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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 309240 matches for " T Nimmi C Athuraliya "
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Prolonged N-acetylcysteine therapy in late acetaminophen poisoning associated with acute liver failure – a need to be more cautious?
T Nimmi C Athuraliya, Alison L Jones
Critical Care , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/cc7800
Abstract: The paper entitled 'Prolonged treatment with N-acetylcysteine delays liver recovery from acetaminophen hepatotoxicity' by Yang and colleagues [1], published in the previous issue of Critical Care, demonstrates that prolonged administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) at 100 mg/kg in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver failure in mice potentially limits hepatocellular regeneration. Activation of a transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-κB), strongly linked to impairment of liver regeneration, is a putative mechanism for this. Furthermore, the paper postulates that high doses of NAC may interfere with normal metabolic processes of the liver, leading to impairment of its regenerative capacity [1].NAC has been used since the 1970s, and it effectively manages APAP poisoning by glutathione repletion if administered within 8 to 10 hours of ingestion of the overdose [2]. In later years, clinical use of NAC was extended to patients who present more than 10 hours after ingestion and to those with APAP-induced acute liver failure (ALF), and patients in such categories are routinely on NAC infusions for many days, even weeks [3,4]. The putative protective mechanisms of NAC in late-APAP poisoning and APAP-induced liver failure remain poorly characterised but include free-radical scavenging, hemodynamic, and cytokine effects [1,5,6]. Concern has been expressed relating to its extended use in late presenters with APAP poisoning and APAP-induced liver failure because of the possibility of changed kinetics of NAC in liver injury, reduced efficacy, and adverse hemodynamic changes (vasodilatation and increased cardiac index) [7]. This new study raises the issue of whether impairment of regeneration is also a clinical concern for extended NAC use.A key issue in liver recovery after any acute injury is tissue repair and regeneration. Such liver regeneration involves replication of mature parenchyma and non-parenchyma liver cells, which requires multiple cytokine and growth factor
Adopting level set theory based algorithms to segment human ear
Bijeesh T. V,Nimmi I. P
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.5121/ijci.2013.2407
Abstract: Human identification has always been a topic that interested researchers around the world. Biometric methods are found to be more effective and much easier for the users than the traditional identification methods like keys, smart cards and passwords. Unlike with the traditional methods, with biometric methods the data acquisition is most of the times passive, which means the users do not take active part in data acquisition. Data acquisition can be performed using cameras, scanners or sensors. Human physiological biometrics such as face, eye and ear are good candidates for uniquely identifying an individual. However, human ear scores over face and eye because of certain advantages it has over face. The most challenging phase in human identification based on ear biometric is the segmentation of the ear image from the captured image which may contain many unwanted details. In this work, PDE based image processing techniques are used to segment out the ear image. Level Set Theory based image processing is employed to obtain the contour of the ear image. A few Level set algorithms are compared for their efficiency in segmenting test ear images.
Posterior Capsular Rent: Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Management  [PDF]
Nimmi Rani, Prashant Gupta
Surgical Science (SS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2014.55038

In spite of a steady improvement in the safety of cataract surgery since the inception of phacoemulsification, diagnosing and managing posterior capsular rent still remains a challenge. Identification of the pre-existing risk factors is of utmost importance so that precautionary modifications are done in the surgery to prevent this complication. Once it happens, timely realization and appropriate management can have excellent outcomes.

Posterior Polar Cataract and Its Management  [PDF]
Smita Anand, Nimmi Rani
Surgical Science (SS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2015.67046
Abstract: Although cataract surgery in posterior polar cataract is associated with posterior capsular rent and nucleus drop, by taking precautions the rate of complication can be decreased. The aim of this article is to review the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, and management of posterior polar cataract.
Implementation of Optimized DES Encryption Algorithm upto 4 Round on Spartan 3
Nimmi Gupta
International Journal of Computer Technology and Electronics Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: Data Security is an important parameter for the industries. It can be achieved by Encryption algorithms which are used to prevent unauthorized access of data. Cryptography is the science of keeping data transfer secure, so that eavesdroppers (or attackers) cannot decipher the transmitted message. In this paper the DES algorithm is optimized upto 4 round using Xilinx software and implemented on Spartan 3 Modelsim. The paper deals with various parameters such as variable key length, key generation mechanism, etc. used in order to provide optimized results.
Rapid Determination of Oxygen Saturation and Vascularity for Cancer Detection
Fangyao Hu, Karthik Vishwanath, Justin Lo, Alaattin Erkanli, Christine Mulvey, Walter T. Lee, Nimmi Ramanujam
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082977
Abstract: A rapid heuristic ratiometric analysis for estimating tissue hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation from measured tissue diffuse reflectance spectra is presented. The analysis was validated in tissue-mimicking phantoms and applied to clinical measurements in head and neck, cervical and breast tissues. The analysis works in two steps. First, a linear equation that translates the ratio of the diffuse reflectance at 584 nm and 545 nm to estimate the tissue hemoglobin concentration using a Monte Carlo-based lookup table was developed. This equation is independent of tissue scattering and oxygen saturation. Second, the oxygen saturation was estimated using non-linear logistic equations that translate the ratio of the diffuse reflectance spectra at 539 nm to 545 nm into the tissue oxygen saturation. Correlations coefficients of 0.89 (0.86), 0.77 (0.71) and 0.69 (0.43) were obtained for the tissue hemoglobin concentration (oxygen saturation) values extracted using the full spectral Monte Carlo and the ratiometric analysis, for clinical measurements in head and neck, breast and cervical tissues, respectively. The ratiometric analysis was more than 4000 times faster than the inverse Monte Carlo analysis for estimating tissue hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in simulated phantom experiments. In addition, the discriminatory power of the two analyses was similar. These results show the potential of such empirical tools to rapidly estimate tissue hemoglobin in real-time spectral imaging applications.
Correlation of microsynteny conservation and disease gene distribution in mammalian genomes
Simon C Lovell, Xiting Li, Nimmi R Weerasinghe, Kathryn E Hentges
BMC Genomics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-10-521
Abstract: We first identified regions of the mouse genome with microsynteny conservation by comparing gene arrangement in the mouse genome to the human, rat, and dog genomes. We then asked if any particular gene types were found preferentially in conserved regions. We found a significant correlation between conserved microsynteny and the density of mouse orthologs of human disease genes, suggesting that disease genes are clustered in genomic regions of increased microsynteny conservation.The correlation between microsynteny conservation and disease gene locations indicates that regions of the mouse genome with microsynteny conservation may contain undiscovered human disease genes. This study not only demonstrates that gene function constrains mammalian genome organization, but also identifies regions of the mouse genome that can be experimentally examined to produce mouse models of human disease.The availability of several mammalian genome sequences has enabled comparative genomic studies to identify regions of conserved linkage among different organisms (reviewed in [1-4]). These studies have been used to predict the genome architecture of the common mammalian ancestor [5,6], as well as to assess recombination [7,8] and genome evolution [9]. Additionally, regulatory elements have been identified by the characterization of conserved regions of non-coding DNA [10-12]. Non-coding functional RNAs and microRNA targets have also been identified through comparative genomic approaches [3,13,14]. Gene function may be inferred from conserved proteins in other species. Likewise, comparative genomics among mammalian species is useful for predicting the functional consequences of mutations in human disease loci [15-18]. Additionally, mapping genes responsible for quantitative traits in rodents allows the prediction of locations of human quantitative traits underlying disease, based on conserved genomic structure between rodents and humans [19-22].Although it is becoming increasingly appa
Image Segmentation Techniques for Noisy Digital Images based upon Fuzzy Logic- A Review and Comparison
Prabhjot Kaur,Nimmi Chhabra
International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications , 2012,
Abstract: This paper presents a comparison of the three fuzzy based image segmentation methods namely Fuzzy C-Means (FCM), TYPE-II Fuzzy C-Means (T2FCM), and Intuitionistic Fuzzy C-Means (IFCM) for digital images with varied levels of noise. Apart from qualitative performance, the paper also presents quantitative analysis of these three algorithms using four validity functions-Partition coefficient (Vpc), Partition entropy (Vpe), Fukuyama-Sugeno (Vfs), and Xie-Beni (Vxb) functions and also compared the performance on the basis of their execution time.
Dynamically tuning away the cosmological constant in effective scalar tensor theories
Nimmi Rooprai,Daksh Lohiya
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: It is known that the cosmological constant can be dynamically tuned to an arbitrary small value in classes of scalar tensor theories. The trouble with such schemes is that effective gravity itself vanishes. We explore the possibility of avoiding this ``no-go'' with a spatially varying effective gravity. We demonstrate this in principle with the non-minimally coupled scalar field having an additional coupling to a fermionic field. The expectation value of the scalar field gets anchored to a non-trivial value inside compact domains. But for the non-minimal coupling to the scalar curvature, these configurations are analogous to the non-topological solutions suggested by Lee and Wick. With non-minimal coupling, this leads to a peculiar spatial variation of effective gravity. As before, one can dynamically have the long distance (global) gravitational constant $G$ and ${\Lambda}$, the cosmological constant, tending to zero. However, inside compact domains, $G$ can be held to a universal (non-vanishing) value. Long distance gravitational effects turn out to be indistinguishable from those expected of general theory of relativity (GTR). There are two ways in which the ensuing theory may lead to a viable effective gravity theory: (a) the compact domains could be of microscopic (sub-nuclear) size, or (b) the domains could be large enough to accommodate structures as large as a typical galaxy. Aspects of effective gravity and cosmology that follow are described. A toy Freidman - Robertson - Walker (FRW) model free from several standard model pathologies and characteristic features emerges.
Advancing Optical Imaging for Breast Margin Assessment: An Analysis of Excisional Time, Cautery, and Patent Blue Dye on Underlying Sources of Contrast
Torre M. Bydlon, William T. Barry, Stephanie A. Kennedy, J. Quincy Brown, Jennifer E. Gallagher, Lee G. Wilke, Joseph Geradts, Nimmi Ramanujam
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051418
Abstract: Breast conserving surgery (BCS) is a recommended treatment for breast cancer patients where the goal is to remove the tumor and a surrounding rim of normal tissue. Unfortunately, a high percentage of patients return for additional surgeries to remove all of the cancer. Post-operative pathology is the gold standard for evaluating BCS margins but is limited due to the amount of tissue that can be sampled. Frozen section analysis and touch-preparation cytology have been proposed to address the surgical needs but also have sampling limitations. These issues represent an unmet clinical need for guidance in resecting malignant tissue intra-operatively and for pathological sampling. We have developed a quantitative spectral imaging device to examine margins intra-operatively. The context in which this technology is applied (intra-operative or post-operative setting) is influenced by time after excision and surgical factors including cautery and the presence of patent blue dye (specifically Lymphazurin?, used for sentinel lymph node mapping). Optical endpoints of hemoglobin ([THb]), fat ([β-carotene]), and fibroglandular content via light scattering (<μs’>) measurements were quantified from diffuse reflectance spectra of lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens using a Monte Carlo model. A linear longitudinal mixed-effects model was used to fit the optical endpoints for the cautery and kinetics studies. Monte Carlo simulations and tissue mimicking phantoms were used for the patent blue dye experiments. [THb], [β-carotene], and <μs’> were affected by <3.3% error with <80 μM of patent blue dye. The percent change in [β-carotene], <μs’>, and [β-carotene]/<μs’> was <14% in 30 minutes, while percent change in [THb] was >40%. [β-carotene] and [β-carotene]/<μs’> were the only parameters not affected by cautery. This work demonstrates the importance of understanding the post-excision kinetics of ex-vivo tissue and the presence of cautery and patent blue dye for breast tumor margin assessment, to accurately interpret data and exploit underling sources of contrast.
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