Abstract:
Cosmological baryon asymmetry B is studied in supersymmetric standard models, assuming the electroweak reprocessing of B and L. Only when the soft supersymmetry breaking is taken into account, B is proportional to the primordial B-L in the supersymmetric standard models. The ratio $B/(B-L)$ is found to be about one percent less than the nonsupersymmetric case. Even if the primordial B-L vanishes, scalar-leptons can be more efficient than leptons to generate B provided that mixing angles $\th$ among scalar leptons satisfy $|\th| < 10^{-8} (T/{GeV})^{1/2}$.

Abstract:
In this paper, we give a complete classification of exceptional Dehn surgeries on a component of a hyperbolic two-bridge link in the 3-sphere.

Abstract:
Concerning the set of exceptional surgery slopes for a hyperbolic knot, Lackenby and Meyerhoff proved that the maximal cardinality is 10 and the maximal diameter is 8. Their proof is computer-aided in part, and both bounds are achieved simultaneously. In this note, it is observed that the diameter bound 8 implies the maximal cardinality bound 10 for exceptional surgery slope sets. This follows from the next known fact: For a hyperbolic knot, there exists a slope on the peripheral torus such that all exceptional surgery slopes have distance at most two from the slope. We also show that, in generic cases, that particular slope above can be taken as the slope represented by the shortest geodesic on a horotorus in a hyperbolic knot complement.

Abstract:
By considering non-orientable surfaces in the surgered manifolds, we show that the 10/3- and -10/3-Dehn surgeries on the 2-bridge knot $9_{27} = S(49,19)$ are not cosmetic, i.e., they give mutually non-homeomorphic manifolds. The knot is unknown to have no cosmetic surgeries by previously known results; in particular, by using the Casson invariant and the Heegaard Floer homology.

Abstract:
We show that, for any positive real number, there exists a knot in the 3-sphere admitting a pair of boundary slopes whose difference is at most the given number.

Abstract:
The infimal Heegaard gradient of a compact 3-manifold was defined and studied by Marc Lackenby in an approach toward the well-known virtually Haken conjecture. As instructive examples, we consider Seifert fibered 3-manifolds, and show that a Seifert fibered 3-manifold has zero infimal Heegaard gradient if and only if it virtually fibers over the circle or over a surface other than the 2-sphere. For a collection of finite coverings of a Seifert fibered 3-manifold, a necessary and sufficient condition to have zero infimal Heegaard gradient is also given.

Abstract:
It is shown that a hyperbolic knot in the 3-sphere admits at most nine integral surgeries yielding 3-manifolds which are reducible or whose fundamental groups are not infinite word-hyperbolic.

Abstract:
We report the development of a fast pulse polarimeter for the application to quantum non-demolition measurement of atomic spin (Spin QND). The developed system was tunable to the atomic resonance of ytterbium atom and has narrow laser linewidth suitable for spin QND. Using the developed polarimeter, we successfully demonstrated the measurement of the vacuum noise, with 10^6 to 10^7 photon number per pulse.

Abstract:
We report observation of the paramagnetic Faraday rotation of spin-polarized ytterbium (Yb) atoms. As the atomic samples, we used an atomic beam, released atoms from a magneto-optical trap (MOT), and trapped atoms in a far-off-resonant trap (FORT). Since Yb is diamagnetic and includes a spin-1/2 isotope, it is an ideal sample for the spin physics, such as quantum non-demolition measurement of spin (spin QND), for example. From the results of the rotation angle, we confirmed that the atoms were almost perfectly polarized.