Abstract:
We show that
coordination always occurs in scale-free networks by social local interactions
regardless of the values of parameters, while it occurs in regular networks if
and only if the number of links times a payoff parameter exceeds the threshold.
Scale-free networks are ubiquitous in the reality. We study a two-strategy pure
coordination game on networks that indicate who plays with whom. A player
chooses a strategy by Logit choice and the strategies are dynamically updated.
Stable steady states are investigated.

Abstract:
We study goods (or service) with network effect. Social network services
are examples. An existing service has an advantage over new one because of the
network effect. We study the condition that new goods (or service) replace the
existing one, and show that the condition depends on the underlying network
structures. For this purpose, we study a coordination game with network structure.
If more than half of the players change their strategies, then new strategy
beats the existing one in regular networks. On the other hand, if very small
number of players with large degree changes their strategies, then the new
strategy beats the existing one in scale-free networks.

Abstract:
We formulate deformation of relativistic stars due to the magnetic stress, considering the magnetic fields to be perturbations from spherical stars. The ellipticity for the dipole magnetic field is calculated for some stellar models. We have found that the ellipticity becomes large with increase of a relativistic factor for the models with the same energy ratio of the magnetic energy to the gravitational energy.

Abstract:
We calculated the ellipticity of the deformed star due to the rotation or magnetic field. These two effects are compared to each other within general relativity. It turned out that the magnetic distortion is important for recently observed candidates of magnetars, while the magnetic effect can be neglected for well-known typical pulsars.

Abstract:
The $\XXZ$ spin chain with a boundary magnetic field $h$ is considered, using the vertex operator approach to diagonalize the Hamiltonian. We find explicit bosonic formulas for the two vacuum vectors with zero particle content. There are three distinct regions when $h\geq0$, in which the structure of the vacuum states is different. Excited states are given by the action of vertex operators on the vacuum states. We derive the boundary $S$-matrix and present an integral formula for the correlation functions. The boundary magnetization exhibits boundary hysteresis. We also discuss the rational limit, the $\XXX$ model.

Abstract:
A variety of nutritional supplements are commercially available for the potential therapeutic purpose for dogs and other domestic animals with cancers. However, the efficacy of these supplements on those cancer-bearing animals has not been verified and remains uncertain, due to the lack of the sufficient scientific studies/data. To address this important issue, we examined actual anticancer effects of five selected commercial products on the two types of canine cancer models in vitro. Among them, PET-Fraction (PET-F) obtained from maitake mushroom has been shown to have potent anticancer effect on canine cancer cells. In comparison with this PET-F, possible anticancer effects of the rest of four products were examined. Two of four products were found to have the significant anticancer effects on both cancer cells, while other two products had little effects. Nevertheless, PET-F exhibited the best anticancer effect. Cell cycle analysis indicated that the PET- F-induced growth reduction was attributed to a G1 cell cycle arrest, and Western blot analysis further revealed that such a growth reduction was coupled with apoptosis. Moreover, anticancer activity of PET-F was remarkably enhanced with vitamin C, but no such synergistic effect was seen with other four products. Therefore, although two other products besides PET-F yet have anticancer activities, PET-F appears to be the most potent and promising commercial product that can be useful in effectively and safely treating canine cancers.

Abstract:
In order to investigate details of the superconducting (SC) gap in the iron-chalcogenide superconductors, the specific heat, C, of FeSe_1-x_Te_x_ with x=0.6-1 has been measured in magnetic fields. Using the two-gap model, it has been found that the smaller SC gap is significantly depressed by the application of magnetic field, resulting in the increase of the slope of the C/T vs T^2^ plot at low temperatures. From the specific-heat measurements at very low temperatures down to 0.4 K, it has been found that the enhancement of the residual electronic-specific-heat-coefficient in the ground state, gamma_0_, by the application of magnetic field is much smaller than that expected for superconductors with the typical s-wave or d-wave SC paring symmetry, which is in sharp contrast to the significant enhancement of gamma_0 observed in the iron-pnictide superconductors. These results are discussed in relation to the multi-band effect in the iron-based superconductors.

Abstract:
Ferromagnetism and accompanying large negative magnetoresistance in Pb-substituted Bi-Sr-Co-O misfit-layer compound are investigated in detail. Recent structural analysis of (Bi,Pb)${}_2$Sr${}_{3}$Co${}_2$O${}_9$, which has been believed to be a Co analogue of Bi${}_2$Sr${}_2$CaCu${}_2$O${}_{8+\delta}$, revealed that it has a more complex structure including a CoO${}_2$ hexagonal layer [T. Yamamoto {\it et al.}, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. {\bf 39} (2000) L747]. Pb substitution for Bi not only introduces holes into the conducting CoO${}_2$ layers but also creates a certain amount of localized spins. Ferromagnetic transition appears at $T$ = 3.2 K with small spontaneous magnetization along the $c$ axis, and around the transition temperature large and anisotropic negative magnetoresistance was observed. This compound is the first example which shows ferromagnetic long-range order in a two-dimensional metallic hexagnonal CoO${}_2$ layer.

Abstract:
There are two types of master equations in describing nonequilibrium phenomena with memory effect: (i) the memory function type and (ii) the nonstationary type. A generalized Polya process is studied within the framework of a non-stationary type master equation approach. For a transition-rate with an arbitrary time-dependent relaxation function, the exact solution of a generalized Polya process is obtained. The characteristic features of temporal variation of the solution are displayed for some typical time-dependent relaxation functions reflecting memory in the systems. 1. Introduction The generalized master equation of memory function type [1] is a useful basis for analyzing non-equilibrium phenomena in open systems as where the kernel is conventionally assumed to have the product of a memory function with a transition rate as . The transition rate has the constraint with . This generalized master equation approach corresponds to the generalized Langevin equation of the memory function type [2, 3]. One can see many successful applications with long memory along the line of traditional formulation [1]. Looking around recent studies in complex open systems, there is an alternative approach based on a generalized non-stationary master equation [4] as The master equation in this form corresponds to the generalized Langevin equation of the convolutionless type, which is derived with the aid of projection operator method by Tokuyama and Mori [5]. The time-dependent coefficient may be written in the following form: . It is expected from the projection operator method [5] that the time-dependent function reflects the memory effect from varying environment in a different way associated with the memory function (cf. also H？nggi and Talkner [6]). The memory function (MF) formalism has been utilized in anomalous diffusion like Lévy type diffusion in atmospheric pollution, diffusion impurities in amorphous materials, and so on. The alternative convolution-less, non-stationary (NS) formalism gives only a small number of applications. The paper intends to exhibit a potential ability of the NS formalism by taking an arbitrary time-dependent function which is representing memory effect. The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 reviews the non-stationary Poisson process. Section 3 shows a generalized Polya process wherein it is involved a generalized non-stationary transition rate with an arbitrary function of time. The exact solution and the expression mean and variance are displayed as a function of . Some important remarks are given for a generalized

Abstract:
ergistic potentiation of D-fraction with vitamin C as possible alternative approach for cancer therapy Review (4735) Total Article Views Authors: Sensuke Konno Published Date May 2009 Volume 2009:2 Pages 91 - 108 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S5498 Sensuke Konno Department of Urology, New York, Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA Abstract: Maitake D-fraction or PDF is the bioactive extract of maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa) and its active constituent is the protein-bound polysaccharide (proteoglucan), or more specifically known as β-glucan. PDF has been extensively studied and a number of its medicinal potentials/properties have been unveiled and demonstrated. Those include various physiological benefits ranging from immunomodulatory and antitumor activities to treatment for hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, viral infections (hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus), and obesity. Particularly, two major biological activities of PDF, immunomodulatory and antitumor activities, have been the main target for scientific and clinical research. To demonstrate and confirm such biological activities, numerous studies have been performed in vitro and in vivo or in clinical settings. These studies showed that PDF was indeed capable of modulating immunologic and hematologic parameters, inhibiting or regressing the cancer cell growth, and even improving quality of life of cancer patients. Synergistic potentiation of PDF with vitamin C demonstrated in vitro is rather interesting and may have clinical implication, because such combination therapy appears to help improve the efficacy of currently ongoing cancer therapies. Recently, intravenous administration of vitamin C has been often used to increase its physiological concentration and this useful procedure may further make this combination therapy feasible. Therefore, PDF may have great potential, either being used solely or combined with other agents, for cancer therapy. Such relevant and detailed studies will be described and discussed herein with a special focus on the combination of PDF and vitamin C as a viable therapeutic option.