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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 117805 matches for " T Assefa "
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Survival analysis of patients under chronic HIV-care and antiretroviral treatment at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
T Assefa, E Wencheko
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Health care planning depends upon good knowledge of prevalence that requires a clear understanding of survival patterns of patients who receive medication, treatment and care. Survival analysis can bring to light the effect that some demographic, social, medical and clinical characteristics have on the mortality rate of HIV-patients. Objectives: The objective of this research undertaking was to estimate mortality rate and identify predictors that have significant impact on the survival status of a sample of patients who received antiretroviral treatment and care in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: The data for this research were collected during the follow-up time from 2005 to 2008. Out of a population of HIV-patients who were taking antiretroviral therapy in the hospital in that period, data on 1,000 patients were used for this study. The study subjects were people in the age range from 15 to 75 years. The Kaplan-Meier Method was employed to estimate mortality; the Cox Proportional Hazards Regression Method was used to identify determinants of mortality. Results: After initiation of the antiretroviral treatment, HIV-positive patients lived for an average of 5.65 years (CI: 3.69-7.61 years); the median survival age was found to be 3.98 years (CI: 2.98-4.97 years). The number of medications, baseline functional status, CD4 count, antiretroviral treatment, age, gender and weight impact the survival experience of the patients. Conclusions: Antiretroviral therapy treatment reduced death among AIDS patients by 50 percent. Providing treatment at health facilities outside big towns and in the country should be given due attention. Similar studies in the future need to consider predictors in addition to those considered in this study. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2012;26(1):22-29]
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Emergency Contraceptives among Adama University Female Students, Ethiopia
D Tilahun, T Assefa, T Belachew
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Unwanted pregnancy followed by unsafe abortion is one of the major worldwide health problems, which has many negative consequences on the health and well-being of women. Information about women’s knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives plays a major role in the reduction of unwanted pregnancy; however, there are no studies about this issue in the study area. This study assessed Adama University female students’ knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives. METHOD: A cross-sectional study design was employed from February 1 to 30/2009, on 660 regular undergraduate female students of Adama University. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Logistic regression was used to identify the association between variables and emergency contraceptive knowledge, attitude and practice. P-value less than 0.05 at 95% CI was taken for statistical significance. RESULTS: Of the total, 660 respondents, 194(29.4%) were sexually active, 63(9.4%) had history of pregnancy and 49(7.4%) had history of abortion. About 309 (46.8%) of the students had heard about emergency contraceptives and from those who heard emergency contraceptives, 27.2% had good knowledge. Majority, four hundred fifteen (62.9%) of the students had positive attitude towards it. However, only 31(4.7%) had used emergency contraceptive methods. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated lack of awareness, knowledge and utilization of emergency contraceptives among Adama University female students. Hence behavioral change strategies should be considered by responsible bodies to improve knowledge and bring attitudinal change on use of emergency contraception.
Predictors of emergency contraceptive use among Regular Female Students at Adama University, Central Ethiopia
D Tilahun, T Assefa, T Belachew
Pan African Medical Journal , 2010,
Infection prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in suburbs of Mekelle city, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia
A Assefa, T Dejenie, Z Tomass
Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science , 2013,
Abstract: Schistosomiasis due to infection with Schistosoma mansoniis a public health problem in both tropical and sub tropical countries. Thus, effective control of the disease requires determining its prevalence rate, identifying risk factors of infection and high-risk groups. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of S. mansoni infection and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in suburbs of Mekelle city, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. For this purpose, a cross-sectional parasitological examination wasconducted on457 schoolchildren from November, 2010 to March, 2011. Stool samples were collected and examined by the Kato-Katz technique. Semi-structurered interview questionnaire were administered to the study subjectsto identify possible risk factors of infection with S. mansoni. Furthermore, malacological survey was conducted to check the presence of snail intermediate hosts of S. mansoni in the study area. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni in the schoolchildren was 23.9 %. Higher prevalence was detected in male children (30.71%) than in females (14.12 %) (÷ 2 = 16.642, P = 0.000). On the other hand, the highest (31.2%) prevalence was recorded in children with ages ranging from 10 - 14 years followed by thoseaged 5 - 9 (11.4 %) and 15 - 19 (9.8 %) years (÷ 2 = 23.865, P = 0.000), respectively. This study revealed the association of S. mansoni infection with older age groups, 10 -14 years (OR = 0.114, P = 0.001), time of residence in the study area (OR = 0.462, P = 0.011), water source (OR = 0.371, P = 0.020), previous history of schistosomiasis treatment (OR = 0.246, P = 0.000), frequency of water contact (OR = 26.958, P = 0.004), crossing water bodies (OR = 3.049, P = 0.001), working in an irrigated agricultural field (OR = 7.363, P = 0.000) and distance of home from water bodies (OR = 5.163, P = 0.000). Moreover, this study determined the presence of snail intermediate hosts of S. mansoni in the study areas . Hence, the study areas are considered important epidemiological foci for the transmission of S. mansoni. Therefore, it is necessary to undergo wide scalesurveillance and institute proper control and prevention strategies against infection with Schistosoma mansoni.
Inactivated Vaccine Trial of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in Ethiopia  [PDF]
Legesse Bekele, Temesgen Assefa
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2018.86009
Abstract: The study and entire laboratory works were conducted from December 2014 to April 2015 in National Veterinary Institute, Bishoftu, Ethiopia. Formaldehyde inactivated Montanide ISA70 based Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) trial vaccine strain was confirmed the identity with known primer using PCR from locally isolates of National Veterinary Institute of Ethiopia. This study was aimed to develop formaldehyde inactivated Montanide ISA70 based MG vaccine in Ethiopia. It can help to device strategies in controlling the disease mainly through developing more effective vaccine which will replace the currently being imported vaccines by some farms. After culturing procedure, oil based inactivated MG trial vaccine was produced in suitable clean and secure accommodation. In this study, among different isolates, local isolate of Samuel farm in NVI was prepared and evaluated in chickens. The amount of immune antigen per 0.5 ml of the dose was 107 Colony forming units (CFU) of the bacteria. The trail vaccine was prepared and evaluated at the age of 16 weeks of chickens; the chickens were randomly divided into three groups (A, B and C), each having twenty birds (10 male and 10 female). Each of group B was vaccinated group of imported-live vaccine with 30 μl intraocularly for comparing with inactivated trial vaccine, each bird of group C was inoculated with 0.5 ml indigenous or trial vaccine subcutaneously at mid neck region and group A was used as a control then challenge tests were performed. After challenge test, among non-vaccinated chickens (control or group A) 2 chickens were died (10%), thicken and cloudy appearance of the air sac showed 18 (90%), 2 chickens were not showed thickened and cloudy air sack (10%). Although among vaccinated group (inactivated vaccine or group C), all chickens did not show clinical signs or post mortem changes (100%). From attenuated imported live vaccine (group B), no clinical signs or post mortem changes were observed (100%). It was concluded that oil based MG vaccine induces protective level of anti MG antibodies in chickens.
Low Flow Trends and Frequency Analysis in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Kidist Assefa, Mamaru A. Moges
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2018.102011
Abstract: Low flow analysis provides crucial information for the planning and design water resource development, risk assessment and environmental flow management. Understanding the low flow regimes and evaluating the magnitudes for incorporating in water resources management is vital for the countries like Ethiopia where demand for water is increasing. However, there were hardly enough studies in understanding the trends of low flow and frequency analysis. Therefore, this study focuses on evaluation of the trends in low flows and regional low flow analysis in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia. In order to carry out the study, 15 river sub-basins in the Blue Nile Basin were selected based on the long term data availability and presence of quality of data. The 3-day sustained low flow (3d-slf), the 7-day sustained low flow (7d-slf) and the 14-day sustained low flow (14d-slf) models were used to extract the data from the daily time series stream data obtained from MoWIE. Trends in low flow were analyzed separately by using Mann-Kendall (MK) trend test. Low flow frequency analysis was used to estimate the long term low flow quantiles. In addition, regional analysis for estimating the quantiles for ungaged catchments was also developed based on the regional growth curve and catchment characteristic of drainage basins. The results indicated that 3d-slf, 7d-slf and 14d-slf models of low flow series indicated no significant difference for each station at 95% CI. Out of the 15 selected stations, 12 of stations have indicated decreasing; two stations indicated increasing and remaining one station with no trend. Mainly decreasing trend was associated with the land cover and climate change which results in increasing runoff and evapotranspiration respectively. Weibull distribution—GEV and LGN was found best fit based on the L-Moment Ratio Diagram (L-MRD). Hence quantile estimations have indicated diminishing magnitudes of low flow quintiles for 2 - 500 years return periods. Regional low frequency analysis has provided a very good relationship between discharge and catchment characteristics with an R2 of 0.72. Where area (A) and rainfall (R) followed by slope were found sensitive to compute in developing the regional region equations between mean low flows and the physiographic data. This study indicated that there needs to be a new water management scenario and adaptation mechanism of climate change and land use land cover dynamics for utilizing water resource in the Blue Nile Basin.
Trichiasis ercurrence in Nother Ethiopia: a one year prospecitve study of Trachomatous Trichiasis surgery done by integrated eye care workers
Y Assefa, D Habte, T Yigzaw, A Mekonnen, T Gebrie, T Dubale, M Zerihun
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2008,
The mineral resources potential of Ethiopia
Getaneh Assefa
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 1991,
Abstract: Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop., 5(2), 111-137 (1991).
The Principle of the Presumption of Innocence and its Challenges in the Ethiopian Criminal Process
SK Assefa
Mizan Law Review , 2012,
Abstract: The administration of the criminal justice system tries to strike a balance between the search for truth and the fairness of the process. To this end, the law should protect individual rights and impose various legal burdens on the state. One such tool is the principle of the presumption of innocence until proven guilty. This is a constitutional principle under Ethiopian law and requires the public prosecutor to prove each element constituting the crime which, as argued in this article, should be proved beyond reasonable doubt. However, this principle is being violated by various subsidiary laws, procedures and practices. First, there are various provisions in the criminal law that limit (or arguably disregard) this constitutional principle. Such criminal law provisions assume as proved the existence of some of the elements of certain crimes without requiring the public prosecutor to submit evidence. Second, the Criminal Justice Administration Policy adopted in 2011 contemplates shifting the burden of proof to the defendant in selected serious crimes. Third, the courts also wrongly shift burden of proof to the accused regarding certain facts in various court decisions. These laws and judicial practices deprive the accused of the right to be presumed innocent until proven guilty. This article, inter alia, examines the constitutionality of such shifting of the burden of proof and also analyzes the standards of proof that are required in criminal cases in the Ethiopian context.
The trade and environment debate: the normative and institutional incongruity
SK Assefa
Mizan Law Review , 2008,
Abstract: No
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