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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 117848 matches for " T Biniam "
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A survey of viral status on potatoes grown in Eritrea and in vitro virus elimination of a local variety ‘Tsaeda embaba’
T Biniam, M Tadesse
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Potato viruses are the major causes of yield loss and reduction in quality of seed tubers in Eritrea. A study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of viruses in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) grown in Eritrea and to evaluate methods for their elimination. Leaf samples of two indigenous, (Tsaeda embaba and Keyih embaba) and three exotic varieties, (Ajiba, Spunta and Cosmos) were collected from fields growing potatoes in Maekel and Debub Administrative Zones and tested using the double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS ELISA) technique. Five of the six most important potato viruses, PVX, PVY, PLRV, PVS and PVA, were detected in single and multiple infections. Virus elimination techniques were tested using in vitro plantlets of T. embaba established from field-grown tubers. Presence of PVX, PLRV and PVS was confirmed by ELISA test. The plantlets were then subjected to thermotherapy treatment for one and two weeks at 37oC. The treatment was successful in eliminating only PLRV but failed to eliminate PVX and PVS. When meristem culture was combined with thermotherapy treatment for one week all three viruses PVX, PLRV and PVS were eliminated with a success rate of 86, 83 and 100%, respectively.
Effect of Moisture Conservation Methods and Plant Density on the Productivity of Two Maize (Zea mays L.) Varieties under Semi-Arid Tropics of Hamelmalo, Eritrea  [PDF]
Shimendi Gde Okbagabir, N. N. Angiras, Biniam Mesfin Ghebreslassie
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.81003
Abstract: The productivity of maize in Eritrea in general and under semi-arid tropics of Hamelmalo in particular is low because of moisture stress. The low moisture content is ascribed to the low and erratic distribution of rainfall, high temperature, lack of suitable varieties, and competition by weeds and low soil fertility. To overcome some of these problems, a field experiment was carried out to assess the effect of moisture conservation methods (MCM) and plant density on the productivity of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties under semi-arid tropics of Hamelmalo, Eritrea. The experiment was conducted in split-split plot design with three MCM viz tied ridge, ridge and furrow and flat-bed in main plots; two maize varieties viz early local and 04sadve hybrid in sub plots and three plant densities by manipulating the plant to plant distance viz 35 cm, 25 cm and 15 cm at a fixed 75 cm row spacing in sub-sub plots, each replicated thrice. The experiment was focused in addressing the effective moisture conservation techniques, optimum plant density to each variety thus to improve productivity. The crop experienced 10°C to 34.8°C minimum and maximum temperature, respectively and received 429.1 mm total rainfall. The results of the experiment indicated that among all the combinations, 04sadve hybrid variety sown at 75 cm × 25 cm spacing in ridge and furrow method or at 75 cm × 15 cm spacing in tied ridge or flat-bed method and early local variety sown at 75 cm × 15 cm spacing in flat-bed being statistically at par resulted in significantly higher moisture conservation and consequently higher grain yield (4509 kg·ha-1) and higher water use efficiency. It is, therefore, recommended that tied ridge or flat-bed of moisture conservation method at 15 cm plant spacing and 04sadve is preferable to optimize productivity in Hamelmalo area, Eritrea.
Response of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Cultivars to Different Postharvest Preservatives
Biniam Adugna,Derbew Belew,Negussie Kassa
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of selected pulsing solutions on the days to flower bud shrinkage, leaf wilting and petal edge drying occurrence of carnation cultivars (Green-Go and Galy). The pulsing solutions used for this investigation were Silver Thiosulfate (STS) (0.2, 0.6, 1 mM) and also ethanol (6, 8, 10%), both received equal amount of sucrose (10%). Besides, to simulate the actual practice of the farm (0.4 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 0.3 mM T.O.G ) was used as a standard control. Senescence symptoms such as flower bud shrinkage, petal edge drying and leaf wilting were monitored. The results obtained showed that 1 mM STS plus 25 g sucrose achieved rapid petal edge drying for Green-Go cultivar. On the other hand, positive effects were also observed in days to flower bud shrinkage extended by 6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and being in par with 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose for Green-Go cultivar. Subsequently, the standard control, 0.6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose attended comparable increment on the days to leaf wilting occurrences.
Potato Seed Supply, Marketing and Production Constraints in Eritrea  [PDF]
Biniam Mesfin Ghebreslassie, S. Mwangi Githiri, Tadesse Mehari, Remmy W. Kasili
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.524384
Potato is an important vegetable crop in Eritrea contributing significantly to food security. Despite its importance, however, production and thus supply of the crop in the market are limited. The current study is designed to understand the seed supply system, marketing out lets and major production constraints. The survey was conducted in the two main potato producing Zobas of the country (Zoba Maekel and Zoba Debub). Qualitative and quantitative data was generated using focus group discussion (PRA) and semi structured questionnaire, respectively. A total of 20 villages were visited and 138 farmers were interviewed. The finding revealed that there is no standard seed supply system thus majority (91.3%) of the growers purchase seed from open market with a limited supply from the Ministry of Agriculture. Furthermore, about 63% of the farmers from Zoba Maekel reserve their own seed for the next cycle compared to 53.6% from Zoba Debub. It was noted that the Tsaeda embaba variety grows predominantly in the country owing to its yield and resistance. Majority of the growers rely on tuber colour and shape for variety identification, thus over 76% prefer the round shaped and white coloured variety. The potential marketing outlets include wholesale, retailer and direct to consumers. Majority (78.3%) of the interviewed growers indicated that large portion of their produce is marketed via wholesaler followed by retailers (27.5%). Main production limiting constraints are identified as low input supplies, availability and cost of clean seeds, pest pressure while huge market demand and access to transportation are considered as potentials encouraging grower. It is, therefore, recommended that an immediate action to establish sustainable seed supply system is taken into consideration in line with a regular extension service to provide technical advice to growers.
Analysis of Diversity among Potato Accessions Grown in Eritrea Using Single Linkage Clustering  [PDF]
Biniam Mesfin Ghebreslassie, S. Mwangi Githiri, Tadesse Mehari, Remmy W. Kasili
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.613213
Abstract: Potato is an important cash and food crop, a source of income to many small scale farmers in Eritrea. In the long tradition of potato cultivation farmers have adopted a number of landraces. However, very little is known about their genetic diversity which limits further breeding programs to improve productivity. The objective of the study was to characterize potato accessions grown in Eritrea. A total of 21 accessions collected from farmers and NARI were used in this study for characterization employing 33 phenotypic descriptors. Single linkage (nearest neighbor) clustering method using UPGMA employing Euclidean test was used to yield a dendrogram. The clustering generated three main clusters with further sub clusters. The clustering helped to identify accessions that shared the same characteristics and/or that were closely related and vice versa. It was noted that there was no distinct relationship between the clusters groups and geographic sources of accession. Yet, accessions sharing the same name may not necessarily share the same genetic content. Mean deviation of variables for each group from the total mean indicated that Group III followed by group I showed negative deviation in most of the recorded yield related traits. Group I was particularly affected by the presence of two inferior accessions in the group. On the other hand, Group II accessions showed relatively maximum deviation from the total mean and could be recommended for use as parent for any breeding program in Eritrea.
Effect of Potassium Levels on Growth and Productivity of Potato Varieties  [PDF]
Daniel Zeru Zelelew, Sewa Lal, Tesfai Tsegai Kidane, Biniam Mesfin Ghebreslassie
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.712154
Abstract: Potato is one of the priority vegetable crops in the highlands of Eritrea growing as a key component in the livelihood systems of farmers. Potato requires a variety of balanced plant mineral nutrients for growth and development without which yield and qualities of tubers are reduced. Potato growers in Eritrea commonly use Di-ammonium Phosphate, Urea and Farmyard manure while potassium fertilizers are overlooked assuming that the soil is developed from K rich parent material and contains sufficient amount of K to support crop growth. However this assumption is based on the result obtained forty-seven years ago. As a result the yield and quality of potato produced is very low as compared with international standards. Therefore the present experiment was conducted to assess the effect of potassium levels on growth and productivity of potato varieties at Hamelmalo Agricultural College, Eritrea. The experiment was conducted in factorial Randomized Complete Block Design with fifteen treatment combinations of three varieties (Ajiba, Zafira and Picasso) and five potassium levels (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg K2O/ha) replicated thrice. The results of the study showed that both variety and potassium had significant effect on growth and yield parameters. Aerial stem number, leaf number per plant and plant height were increased with increasing K levels from 0 to 150 kg while number of days to maturity was increased in the range of 0 - 300 kg K2O/ha. The result also indicated that variety Ajiba treated with 300 kg K2O/ha produced significantly highest tuber weight (1.14 kg) per plant and tuber yield of 49.38 t/ha. The economic analysis result revealed that maximum gross margin 13,665.816 USD/ha was obtained from the application of 300 kg K2O/ha. On the whole, it gives an impression that using potassium fertilizer according to soil requirements will have good influence on growth and tuber yield.
Effect of malaria on HIV/AIDS transmission and progression
Alemu Abebe,Shiferaw Yitayal,Addis Zelalem,Mathewos Biniam
Parasites & Vectors , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-18
Abstract: Malaria and HIV are among the two most important global health problems of developing countries. They cause more than 4 million deaths a year. These two infections interact bidirectionally and synergistically with each other. HIV infection increases the risk of an increase in the severity of malaria infection and burdens of malaria, which in turn facilitates the rate of malaria transmission. Malaria infection is also associated with strong CD4+ cell activation and up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and it provides an ideal microenvironment for the spread of the virus among the CD4+ cells and for rapid HIV-1 replication. Additionally, malaria increases blood viral burden by different mechanisms. Therefore, high concentrations of HIV-1 RNA in the blood are predictive of disease progression, and correlate with the risk of blood-borne, vertical, and sexual transmission of the virus. Therefore, this article aims to review information about HIV malaria interactions, the effect of malaria on HIV transmission and progression and the implications related to prevention and treatment of coinfection.
Soil transmitted helminths and schistosoma mansoni infections among school children in zarima town, northwest Ethiopia
Abebe Alemu, Asmamaw Atnafu, Zelalem Addis, Yitayal Shiferaw, Takele Teklu, Biniam Mathewos, Wubet Birhan, Simon Gebretsadik, Baye Gelaw
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-189
Abstract: Cross-sectional study was conducted among 319 school children of Zarima town from April 1 to May 25, 2009. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors exposure. Early morning stool samples were collected and a Kato Katz semi concentration technique was used to examine and count parasitic load by compound light microscope. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS-15 version and p-value < 0.05 considered statistically significant.Out of 319 study subjects, 263 (82.4%) of the study participants infected with one or more parasites. From soil transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (22%) followed by Hookworms (19%) and Trichuris trichiura (2.5%). Schistosoma mansoni was also isolated in 37.9% of the study participants. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections showed statistically significant associations with shoe wearing and swimming habit of school children, respectively.Prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH) and S.mansoni was high and the diseases were still major health problem in the study area which alerts public health intervention as soon as possible.Soil transmitted helminthic infections and Schistosomiasis are among the widely spread chronic infections in the world. Globally 2 billion individuals are infected with helminths, out of these majorities live in resource-poor settings [1,2]. World health organization (WHO) estimated the common STHIs in world as: 250 million cases for Ascariasis, 151 million cases of hookworm diseases, 100 million cases of Strongyloidiasis and 45.5 million cases of Trichuriasis [3]. Schistosomiasis is also remains one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in the world. It is endemic in 76 countries and continues to be public health concern in developing countries. Approximately 80% of the 200 million people infected world-wide live in sub-Saharan Africa where Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium are widespread [4,5].The oc
Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Risk Factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia
Abraraw Abate,Biniam Kibret,Eylachew Bekalu,Sendeku Abera,Takele Teklu,Aregawi Yalew,Mengistu Endris,Ligabaw Worku,Zinaye Tekeste
ISRN Parasitology , 2013, DOI: 10.5402/2013/757451
Abstract: Objective. To assess the magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Teda Health Centre from February to April, 2011. Stool samples were collected from 410 study participants and analysed by direct wet mount and formal ether concentration techniques. Furthermore, sociodemographic data were collected by using standardized questionnaire. Result. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in this study was 62.3%. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite (23.2%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (12.4%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (4.6%), Schistosoma mansoni (8.9%), hookworm (6.6%), Hymenolepis nana (1.5%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.2%). Absence of toilet and hand washing after toilet was shown to be associated with intestinal parasitic infection ( for both). Furthermore, swimming and less shoe wearing habits showed a significant prevalence of S. mansoni and hookworm infections, respectively. Conclusion. The present study showed high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in the study area. Absence of toilet and hand washing after toilet was found to be associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Therefore, there is a need for integrated control programme to have a lasting impact on transmission of intestinal parasitic infection. 1. Background The intestinal parasites can be protozoan or helminth living within the body. Generally, these parasites are more common in tropics and subtropics than elsewhere in the world [1, 2]. It is closely associated with low income, poor personal hygiene, environmental sanitation, lack of pure water supply, limited access to clean water, tropical climate, and low altitude [1, 2]. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura are among the most common parasites in the world [2]. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, there are 800–1000 million A. lumbricoides, 700–900 million Hookworm infections, 500 millions T. trichiura, 200 million Giardia intestinalis, and 500 million E. histolytica/dispar cases globally [3]. Despite recent effort to control intestinal parasite infections, the diseases are still the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the world [2]. In Ethiopia, intestinal parasitic infections are the major causes of mortality and morbidity causing a series of public health problems such as malnutrition, anaemia, and growth retardation as well as higher
T.Г. Омельченко,Н.А. Джанджгава
Information Technologies and Learning Tools , 2010,
Abstract: The general characteristic of legal base of electronic document circulation is presented in the article. It legislatively regulates the relations which connected with the information and information communication technologies. There is presented the list of the basic acts of regulation of sphere of information relations. У робот подано загальну характеристику нормативно-правово бази, яка законодавчо регулю в дносини, пов'язан з нформац ю, нформац йно-комун кац йними технолог ями, представлено перел к основних законодавчих акт в регулювання сфери нформац йних в дносин.
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