non-pathogenic member of the genus that has been used as a research surrogate for Y. pestis. Y. intermedia shares characteristics of pathogenic yersiniae, but is not known to cause disease in humans. Oxygen restriction is an important environmental stimulus experienced by many bacteria during their life-cycles and greatly influences their survival in specific environments. How oxygen availability affects physiology in the yersiniae is of importance in their life cycles but has not been extensively characterized. Methodology/Principal Findings Tiled oligonucleotide arrays based on a draft genome sequence of Y. intermedia were used in transcript profiling experiments to identify genes that change expression in response to oxygen availability during growth in minimal media with glucose. The expression of more than 400 genes, constituting about 10% of the genome, was significantly altered due to oxygen-limitation in early log phase under these conditions. Broad functional categorization indicated that, in addition to genes involved in central metabolism, genes involved in adaptation to stress and genes likely involved with host interactions were affected by oxygen-availability. Notable among these, were genes encoding functions for motility, chemotaxis and biosynthesis of cobalamin, which were up-regulated and those for iron/heme utilization, methionine metabolism and urease, which were down-regulated. Conclusions/Significance This is the first transcriptome analysis of a non-pathogenic Yersinia spp. and one of few elucidating the global response to oxygen limitation for any of the yersiniae. Thus this study lays the foundation for further experimental characterization of oxygen-responsive genes and pathways in this ecologically diverse genus.
Evolution of the metabolic and regulatory networks associated with oxygen availability in two phytopathogenic enterobacteria
Lavanya Babujee, Jennifer Apodaca, Venkatesh Balakrishnan, Paul Liss, Patricia J Kiley, Amy O Charkowski, Jeremy D Glasner, Nicole T Perna
BMC Genomics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-13-110
Abstract: More than 7% of the genes of each phytopathogen are differentially expressed with greater than 3-fold changes under anaerobic conditions. In addition to anaerobic metabolism genes, the O2 responsive stimulon includes a variety of virulence and pathogenicity-genes. Few of these genes overlap with orthologous genes in the anaerobic stimulon of E. coli. We define these as the conserved core, in which the transcriptional pattern as well as genetic architecture are well preserved. This conserved core includes previously described anaerobic metabolic pathways such as fermentation. Other components of the anaerobic stimulon show variation in genetic content, genome architecture and regulation. Notably formate metabolism, nitrate/nitrite metabolism, and fermentative butanediol production, differ between E. coli and the phytopathogens. Surprisingly, the overlap of the anaerobic stimulon between the phytopathogens is also relatively small considering that they are closely related, occupy similar niches and employ similar strategies to cause disease. There are cases of interesting divergences in the pattern of transcription of genes between Dickeya and Pectobacterium for virulence-associated subsystems including the type VI secretion system (T6SS), suggesting that fine-tuning of the stimulon impacts interaction with plants or competing microbes.The small number of genes (an even smaller number if we consider operons) comprising the conserved core transcriptional response to O2 limitation demonstrates the extent of regulatory divergence prevalent in the Enterobacteriaceae. Our orthology-driven comparative transcriptomics approach indicates that the adaptive response in the eneterobacteria is a result of interaction of core (regulators) and lineage-specific (structural and regulatory) genes. Our subsystems based approach reveals that similar phenotypic outcomes are sometimes achieved by each organism using different genes and regulatory strategies.Dickeya dadantii and Pectobacte
Recent Developments in Quantitative Graph Theory: Information Inequalities for Networks
Matthias Dehmer, Lavanya Sivakumar
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031395
Abstract: In this article, we tackle a challenging problem in quantitative graph theory. We establish relations between graph entropy measures representing the structural information content of networks. In particular, we prove formal relations between quantitative network measures based on Shannon's entropy to study the relatedness of those measures. In order to establish such information inequalities for graphs, we focus on graph entropy measures based on information functionals. To prove such relations, we use known graph classes whose instances have been proven useful in various scientific areas. Our results extend the foregoing work on information inequalities for graphs.
INVESTIGATING THE CLOUD SERVICES IN ANIMATION FIELD
Dr. LAVANYA RAJENDRAN
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: The production of 2D and 3D animated films demands high end systems with massive computing resource. Handling massive computing resources requires high investment in infrastructure and maintenance, which is amajor hindrance for the animation industry / animators who want to produce few minutes of film. The cloud services promises to deliver on-demand and scalable computing resources to the animation industry. In this paper, it is proposed to investigate the cloud services in animation. The research is designed in two case studies to analyze the scenarios in both traditional and through the cloud services.
Increased Speed for Network Security through Multi-Character Processing
Lavanya,Saranya,Uma Maheshwari
International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology , 2013,
Abstract: A clear trend that can be observed in the Internet is the increasing amount of packet data that is being inspected before a packet is delivered to its destination. More recently, Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS), virus scanners, spam filters and other content-aware applications go one step further by also performing scans on the packet payload. Pattern matching algorithm is used in Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS). The system is used to detect network attacks by identifying attack patterns. This paper proposes a memory-efficient pattern matching algorithm which can significantly reduce the number of states and transitions by merging pseudo-equivalent states while maintaining correctness of string matching. Pattern matching is achieved through Aho-Corasick (AC) algorithm. By comparison result we say our matching algorithm is memory efficient than previously proposed method. As an extension of our work, through Multi-character processing, sufficient speed has been increased. The reduction in clock cycle indirectly increases speed in operation.The architecture is coded in VHDL and simulated using Modelsim and Xilinx.
Lossy Image Compression and Data Embedded In Compressed Encrypted Image
Suguna,Logesh Kumar,,Lavanya
International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology , 2013,
Abstract: This work is based on lossy image compression and data embedded in compressed encrypted image. In this, the original image is compressed by lossy compression method and encrypted using the encryption key. Data is hided into the compressed encrypted image using the data hiding key. If the receiver has encryption key then he can recover the image after decompression, if data hiding key he can extract the data, if both data hiding key and encryption key then he can extract the data and recover the original image after decryption and decompression.
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