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The samples of Cd1 － xCoxS with compositions x = 0.0 & 0.6 were prepared by Co-precipitation route at room temperature. XRD analysis confirms that the samples have cubic structure with no impurity phases. The lattice parameter, volume cell, X-ray density and grain size were calculated using XRD data. It is found that lattice parameter, volume of unit cell and X-ray density decrease with enhancing Co content. It is due to the smaller ionic radius of Co than the Cd. It is well noticed that the grain size increases with increasing Co content, it may be owing to the good synthesis technique. The functional groups and chemical interaction were determined by FTIR spectra. From FTIR spectra, it is investigated that absorption bands show the presence of resonance interaction between vibrational modes of oxide ions in the crystal. The energy band gap of Co doped CdS samples was calculated using UV-Vis analysis. It is observed that energy band gap decreases with increasing Co content owing to the sp-d exchange interaction between Co and CdS atoms.