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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 118862 matches for " T. Ashley "
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Clinical Pharmacology in Sleep Medicine
Ashley Proctor,Matt T. Bianchi
ISRN Pharmacology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/914168
Abstract:
Clinical Pharmacology in Sleep Medicine
Ashley Proctor,Matt T. Bianchi
ISRN Pharmacology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/914168
Abstract: The basic treatment goals of pharmacological therapies in sleep medicine are to improve waking function by either improving sleep or by increasing energy during wakefulness. Stimulants to improve waking function include amphetamine derivatives, modafinil, and caffeine. Sleep aids encompass several classes, from benzodiazepine hypnotics to over-the-counter antihistamines. Other medications used in sleep medicine include those initially used in other disorders, such as epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, and psychiatric disorders. As these medications are prescribed or encountered by providers in diverse fields of medicine, it is important to recognize the distribution of adverse effects, drug interaction profiles, metabolism, and cytochrome substrate activity. In this paper, we review the pharmacological armamentarium in the field of sleep medicine to provide a framework for risk-benefit considerations in clinical practice. 1. Introduction Given the high prevalence of sleep complaints in the general population and in patients with a variety of comorbid disorders, the pharmacological treatment options for sleep disorders are common considerations for sleep specialists and nonspecialists alike [1–4]. Clinical pharmacology in sleep medicine can be loosely classified into drugs aimed at treating sleepiness, sleeplessness, and sleep-related movements. Although most of these are available by prescription only, the stimulant caffeine and the antihistamine diphenhydramine are common over-the-counter options for sleepiness and sleeplessness, respectively. The primary hypersomnias are uncommon compared to disorders that include sleepiness as a secondary symptom to sleep disruption [5]. When presented with the patient reporting sleepiness, it is critical to investigate potential primary causes, such as sleep apnea or insomnia. Pain syndromes, mood disorders, and general medical problems may be comorbid with sleep apnea and/or disrupted sleep. However, residual daytime symptoms persist in some patients despite optimized management of potential primary causes, leading to consideration of stimulant agents in the appropriate clinical setting. Primary hypersomnias such as narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia are also treated primarily with stimulants. Insomnia can be considered a constellation of symptoms with a variety of underlying causes [6]. As a symptom, it can be secondary to disorders of mood, pain, or a variety of other neurological and general medical disorders. It can be primary in the sense that it exists in the absence of other identifiable causes, such as
Duplication and diversification of the LEAFY HULL STERILE1 and Oryza sativa MADS5 SEPALLATA lineages in graminoid Poales
Ashley R Christensen, Simon T Malcomber
EvoDevo , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2041-9139-3-4
Abstract: Phylogenetic relationships among 84 SEP genes were estimated using Bayesian methods. RNA expression patterns were inferred using in situ hybridization. The patterns of protein sequence and RNA expression evolution were reconstructed using maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods, respectively.Phylogenetic analyses mapped the LHS1/OSM5 duplication event to the base of the grass family. MP character reconstructions estimated a change from cytosine to thymine in the first codon position of the first amino acid after the Zea mays MADS3 (ZMM3) domain converted a glutamine to a stop codon in the OSM5 ancestor following the LHS1/OSM5 duplication event. RNA expression analyses of OSM5 co-orthologs in Avena sativa, Chasmanthium latifolium, Hordeum vulgare, Pennisetum glaucum, and Sorghum bicolor followed by ML reconstructions of these data and previously published analyses estimated a complex pattern of gain and loss of LHS1 and OSM5 expression in different floral organs and different flowers within the spikelet or inflorescence.Previous authors have reported that rice OSM5 and LHS1 proteins have different interaction partners indicating that the truncation of OSM5 following the LHS1/OSM5 duplication event has resulted in both partitioned and potentially novel gene functions. The complex pattern of OSM5 and LHS1 expression evolution is not consistent with a simple subfunctionalization model following the gene duplication event, but there is evidence of recent partitioning of OSM5 and LHS1 expression within different floral organs of A. sativa, C. latifolium, P. glaucum and S. bicolor, and between the upper and lower florets of the two-flowered maize spikelet.The diversification of paralogs following developmental gene duplication events is hypothesized to have played a major role in the evolution of morphological form [1-3]. Three general fates are hypothesized for duplicated gene products [2]. In the bulk of cases one of the gene products is predicted to a
Vocalization Induced CFos Expression in Marmoset Cortex
Cory T. Miller,Audrey DiMauro,Ashley Pistorio
Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience , 2010, DOI: 10.3389/fnint.2010.00128
Abstract: All non-human primates communicate with conspecifics using vocalizations, a system involving both the production and perception of species-specific vocal signals. Much of the work on the neural basis of primate vocal communication in cortex has focused on the sensory processing of vocalizations, while relatively little data are available for vocal production. Earlier physiological studies in squirrel monkeys had shed doubts on the involvement of primate cortex in vocal behaviors. The aim of the present study was to identify areas of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) cortex that are potentially involved in vocal communication. In this study, we quantified cFos expression in three areas of marmoset cortex – frontal, temporal (auditory), and medial temporal – under various vocal conditions. Specifically, we examined cFos expression in these cortical areas during the sensory, motor (vocal production), and sensory–motor components of vocal communication. Our results showed an increase in cFos expression in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex as well as the medial and lateral belt areas of auditory cortex in the vocal perception condition. In contrast, subjects in the vocal production condition resulted in increased cFos expression only in dorsal premotor cortex. During the sensory–motor condition (antiphonal calling), subjects exhibited cFos expression in each of the above areas, as well as increased expression in perirhinal cortex. Overall, these results suggest that various cortical areas outside primary auditory cortex are involved in primate vocal communication. These findings pave the way for further physiological studies of the neural basis of primate vocal communication.
Gene Expression during Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Soil and Water
Ashley D. Duffitt,Robert T. Reber,Andrew Whipple,Christian Chauret
International Journal of Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/340506
Abstract: The in vitro survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 at 15°C under two experimental conditions (sterile soil and sterile natural water) was examined. DNA microarrays of the entire set of E. coli O157:H7 genes were used to measure the genomic expression patterns after 14 days. Although the populations declined, some E. coli O157:H7 cells survived in sterile stream water up to 234 days and in sterile soil for up to 179 days. Cells incubated in soil microcosms for 14 days expressed genes for antibiotic resistance, biosynthesis, DNA replication and modification, metabolism, phages, transposons, plasmids, pathogenesis and virulence, antibiotic resistance, ribosomal proteins, the stress response, transcription, translation, and transport and binding proteins at significantly higher levels than cells grown in Luria broth. These results suggest that E. coli O157:H7 may develop a different phenotype during transport through the environment. Furthermore, this pathogen may become more resistant to antibiotics making subsequent infections more difficult to treat.
Quorum Decision-Making in Foraging Fish Shoals
Ashley J. W. Ward, Jens Krause, David J. T. Sumpter
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032411
Abstract: Quorum responses provide a means for group-living animals to integrate and filter disparate social information to produce accurate and coherent group decisions. A quorum response may be defined as a steep increase in the probability of group members performing a given behaviour once a threshold minimum number of their group mates already performing that behaviour is exceeded. In a previous study we reported the use of a quorum response in group decision-making of threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) under a simulated predation threat. Here we examine the use of quorum responses by shoals of sticklebacks in first locating and then leaving a foraging patch. We show that a quorum rule explains movement decisions by threespine sticklebacks toward and then away from a food patch. Following both to and from a food patch occurred when a threshold number of initiators was exceeded, with the threshold being determined by the group size.
Inflammation and Tumor Microenvironment in Lymph Node Metastasis
Xuesong Wu,Tomonori Takekoshi,Ashley Sullivan,Sam T. Hwang
Cancers , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/cancers3010927
Abstract: In nearly all human cancers, the presence of lymph node (LN) metastasis increases clinical staging and portends worse prognosis (compared to patients without LN metastasis). Herein, principally reviewing experimental and clinical data related to malignant melanoma, we discuss diverse factors that are mechanistically involved in LN metastasis. We highlight recent data that link tumor microenvironment, including inflammation (at the cellular and cytokine levels) and tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis, with nodal metastasis. Many of the newly identified genes that appear to influence LN metastasis facilitate general motility, chemotactic, or invasive properties that also increase the ability of cancer cells to disseminate and survive at distant organ sites. These new biomarkers will help predict clinical outcome and point to novel future therapies in metastatic melanoma as well as other cancers.
Effect of vanadium on plant growth and its accumulation in plant tissues
Narumol Vachirapatama,Yaowapha Jirakiattikul,Greg Dicinoski,Ashley T. Townsend
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate vanadium uptake by Chinese green mustard and tomato plantsand its effect on their growth. Twenty-eight (Chinese green mustard) and 79 days (tomato) after germination, the plants wereexposed for a further seven days to a solution containing six different concentrations of ammonium metavanadate (0-80 mg/lNH4VO3). The vanadium accumulated in the plant tissues were determined by ion-interaction high performance liquid chromatography,with confirmation by magnetic sector ICP-MS.The results indicated that nutrient solution containing more than 40 mg/l NH4VO3 affected plant growth for bothChinese green mustard and tomato plant. Chinese green mustard grown in the solution containing NH4VO3 at the concentrationsof 40 and 80 mg/l had stem length, number of leaves, dry weight of leaf, stem and root significantly lower than those ofplants grown in the solution containing 0-20 mg/l NH4VO3. Tomato plants were observed to wilt after four days in contactwith the nutrient solutions containing 40 and 80 mg/l NH4VO3. As the vanadium concentrations increased, a resultantdecrease in the stem length, root fresh weight, and fruit fresh weight were noted. The accumulation of vanadium was higher inthe root compared with leaf, stem, or fruit. Measured levels of vanadium, from a nutrient solution containing 40 mg/l NH4VO3,were 328, 340, and 9.66x103 g/g in the leaf, stem and root for Chinese green mustard, and 4.04 and 4.01x103 g/g in the fruitand roots for tomato plants, respectively.
Bis(tetramethylammonium) tetrachloridozincate(II), phase VI
Ashley B. S. Curtiss,Ghezai T. Musie,Douglas R. Powell
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2008, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536807065828
Abstract: Phase VI of bis(tetramethylammonium) tetrachlorozincate(II), (C4H12N)2[ZnCl4], contains three formula units per asymmetric unit. Several short C—H...Cl contacts [2.70 (3) and 2.72 (4) ] are observed, but they are believed to participate only in van der Waals interactions. The crystal studied exhibited inversion twinning.
Gene Expression during Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Soil and Water
Ashley D. Duffitt,Robert T. Reber,Andrew Whipple,Christian Chauret
International Journal of Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/340506
Abstract: The in vitro survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 at under two experimental conditions (sterile soil and sterile natural water) was examined. DNA microarrays of the entire set of E. coli O157:H7 genes were used to measure the genomic expression patterns after 14 days. Although the populations declined, some E. coli O157:H7 cells survived in sterile stream water up to 234 days and in sterile soil for up to 179 days. Cells incubated in soil microcosms for 14 days expressed genes for antibiotic resistance, biosynthesis, DNA replication and modification, metabolism, phages, transposons, plasmids, pathogenesis and virulence, antibiotic resistance, ribosomal proteins, the stress response, transcription, translation, and transport and binding proteins at significantly higher levels than cells grown in Luria broth. These results suggest that E. coli O157:H7 may develop a different phenotype during transport through the environment. Furthermore, this pathogen may become more resistant to antibiotics making subsequent infections more difficult to treat. 1. Introduction Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an enterohemorrhagic strain of E. coli that produces a powerful shiga-like toxin. It is capable of causing bloody stools, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome [1]. Nearly 75,000 cases of O157:H7 infection occur every year in the US [2]. Most outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of contaminated, undercooked, bovine food products [1]. There also have been reports of E. coli O157:H7 outbreaks associated with both drinking and recreational water [3–7]. E. coli O157:H7 is ubiquitous on farms where healthy cattle and sheep harbor the pathogen in their gastrointestinal tracts [8]. As a consequence, farm animal manure is a source for spreading E. coli O157:H7 into the environment and potentially to the human food chain. One of the most common modes by which E. coli O157:H7 is introduced onto food crops is through contaminated irrigation water [9]. In addition, the propagation of this pathogen through the environment has been linked to runoff contaminated with bovine manure or by use as soil amendment [10]. The contamination of surface and ground water in rural areas of the United States is becoming increasingly more common as a result of concentrated animal feeding operations [9]. Escherichia coli O157:H7 can survive in varying habitats under a wide range of conditions. In the environment, cells are exposed to rapidly changing conditions such as changes in pH, nutrient availability, temperature, oxidative stress, and osmotic challenge [11]. E. coli
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