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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4295 matches for " Synthesis "
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Jimmy Priatman
Dimensi : Journal of Architecture and Built Environment , 2005,
Abstract: More than two decades, after the emerging of post- modern architecture, the split between construction technology and cultural expression in architecture appeared to become wider and wider. With the exception of a few "high-tech" buildings, the unity of art and applied science (technology) in design seems facing challenges. It is interesting to see how fast and unexpectedly the situation has changed. Many factors and people played a role in this reversal, many new buildings demonstrate that utilitarian artifacts do not have to be oppressive to creativity but can evoke new innovation. One of the most significant contributors was JIN MAO TOWER at Shanghai, China. The paper analyses this building as a genuine synthesis of rational intelligence with art poetry that is still possible. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Lebih dari dua dekade setelah timbulnya arsitektur pasca modern, pemisahan antara tekknologi konstruksi dan ekspresi kultural dalam arsitektur menjadi semakin lebar. Dengan perkecualian beberapa gedung "high-tech", kesatuan antara seni dan teknologi dalam tahap desain terlihat menghadapi tantangan tantangan. Tetapi menarik untuk diamati bahwa situasi telah berubah. Banyak faktor dan tokoh tokoh arsitek memegang peranan penting dalam perubahan ini, banyak bangunan bangunan baru mendemontrasikan bahwa artefak fungsionil tidak bearti menindas kreativitas namun dapat membangkitkan inovasi baru. Salah satu kontributor yang sangat penting adalah JIN MAO TOWER di Shanghai-China. Makalah ini membahas bangunan tersebut sebagai sintesis orijinal yang masih memungkinkan antara kecerdasan rasional dengan puisi seni arsitektur. Kata kunci: Sintesis.
A Modified Sampling Synthesis for a Realistic Simulation of Wind Instruments—The Design and Implementation  [PDF]
M. Pluta, L. J. Spalek, R. J. Delekta
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2016.42028

Sampling synthesis is one of the most practical and widely used approaches among the various sound synthesis methods used for creating a realistic simulation of acoustic instruments. Using numerous high quality sound samples it is possible to reproduce a sound of almost any musical instrument, including subtle variations caused by the registers of an instrument or through the use of different articulation techniques and dynamic levels. However, this method has some disadvantages. Firstly, with high fidelity reproduction systems, the repeatability of samples becomes quickly apparent for more experienced listeners. This is sometimes manually corrected by switching between several different samples of the same note. Secondly, it is standard approach to record and reproduce each note separately. It prevents samplers from reproducing natural note transitions, making fluent, connected articulations, such as legato, unnatural. Finally, samplers provide a very limited number of sound parameters to control. Therefore, it is difficult to introduce a set of purposeful fluctuations of selected parameters uniquely attributable to human performances. A synthesis system which addresses the aforementioned problems has been developed at the Academy of Music in Krakow (Poland) for a group of wind instruments as part of a symphony orchestra. The system is based on a large collection of non-standard samples. Samples contain short sequences of notes instead of single notes. In order to use them, a number of techniques have been implemented to allow the seamless connecting of recorded sequences and the control of note durations as well as tempo and dynamics envelopes. Decision-making algorithms and signal processing are applied to create melodic figures by choosing, modifying, and connecting fragments of samples, while keeping natural note transitions intact. The problem of mimicking human performances is addressed by implementing a set of performance rules. It allows to introduce context-dependent variations into the regular playback of the material contained in the musical notation to properly shape the expression of musical structures, similarly to that of live performances by musicians. This article presents the main modules of the modified sampling synthesis system designed by us as well as its general structure and principle of operation. The modules are responsible for performing musical score analyses, an automatic selection and connection of sound samples, and the application of performance rules.

Selective and Clean Cyclohexene-Promoted Oxidation and Photooxidation by Air  [PDF]
Grigoriy Sereda, Vikul Rajpara
Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2011.12005
Abstract: A simple and environmentally friendly selective procedure for cyclohexene-promoted photooxidation of p-xylene, ethylbenzene, and cumene by air in the presence of a pristine or oxidized carbonaceous material is reported. Depending on the catalyst and conditions, the reaction yields either of the following industrially important products: 4-methylbenzyl hydroperoxide, 4-methylbenzoic acid, 1-phenylethyl hydroperoxide, 2-phenyl-2-propanol, acetophenone with high selectivity and practical extent of conversion. Exposure the reaction mixture to ambient light further increased the yields. Improved performance of oxidized graphite has demonstrated the potential of surface modification for the design of novel carbonaceous catalysts.
Designing and Synthesis of New Fluorine Substituted Pyrimidine-Thion-5-Carbonitriles and the Related Derivatives as Photochemical Probe Agents for Inhibition of Vitiligo Disease  [PDF]
Mohammed S. T. Makki, Dina A. Bakhotmah, Reda M. Abdel-Rahman, Mohammed S. El-Shahawy
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2012.223043
Abstract: A new biocidal agents fluorine substituted-3-thioxopyrimidine-5-carbonitriles (2-9) and/or the related fluorine substi- tuted pyrimido (4,5-d) pyrimidines (10-14) were synthesized by the cycloaddition of fluorinated β- arylidine malo- nonitriles (1a-c) followed by a nucleophilic attack against α,β-bifunctional reagents in different conditions. Structures of the fluorine targets were characterized by their elemental analysis and spectral data (UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass measurements) and further evaluated as photochemical probe for inhibition of Vitiligo, it was found that compounds 5, 9, 11 and 12 exhibited high potency over the investigated compounds.
Systematic Review of New Trends in Antitubercular Synthesis and Analysis  [PDF]
Blasie Dackouo, Dominique Patomo Arama
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2019.71001
Abstract: Many researches are undertaken to develop antibiotics to treat resistant tuberculosis. This review discusses new trends in research undertaken on new antituberculars reported to date, with a particular attention on their synthesis and analysis.
Flame Aerosol Synthesis of Freestanding ZnO Nanorods  [PDF]
Vishwanath Gandikota, Yangchuan Xing
Advances in Nanoparticles (ANP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/anp.2014.31002

ZnO can be made into many nanostructures that have unique properties for advanced applications, such as piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials. ZnOnanorod is one of the nanostructures that possess advanced properties. This paper reports a gas phase flame process to continuously synthesize aerosols of ZnOnanorods in large quantities. Unlike previous work, our process shows that pure ZnOnanorods can be made in a freestanding form rather than growing on a substrate surface. It was found that the ZnOnanorods preferentially grow in the thermodynamically stable direction [001] in the gas phase with different aspect ratios, depending on flame process conditions. The ZnOnanorod aerosols are highly crystalline and have a hexagonal geometry. Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopic studies showed that there are no structural defects in the nanorods, which have energy band gap of 3.27 eV in the near UV region. It was demonstrated that the gas phase flame reactor can provide a convenient means for continuous production of highly pure aerosols of ZnOnanorods.

Microwave Assisted Peptide Synthesis as a New Gold Standard in Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis: Phospholamban as an Example  [PDF]
Shadi Abu-Baker, Philip Garber, Bryce Hina, Trevor Reed, Ghaffari Shahrokh, Mohannad Al-Saghir, Gary Lorigan
Open Journal of Synthesis Theory and Applications (OJSTA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojsta.2014.31001

In this study, we report the microwave assisted synthesis of Phospholamban protein (WT-PLB) as a new gold standard in solid phase peptide synthesis. Microwave energy offers benefits for both the coupling and deprotection reactions during peptide synthesis. The use of microwave energy for both the coupling and deprotection steps makes the microwave peptide synthesizers the most versatile and powerful systems available. It produces high yield and fast synthesis when compared to conventional peptide synthesizers.

NaBH4 Sodalites, Synthesized by Modified Methods: (1) Autothermal Synthesis and (2) Crossover Reaction from Gel to Melt Flow  [PDF]
J.-Ch. Buhl
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2017.72009
Abstract: NaBH4 sodalites were obtained by two new modified methods of crystallization: (1) autothermal synthesis and (2) crystallization with crossover from gel to melt flow in NaOH flux. Syntheses results were presented according to XRD, SEM and FTIR. Besides important features of both synthesis procedures product properties like crystal size and morphology were investigated. Spherical agglomerates of microcrystalline sodalite of composition Na7[AlSiO4]6BH4(H2O)2 were already observed after 4 h without any external heating by the autothermal procedure. Sodalites of the same average composition but in form of agglomerated nanoparticles are crystallized after very short times (2 h 30’) by the crossover reaction from gel to melt flow. Hydrogen release by heating was further studied for two selected samples with comparable composition from each synthesis procedure. Total hydrogen release by hydrolysis reaction with the internal cage water was found during heating of the autothermal product in synthetic air up to 550°C. In contrast hydrogen release from the nanocrystalline sample of crossover synthesis was not completed when heated under the same conditions. These differences were discussed in terms of crystal size and an earlier loss of the internal water from the nanocrystals of the crossover synthesis
Optimization of Impedance Plane Reducing Coupling between Antennas  [PDF]
Yong S. Joe, Jean-Fran?ois D. Essiben, Eric R. Hedin, Jacquie Thérèse N. Bisse, Jаcques Mаtаngа
Wireless Engineering and Technology (WET) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wet.2011.21001
Abstract: This paper provides a solution for the design optimization of two-dimensional impedance structures for a given elec-tromagnetic field distribution. These structures must provide electromagnetic compatibility between antennas located on a plane. The optimization problem is solved for a given attenuation of the complete field. Since the design optimiza-tion gives a complex law of impedance distribution with a large real part, we employ the method of pointwise synthesis for the optimization of the structure. We also consider the design optimization case where the structure has zero im-pedance on its leading and trailing edges. The method of moments is used to solve the integral equations and the nu-merical solution is presented. The calculated impedance distribution provides the required level of antenna decoupling. The designs are based on the concept of soft and hard surfaces in electromagnetics.
Synthesis and fungicidal activity of some sulphide derivatives of O-phenyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates  [PDF]
F. E. Adelowo, I. A. O. Ojo, O. S. Amuda
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2011.13015
Abstract: Monosulphides of O-phenyl-N-substituted phenylcar- bamates were prepared by the reaction between O- phenyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates and sulph- ur dichloride while the corresponding disulphides were prepared by the reaction between O-phenyl-N- substituted phenylcarbamates and sulphur monoch- loride. The synthesized compounds were characte-rized by elemental analysis, thin layer chromatogra-phy (TLC), Fourier-transform infrared, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques. In vitro fungicidal assay of these sulphides against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus stolonifer showed that they were more fungicidal than their parent carbamates. The synthesized sulphides were more active towards As-pergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. There was little or no variations in the fungicidal activities of the synthesized monosulphides and disulphides of O-phen- yl-N-substituted phenyl carbamates.
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