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FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF A MATRIX-TYPE TRANSDERMAL PATCH CONTAINING RIVASTIGMINE TARTRATE
SWETHA VENNAPOOSA,DEVAREDDY SANDEEP
International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research , 2013,
Abstract: Rivastigmine tartrate is an effective reverse cholinesterase inhibitor which binds to both the esteratic and ionic sites of AchE, preventing the enzyme from metabolizing Ach, resulting in higher levels of Ach in the brain. (In Alzheimer’s disease lower levels of Ach leads to impaired memory (dementia) and learning). Thus Rivastigmine tartrate is used in the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of Alzheimer’s disease. Though the drug is rapidly and completely absorbed following oral administration, it shows significant first-pass effect. Its half life is about 1.5 hrs. Gastro intestinal side effects like vomiting, diarrhea, increased acid secretion in stomach and reduced heart rates are reported. The drug Rivastigmine tartrate posses suitable characteristics such as low daily doses (1.5 to 6 mg twice daily), short half-life (1.5 hrs), low molecular weight (400.43 gms) and low melting point (123oC - 127oC) which is suitable for incorporation of drug in transdermal drug delivery system. These properties make Rivastigmine tartrate as a model drug for exploring its application as transdermal drug delivery system. To develope a matrix-type transdermal patch containing Rivastigmine tartrate using blend of polymers PVP and EC in the ratios 1:1, 1:3 and 1:5 with 30% Dibutyl phthalate as a plasticizer.
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATIONS OF DICHROSTACHYS CINEREA
Swetha Vennapoosa,Devareddy Sandeep,K. Sumathi,N. Senthil Kumar
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: In underdeveloped countries, traditional and herbal medicines including folk medicinal practice scatters to nearly 70% of the population because of accessibility, affordability and the time tested dependability. They still depend on herbal medicine because of the side effect of most of the modern drugs. The medicinal activities are due to the presence of active principle in them. We have chosen the plant Dichrostachys cinerea (L) belonging to the family Mimosaceae for preliminary phyto chemical screening and to study the antimicrobial activity. Dichrostachys cinerea are traditionally used for antimicrobial, anticonvulsant. astringent (root); antihelminthic, purgative, laxative and diuretic (bark). In medicine, bark is used to alleviate headache, toothache, dysentery, elephantiasis and root infusions are consumed to treat leprosy, syphilis coughs, as an anthelmintic, purgative and strong diuretic. The leaves are particularly useful and can be taken to treat epilepsy and can also be taken as a diuretic and laxative, and its powder can be used in the massage of fractures. Based on the ethano pharmacological information’s, the present study is focused to evaluate Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial activity.
Multicasting Hierarchical Routing Protocol of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
B. Swetha
International Journal of Technological Exploration and Learning , 2013,
Abstract: A Mobile adhoc network (MANETs) is a collectionof wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a network without using any centralized access point, infrastructure or centralized administration multicasting is an useful operation that facilitates group communication efficient and scalable .Multicast routing in MANETs is a difficult issue. In addition to the conventional multicast routing algorithms, recent protocols have adopted are overlays, backbone-based, and stateless.To enhance performance and enable scalability, we have proposed a framework for hierarchical multicasting in MANETs environment. Two classes of hierarchical multicasting approaches termed as domain based and overlaybased are proposed. We have considered a verity of approaches that are suitable for different mobility patterns and multicast group size.
Anatomic Features of Distal Anterior Cerebral Artery Supply on Corpus Callosum: A Detailed Study on 140 Cerebral Hemispheres
B. SWETHA
Journal of Neurological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The vascularisation pattern of the distal anterior cerebral artery remains a subject of debate to neurovascular surgeons. To elucidate this further, study has been conducted on seventy cadaveric brains (140 hemispheres) by dissection method. The length, diameter and branches in the course of the arteries supplying the Corpus Callosum were observed. The present study is undertaken to highlight the variations in the distal ACA diameter / length of different segments, course, branches and mode of supply to Corpus Callosum which will be helpful for the surgeons intraoperatively.
HPLC Method Development and Validation of S(-)-Carvedilol from API and Formulations  [PDF]
Ettireddy Swetha, Chandupatla Vijitha, Ciddi Veeresham
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2015.65043
Abstract: A simple chiral HPLC method was developed and validated for quantification of S(-)-Carvedilol in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) and marketed tablet formulation of racemic Carvedilol. Chiral resolution of enantiomers of Carvedilol was achieved on Phenomenex Lux-cellulose–4 (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5 μ particle size) chiral column by using a mobile phase, Isopropanol and n-Heptane (60:40 v/v), at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and by employing UV detection at 254 nm wavelength. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines and was proved to be specific, linear, precise and accurate for the analysis of S(-)-Carvedilol.
Influence of Material Condition on the Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Spring Steels  [PDF]
K. V. Arun, K.V. Swetha
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.104023
Abstract: During the past two decades, considerable efforts have been made in the development of high performance spring steels to meet the needs for weight and savings in the automotive industry. During the service the suspension system will be subjected to different environmental conditions, at the same time it has to sustain a variety of loads acting on it. Among all the wear of spring steel plays a vital role. In this experimental analysis an attempt has been made to investigate the performance of spring steel (EN-47 / SUP 10) under the dry sliding condition. The specimen preparation and the experimentations have been carried out according to the ASTM G99 standards. The effects of tempering and cryogenic treatments on the performance of the spring steel have also been determined. The results have revealed that the material condition has got a significant influence on the performance of the spring steel. In order to analyze the percentage contribution of different wear parameter and the material condition, the DOE and ANOVA have been made. The results have shown that the load (49.205%) has shown the highest influence and the material condition has shown 22.56% of contribution on wear behavior.
Development and Validation of a High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic Method for Quantitative Analysis of Saxagliptin  [PDF]
Salvala Srividya, Ettireddy Swetha, Ciddi Veeresham
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2015.610076
Abstract: A simple, specific, accurate and precise high performance thin layer chromatographic method (HPTLC) was developed for the quantitative analysis of Saxagliptin in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method was achieved using silica gel aluminum plate 60 F254 (10 × 10 cm) as stationary phase and Methanol:Chloroform (6:4 v/v) as mobile phase. The developed plate was scanned densitometrically using UV 222 nm wavelength. The Rf value of Saxagliptin was found to be 0.50 ± 0.02. The developed method was validated according to ICH guidelines. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of Saxagliptin by this method were found as 7.96 ng/spot and 26.54 ng/spot, respectively. The method was found to be sensitive, specific, linear, accurate, precise and robust for the quantitative analysis of Saxagliptin in both APIs and marketed tablet formulation.
Sleep and Diabetes
Swetha Bopparaju,Salim Surani
International Journal of Endocrinology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/759509
Abstract: Sleep apnea is clinically recognized as a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by recurrent apnea and/or hypopnea. Its prevalence ranges from 4% to 24%. It has been implicated as an independent risk factor for several conditions such as hypertension, stroke, arrhythmia, and myocardial infarction. Recently data has been emerging which suggests an independent association of obstructive sleep apnea with several components of the metabolic syndrome, particularly insulin resistance and abnormalities in lipid metabolism. We hereby review the salient features of the association between sleep and diabetes. 1. Introduction Sleep apnea is clinically recognized as a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by recurrent apneas (complete cessation of breathing) and/or hypopnea (decrease in airflow with desaturation of 4%) [1]. It is estimated that obstructive sleep apnea may affect at least 2%–4% of the general population, with prevalence estimates that may be much higher based on demographic variables such as age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) [2]. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was defined as the total number of obstructive apneas (cessation of airflow for at least 10 seconds) and hypopneas (decrease of the airflow signal amplitude by at least 50% accompanied by oxyhemoglobin desaturation of at least 4% or by an arousal) per hour of sleep [3]. An AHI of 10 or higher and excessive day-time somnolence has also been used to define obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), finding similar figures in a large cohort of male subjects [4]. Data from Sleep in America poll by The National Sleep Foundation showed that approximately 25% of adults and 57% of obese individuals are at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) [5]. Sleep apnea has been implicated as an independent risk factor for hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke [6]. Diabetes Mellitus is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination survey indicate that 5.1% of adults in the United States have physician diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus and an additional 2.7% meet the criteria of diabetes but remain undiagnosed [7]. Given the pandemic of obesity, the prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus(DM) and metabolic syndrome has also increased dramatically over the last decade [8–12]. DM affects approximately 6% of adults in the United States [13]. There have been several studies which have suggested an independent association of obstructive sleep apnea with several components of metabolic syndrome, particularly insulin resistance
Network security protocol with cryptography and RFID system
P. SWETHA,R. SUKANYA
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET) , 2013,
Abstract: Wireless communication is very common and widely applicable technique in communication field. In these field new techniques invented that is called RFID technique, in which object having RFID tags on them are being accessed in radio frequency region. Cryptography (method involves the both process “encryption” and “decryption”) is widely used in network system’s security. It is also the ancient method of encoding the original messages for transmission.On the other side The RFID technology recently has gained enormous attention in various field like in database maintenances(in the library management system), media, industry and as well as in network security. In the Radio frequency identification (RFID) use of an object (typically referred to as RFID tag) applied to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person (user) for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves. Each member has its unique id or RFID tag. However security and privacy pose significant challenges on the system.This paper will describe about the brief introduction of the old and dynamic method employed for network security that is cryptography. Cryptographic technique is widely applicable in network security field but still we are suffering from hacking and unauthorized access. Hence we have introduced a new idea for being applicable in security field that is RFID technique. Here we will describe its various applications in various fields and how it can be implemented in network security. The security and privacy issues of RFID and their solutions will also be discussed. And the future possible ideas for the new technologies will also be discussed.
A Security Design combining the advantages of Cryptanalysis and Anonymous routing protocol to achieve data secrecy and anonymity
Varsha Waingankar , Swetha S
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Since internet is widely used these days , users privacy has become the main concern. Privacy is related to anonymity .Basic requirement for anonymity is to unlink the user’s identity to specific activities such as in a untraceable e-cash system and P2P payment systems. To provide anonymity various techniques are made use of such as identity based cryptography, blind messages, pseudonyms and ticket based protocol. But only the use of cryptography will not provide with the existence of confidential communication so anonymous routing protocol used along with cryptography helps to achieve better anonymity. With the use of anonymous routing protocol multiple packets cannot be linked to have originated from the same client . Hence the real network identity will be concealed making it difficult to find the client and the confidential relationship between the parties involved in communication.
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