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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1632 matches for " Sylvain Desprez "
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Slippery or sticky ! Control of wrinkling patterns by selective adhesion
Hugues Vandeparre,Julien Léopoldès,Christophe Poulard,Sylvain Desprez,Gwennaelle Derue,Cyprien Gay,Pascal Damman
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: Wrinkling patterns at the metallized surface of thin polymer films are shown to be sensitive to the sticky or slippery character of the polymer/substrate interface (titanium coating, polystyrene film and coated silicon substrate). Selective prefered wrinkle orientation and amplitude are achieved. Existing theoretical models are expanded to specific boundary conditions (adhesive vs slippery) and rationalize these observations.
Architecture of an Antagonistic Tree/Fungus Network: The Asymmetric Influence of Past Evolutionary History
Corinne Vacher, Dominique Piou, Marie-Laure Desprez-Loustau
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001740
Abstract: Background Compartmentalization and nestedness are common patterns in ecological networks. The aim of this study was to elucidate some of the processes shaping these patterns in a well resolved network of host/pathogen interactions. Methology/Principal Findings Based on a long-term (1972–2005) survey of forest health at the regional scale (all French forests; 15 million ha), we uncovered an almost fully connected network of 51 tree taxa and 157 parasitic fungal species. Our analyses revealed that the compartmentalization of the network maps out the ancient evolutionary history of seed plants, but not the ancient evolutionary history of fungal species. The very early divergence of the major fungal phyla may account for this asymmetric influence of past evolutionary history. Unlike compartmentalization, nestedness did not reflect any consistent phylogenetic signal. Instead, it seemed to reflect the ecological features of the current species, such as the relative abundance of tree species and the life-history strategies of fungal pathogens. We discussed how the evolution of host range in fungal species may account for the observed nested patterns. Conclusion/Significance Overall, our analyses emphasized how the current complexity of ecological networks results from the diversification of the species and their interactions over evolutionary times. They confirmed that the current architecture of ecological networks is not only dependant on recent ecological processes.
Left Eigenvector of a Stochastic Matrix  [PDF]
Sylvain Lavalle′e
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2011.14023
Abstract: We determine the left eigenvector of a stochastic matrix M associated to the eigenvalue 1 in the commutative and the noncommutative cases. In the commutative case, we see that the eigenvector associated to the eigenvalue 0 is (N1,Nn) , where Ni is the ith iprincipal minor of N=MIn , where In is the identity matrix of dimension n. In the noncommutative case, this eigenvector is (P1-1,Pn-1) , where Pi is the sum in Q《αij》 of the corresponding labels of nonempty paths starting from i and not passing through i in the complete directed graph associated to M .
Encoding of local and global cues in domestic dogs’ spatial working memory  [PDF]
Sylvain Fiset, Nathalie Malenfant
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2013.33A001
Abstract: The current study investigated whether domestic dogs encode local and/or global cues in spatial working memory. Seven dogs were trained to use a source of allocentric information (local and/or global cues) to locate an attractive object they saw move and disappear behind one of the three opaque boxes arrayed in front of them. To do so, after the disappearance of the target object and out of the dogs’ knowledge, all sources of allocentric information were simultaneously shifted to a new spatial position and the dogs were forced to follow a U-shaped pathway leading to the hiding box. Out of the seven dogs that were trained in the detour problem, only three dogs learned to use the cues that were moved from trial to trial. On tests, local (boxes and experimenter) and/or global cues (walls of the room) were systematically and drastically shifted to a new position in the testing chamber. Although they easily succeeded the control trials, the three dogs failed to use a specific source of allocentric information when local and global cues were put in conflict. In discussion, we explore several hypotheses to explain why dogs have difficulties to use allocentric cues to locate a hidden object in a detour problem and why they do not differentiate the local and global cues in this particular experimental setting.
Main Features of a Complete Ultrasonic Measurement Model: Formal Aspects of Modeling of Both Transducers Radiation and Ultrasonic Flaws Responses  [PDF]
Michel Darmon, Sylvain Chatillon
Open Journal of Acoustics (OJA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oja.2013.33A008

This paper aims at describing the theoretical fundamentals of a reciprocity-based ultrasonic measurement model. This complete inspection simulation can be decomposed in two modeling steps, one dedicated to transducer radiation and one to flaw scattering and echo synthesis. The physical meaning of the input/output signals used in these two modeling tools is defined and the theoretical principles of both field calculation and echo computation models are then detailed. The influence on the modeling results of some changes in the simulated configuration (as the incident angle) or some input signal parameters (like the frequency) are studied: it is thus theoretically established that the simulated results can be compared between each other in terms of amplitude for numerous applications when changing some inspection parameters in the simulation but that a calibration for echo calculation is generally required.

Endogenous Choice of Managerial Incentives in a Mixed Duopoly with a Foreign Private Firm  [PDF]
Kadohognon Sylvain Ouattara
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.62029
Abstract: This paper studies the endogenous choice of managerial incentives in a mixed duopoly where a public firm competes with a foreign private firm. The foreign firm is partly owned by domestic investors and the firm’s owners have the option to hire a manager. We focus on a new incentive scheme of public firm’s managers that is a linear combination of social welfare and sales revenue. In equilibrium we find that when the weight attached to the foreign firm’s profits in social welfare is high enough, only the public firm hires a manager. This is in contrast with the classical sales delegation contract used in existing literature.
Invariants and Other Structural Properties of Biochemical Models as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem
Sylvain Soliman
Algorithms for Molecular Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1748-7188-7-15
Abstract: In our case, this analysis brings both qualitative and quantitative information on the models, in the form of conservation laws, consistency checking, etc. thanks to finite domain constraint programming. It is noticeable that some of the most recent optimizations of standard invariant computation techniques in Petri nets correspond to well-known techniques in constraint solving, like symmetry-breaking. Moreover, we show that the simple and natural encoding proposed is not only efficient but also flexible enough to encompass sub/sur-invariants, siphons/traps, etc., i.e., other Petri net structural properties that lead to supplementary insight on the dynamics of the biochemical system under study.A simple implementation based on GNU-Prolog's finite domain solver, and including symmetry detection and breaking, was incorporated into the BIOCHAM modelling environment and in the independent tool Nicotine. Some illustrative examples and benchmarks are provided.Reaction models like those of reactome.org, KEGG pathway database [1] or biomodels.net represent a growing part of Systems Biology especially for metabolic or signalling pathways, cell-cycle and more generally post-genomic regulation systems. They build on established standards like BioPAX or SBML [2] to facilitate the exchange and comparison of models and benefit from a large number of available tools, especially ODE integration based simulators.The use of Petri nets to represent those models, taking into account the difference between compounds and reactions in the graph, and make available various kinds of analyses is quite old [3], however it remains somehow focused towards mostly qualitative and structural properties. Some have been used for module decomposition, like (I/O) T-invariants [4,5], related to dynamical notions of elementary flux modes [6]. However, there is, to our knowledge, very little use of P-invariant computation, which provides both qualitative information about some notion of module related to
Freeze-Casting of Porous Biomaterials: Structure, Properties and Opportunities
Sylvain Deville
Materials , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ma3031913
Abstract: The freeze-casting of porous materials has received a great deal of attention during the past few years. This simple process, where a material suspension is simply frozen and then sublimated, provides materials with unique porous architectures, where the porosity is almost a direct replica of the frozen solvent crystals. This review focuses on the recent results on the process and the derived porous structures with regards to the biomaterials applications. Of particular interest is the architecture of the materials and the versatility of the process, which can be readily controlled and applied to biomaterials applications. A careful control of the starting formulation and processing conditions is required to control the integrity of the structure and resulting properties. Further in vitro and in vivo investigations are required to validate the potential of this new class of porous materials.
Contemporaneo e política
Lazarus, Sylvain;
Educa??o & Realidade , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S2175-62362012000200004
Abstract: the article deals with the crisis of politics and of the contemporary as a result of a name capture from the state field. regarding politics, all the attempts since 1968 of reconstituting it away from the state, from the point of view of people and the interior of situations, are now over. there is also a reflection about the separate nature of the state and about the thinking of people and the forms of subjectivity. therefore, this text aims at evaluating the rupture of thinking using the thesis that the contemporary nature of the state as a separate state is incompatible with the thinking of people guided to the possible. the article searches, at the end, questions the anthropological discipline and what it can enunciate about the contemporary today.
A vis?o do Paraguai no Brasil
Souchaud, Sylvain;
Contexto Internacional , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-85292011000100006
Abstract: in this paper, i investigate the image of paraguay that is conveyed in brazil, how it is constructed and what forms it. i am interested both in the interpretation of historical events that marked relations between the two countries, and selective spatial representations of paraguay circulating in brazil. particular attention is paid to the brazilian perceptions and representations of migration flows that form on either side of the international border, this is to say brazilian migrants in paraguay and paraguayan migrants in brazil, because international migrations, as contact situations, are responsible for the production of reciprocal representations
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