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Functional Brain Correlates of Upper Limb Spasticity and Its Mitigation following Rehabilitation in Chronic Stroke Survivors
Svetlana Pundik,Adam D. Falchook,Jessica McCabe,Krisanne Litinas,Janis J. Daly
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/306325
Abstract: Background. Arm spasticity is a challenge in the care of chronic stroke survivors with motor deficits. In order to advance spasticity treatments, a better understanding of the mechanism of spasticity-related neuroplasticity is needed. Objective. To investigate brain function correlates of spasticity in chronic stroke and to identify specific regional functional brain changes related to rehabilitation-induced mitigation of spasticity. Methods. 23 stroke survivors (>6 months) were treated with an arm motor learning and spasticity therapy (5?d/wk for 12 weeks). Outcome measures included Modified Ashworth scale, sensory tests, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for wrist and hand movement. Results. First, at baseline, greater spasticity correlated with poorer motor function ( ) and greater sensory deficits ( ). Second, rehabilitation produced improvement in upper limb spasticity and motor function ( ). Third, at baseline, greater spasticity correlated with higher fMRI activation in the ipsilesional thalamus ( , ). Fourth, following rehabilitation, greater mitigation of spasticity correlated with enhanced fMRI activation in the contralesional primary motor ( , ), premotor ( , ), primary sensory ( , ), and associative sensory ( , ) regions while controlling for changes in motor function. Conclusions. Contralesional motor regions may contribute to restoring control of muscle tone in chronic stroke. 1. Introduction Motor rehabilitation is a challenging task especially for individuals who exhibit spasticity along with motor impairment. Spasticity can limit effective practice of coordinated movement and hinder functional recovery and rehabilitation [1–3]. In fact, a more complete restoration of motor function is achieved when spasticity is absent [4]. The obstacle that spasticity creates for upper limb rehabilitation is due to restriction of movement, in opposition to the spastic muscle activity, as in practice of wrist and finger extension when wrist and finger flexors exhibit spasticity. Spasticity burdens a significant portion of patients with chronic motor deficits, secondary to stroke and other types of brain injury. Up to 42% of stroke survivors exhibit abnormal hypertonia [4–8]. This abnormally elevated muscle tone is likely to impact quality of life because it affects many aspects of everyday function, produces pain and discomfort, and prevents normal movements [3, 9]. Spasticity can be improved to some degree. Currently available treatment modalities for spasticity include pharmacological agents (oral preparations, neuromuscular blockade
Optical Constants for MBE n-Type GaAs Films Doped by Si or Te between 1.50-4.75 eV  [PDF]
Svetlana N. Svitasheva
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2010.26046
Abstract: The thickness and spectral dependence of the complex refractive index of upper layer in thin-film MBE-grown GaAs heterostructures were calculated basing on an classical oscillatory model of dielectric function from spectra measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry (nondestructive, contactless optical method) in the range of 1.5-4.75 eV.
Traditional Institutions and Knowledge of Siberian Aboriginal Community  [PDF]
Svetlana Panakarova, Maxim Vlasov
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.49061

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the perspectives of the use of traditional knowledge in national socio-economic development in general and in the development of local communities of aboriginal nations of Siberia in particular. This study aims to analyze the traditional economic activity with the help of the questionnaire of 1500 respondents (from different ethnic groups) in different parts of the Siberian region—Khakasia. The results of empirical research have shown that in Khakas communities traditional kinds of activity are extended and they are of great importance for people as earlier. The comparative analysis of labor productivity in animal husbandry and wildlife management allows to draw a conclusion of the positive influence of traditional knowledge in these fields of activity. Some clusters of traditional economic institutions of the indigenous people of Southern Siberia have been identified such as: institutions for corporate property of land, institutions for private property of cattle, institutions for labor mutual aid, institutions for wandering, institutions for communal managements. The results of evolution of traditional institutions and their current state are presented. Even the transformed institutions are accepted by members of national communities as earlier. Therefore they can become the effective instrument of social and economic development of indigenous people territories. The spiraling process of traditional knowledge of Khakas people is explained in the SECI Model. According to the research, regarding the Khakas community, the management process of knowledge has to include three types of economic agents: local government authorities, entrepreneurs, members of Khakas community. Three strategies to manage the traditional knowledge are recommended such as: animal husbandry development, commercialization of traditional wildlife management, realization of a state policy taking into consideration the existence of traditional institutions. The research demonstrates the traditional knowledge may be the factor of economic increase and social development for local society. Moreover, it is a national heritage and it needs to be managed.

Social-Psychological Model of the “Migration Circle”: Potential Emigrants, Migrants,Remigrants  [PDF]
Svetlana Gurieva, Tamara Kinunen
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.211023
Abstract: А fundamentally new model of “migration circle” is considered in accordance with modern theo-ries of migration and adaptation. This model is represented in the following basic stages: starting- up (the potential emigrants), the main (directly emigrants), and final (re-emigrants). The benchmark analysis of values and dominant ethnic tendencies of migrants residing at different stages of migration (at the miscellaneous points of the “migration circle”) has revealed the existing of the significant differences in the value preferences’ structure, dominant ethnic tendencies, social and cultural distance. The received data allow forecasting accurate to 72% the emigrants’ success of adaptation to a new social and cultural environment. Accumulating during the investigation scientific theoretical material allows finding solution of many practical problems arising at the threshold of emigration (potential emigrants) either in situations of the return to Motherland (re-emigrants).
How Did the Yakuts Fortify Themselves against the Cold?  [PDF]
Svetlana Ivanovna Petrova
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.33017
Abstract: This article is dedicated to the analysis of the heat-insulating function of winter clothes and personal cold-protective equipments (protectors), which grew out of use at the beginning of the XX century and now are kept in different museum funds. The author pays the main attention to the description of the material, production technologies, and functional heat-insulating properties of the traditional winter clothes and protectors. The article also discusses ethnocultural parallels of the traditional clothes.
The relationship of mineral and geochemical composition to artificial radionuclide partitioning inYenisei river sediments downstream frommining-and-chemical combine rosatom  [PDF]
Bondareva Lydia, Artamonova Svetlana
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.37073
Abstract: Discharges from the Mining-and-Chemical Com- bine (MCC) of Rosatom, downstream from Krasnoyarsk-26, near of the Krasnoyarsk resulted in radioactive contamination of sedi-ments of the River Yenisei. The concentration of artificial gammaemitting radionuclides (137Cs, 60Co, 152Eu, and 241Am) was determined to analyze the migration processes leading to the transport of these radionuclides. The concentration of artificial radionuclides in the surface layers of the studied area varied in wide ranges: 137Cs – 318 - 1800 Bq/kg, 60Co – 87 - 720 Bq/kg, 152Eu – 12 - 287 Bq/kg and 241Am – 6 - 76 Bq/kg. There was a sequence of migration of radionuclides investigated in the surface layer of sedi-ments that were collected in the near zone of influence of the MCC: 241Am ≈ 152Eu >60Co >137Cs. Radionuclide species have been found to be directly related to sediment structure and composition.
Calcitonin Participant in the Development of Insulin Resistance  [PDF]
Svetlana Stepanovna Moisa
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2017.107026
Abstract: The review contains contemporary literature data about calcitonin role in the development of insulin resistance and its potential role in the pathogenesis of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances. Analogues disturbances revealed under diabetes mellitus and under calcitonin treatment are considered. Literature data about hormone diabetogenicity are discussed. The analysis of experimental and literature data testifies that calcitonin under unfavorable conditions (age, obesity, stress) against the background of the decreasing of functional activity of insular apparatus can lead to the development of metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. It is shown that calcium channel blockers inhibit calcitonin effect leads to glucose intolerance and decreases tissue insulin sensitivity. In this connection a question about direct influence on calcium mechanisms of endocrine system as possible method of drug therapy is discussed.
Aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos da neurocisticercose no Brasil: análise crítica
Agapejev, Svetlana;
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-282X2003000500022
Abstract: with the objective to show the characteristics of neurocysticercosis (ncc) in brazil, was performed a critical analysis of national literature which showed a frequency of 1.5% in autopsies and 3.0% in clinical studies, corresponding to 0.3% of all admissions in general hospitals. in seroepidemiological studies the positivity of specific reactions was 2.3%. brazilian patient with ncc presents a general clinical-epidemilogical profile (31-50 years old man, rural origin, complex partial epileptic crisis, increased protein levels or normal csf, ct showing calcifications, constituting the inactive form of ncc), and a profile of severity (21-40 years old woman, urban origin, vascular headache and intracranial hypertension, typical csf syndrome of ncc or alteration of two or more csf parameters, ct showing vesicles and/or calcifications, constituting the active form of ncc). although two localities from the state of s?o paulo have 72:100000 and 96:100000/habitants as prevalence coefficients, regional and national prevalences are very underestimated. some aspects related to underestimation of ncc prevalence in brazil are discussed.
Fourth ventricle computed tomography indexes: standardisation and characteristics in neurocysticercosis
Agapejev, Svetlana;
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-282X2002000200005
Abstract: objectives: to propose standardisation of fourth ventricle dimensions and to study its characteristics in neurocysticercosis. method: a control group (cg) constituted by 114 individuals with normal ct, and 80 patients with neurocysticercosis composed the group with neurocysticercosis (gn). measures of the inner cranial diameter (cr), fronto-polar distance between both lateral ventricles (fp), antero-posterior (ap) and latero-lateral (ll) fourth ventricle width based the standardisation of six indexes. results: ap/cr, ap/ll and ap/fp were the more discriminative indexes, presenting in cg the mean values of 0.063, 0.267 and 0.582, respectively. the indexes in gn had values statistically higher than in cg. from gn, 51patients had increased indexes values above 2 standard deviation of the cg mean. ap/ll was 3 1 in 95% of patients with ventricular shunting and in 88% with depression. it also occurred in 73% patients with satisfactory follow-up and in everybody who died. conclusion: ap/cr, ap/ll and ap/fp may represent fourth ventricle dimensions.
Epidemiology of neurocysticercosis in Brazil
Agapejev, Svetlana;
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-46651996000300008
Abstract: a revision of literature was done with the objective of tracing an epidemiologic profile of neurocysticercosis (ncc) in brazil. the prevalence was 0.12-9% in autopsies. the frequency was 0.03-7.5% in clinical series and 0.68-5.2% in seroepidemiological studies. the disease corresponds to 0.08-2.5% of admissions to general hospitals. patient origin was rural in 30-63% of cases. the most involved age range (64-100%) was 11 to 60 years, with a predominance (22-67%) between 21 and 40 years. the male sex was the most affected (51-80%). in the severe forms there was a predominance of urban origin (53-62%) and of the female sex (53-75%). the period of hospitalization ranges from 1 to 254 days and 33 to 50% of patients suffer 1.7 ± 1.4 admissions. the clinical picture was variable, with a predominance of epileptic syndrome (22-92%) and intracranial hypertension (19-89%). psychiatric manifestations were associated in 9-23% of patients. lethality was 0.29% in terms of all diseases in general and 4.8-25.9% in terms of neurologic diseases. the asymptomatic form was detected in 6% of patients in clinical serie and in 48.5% of case from autopsies. the racemose form and ventricular localization also was observed as asymptomatic form. among the patients with cutaneous cysticercosis 65% of them showed neurologic manifestations.
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