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Measuring Semileptonic Asymmetries in LHCb
Suzanne Klaver,for the LHCb Collaboration
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The $C\!P$-violating flavour-specific asymmetry in neutral $b$ mesons provides a method for testing the Standard Model. The measurements from the D0 experiment yield values of this asymmetry that disagree with the Standard Model at a level of 3.6 $\sigma$. This contribution discusses the latest LHCb measurements in this sector both from $B^0$ mesons ($a_{\mathrm{sl}}^d$) and $B^0_s$ mesons ($a_{\mathrm{sl}}^s$). Using their 2011 dataset, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 $\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ obtained in 2011, LHCb measured a value of $a_{\mathrm{sl}}^s = (-0.06 \pm 0.50_{\text{stat}} \pm 0.36_{\text{syst}}) \%$. Combining the 2011 and 2012 datasets, with an integrated luminosity of 3 $\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$, LHCb measured $a_{\mathrm{sl}}^d = (-0.02 \pm 0.19_{\text{stat}} \pm 0.30_{\text{syst}}) \%$. These are the most precise measurements of the parameters $a_{\mathrm{sl}}^s$ and $a_{\mathrm{sl}}^d$ to date. Plans for an updated result for $a_{\mathrm{sl}}^s$ using the full 3 $\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ dataset are discussed. This will include new methods to determine detection asymmetries which are the dominating systematic uncertainty of the 2011 measurement.
Market Segmentation of 92 Arab Banks  [PDF]
Suzanne Charbaji
Open Journal of Accounting (OJAcct) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojacct.2017.63006
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to conduct market segmentation of Arab banks and suggest a model to classify them into cohesive segments on the basis of their financial ratios as a guideline for future consolidation. Twelve financial ratios taken from Bankscope Database have been retrieved for 92 Arab banks for the year 2015. In view of the sensitivity of multivariate analysis to the normality assumption, it was decided to use the common log transformation. Factor analysis is used as a data reduction technique to find twelve financial ratios. Cluster analysis is then used to separate the 92 Arab banks into five different performance groups (segments). Multi-discriminant statistical analysis is used to answer the question: can a combination of financial ratios be used to predict bank’s group membership? Findings of the study show that multidiscriminant analysis reveals that coverage ratio, profitability and efficiency separate the groups more widely than other financial ratios. The classification matrix shows that 98.9% of original banks are correctly classified. What’s more, to go after a more efficient risk policy, this paper recommends merging big banks with small Arab banks that are less profitable, less efficient, and in weaker condition than their non-acquired peers in addition to merging huge banks operating in different Arab countries. Results of this study should provide insight for future researchers. Also, this piece of research bridges the gap between financial ratio analysis and multivariate statistical analysis for Arab banks.
Surveillance as an Option for the Treatment of Small Renal Masses
S. Klaver,S. Joniau,H. Van Poppel
Advances in Urology , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/705958
Abstract: Objectives. To review the natural history and biological potential of small renal masses in order to evaluate surveillance as a treatment option. Methods. Literature search of Medline and additional references from non-Medline-indexed publications concerning surveillance of small renal masses. Results. The natural history and biological potential of small renal masses can still not be unambiguously predicted at present. There seems to be no clear correlation between tumour size and presence of benign histology. The majority of small renal masses grow and the majority are cancer, but one cannot safely assume that a lack of growth on serial CT scans is the confirmation of absence of malignancy. Needle core biopsies could be used to help in decision making. They show a high accuracy for histopathological tumour type but are less accurate in evaluating Fuhrman grade. Conclusions. At present, surveillance of small renal masses should only be considered in elderly and/or infirm patients with competing health risks, in those with a limited life expectancy, and in those for whom minimal invasive treatment or surgery is not an option. In all other patients, active surveillance should only be considered in the context of a study protocol. Long-term, prospective studies are needed to provide a more accurate assessment of the natural history and metastastic potential of small renal masses.
Facilitating Transdisciplinary Research in an Evolving Approach to Science  [PDF]
Fen Hunt, Suzanne Thornsbury
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.24038
Abstract: Transdisciplinary research is changing the way research is conducted and supported by incorporating linkages between disciplinary fields, across geographic boundaries, and among scientists and broader societal stakeholder groups. There is a compelling opportunity and important role for social scientists to participate in both transdisciplinary projects addressing societal challenge issues and in research projects focused on the development of transdisciplinary project methodology and management. A shift in approach to scientific inquiry requires adjustments in institutional support structures as well as individual research projects and specific programs. US funding agencies, including the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) have clearly built trans-disciplinarity into their portfolio of research programs.
Cyanobacteria Diversity in Blooms from the Greater Sudbury Area  [PDF]
Suzanne Evans, Mazen Saleh
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.711071
Abstract: The Greater Sudbury Area is approximately 400 km north of the city of Toronto and falls within a large number of temperate lakes of various sizes. This area has been mined for nickel and other metals for several decades. These activities have affected the watersheds of Northern Ontario and have influenced the chemistry of a number of lakes. Blooms of cyanobacteria occur yearly in several lakes, mainly in the early and late summer months. Much of the chemistry of these lakes is known but the nature of the cyanobacterial blooms and the factors that may contribute to their sudden appearance are not. We sampled blooms from five Greater Sudbury Area lakes and identified the species present by morphological and molecular methods. The dominant genera present as characterized by morphological examination were Synechocystis, Leptolyngbya, Anabaena, Cyl-indrospermum, Nostoc, Borzia, Phormidium, Pseudoanabaena, Oscillatoria, and Planktothrix. Three of these isolates, Leptolyngbya, Anabaena, and Planktothrix were confirmed by partial rRNA sequence analysis.
Personal Accounts of Mothers’ Use of Social Media to Support Abstinence from Alcohol  [PDF]
Suzanne McGarva, Tony Machin
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2017.512008
Abstract: Alcohol consumption by professional educated women and mothers is rising. Drinking alcohol in the home is, for many, becoming a normalised and daily ritual. Previous research focuses on causality, risk factors and health related damage. Few studies focus on mothers of school age children specifically or why some mothers pursue and sustain alcohol free lives. The role of social media in enacting and sustaining abstinence is under researched, as are other factors important for this group in remaining abstinent. Aims: This qualitative study explored the reasons why mothers drank alcohol, and factors contributing to their decision to become alcohol free. It also explored the value and utility of social media in the form of a specific website aimed at providing support in abstinence. Methods: Six UK mothers with school age children who had become abstinent after previously drinking over official limits were recruited via social network website and interviewed. Transcripts were analysed thematically and inductive themes emerged. Results: Participants used alcohol to self-medicate, as a reward/relaxation strategy and because it was a normal part of their professional and daily lives. Reported reasons for abstinence included the negative effects alcohol had upon lives, inability to moderate/drink within guidelines and “trigger” events. Participants reported that their use of social media was inspirational, giving them a platform to share stories and help others and was preferred to traditional support. The use of social media in this way represented a supportive community and assisted vigilance toward the danger of relapse. Positive parenting identity, alternatives to alcohol, abstinence rewards and support from abstinent others were all factors in sustaining abstinence. Conclusions: Health professionals should recognise this hidden and hard to reach group and the potential efficacy of social media in assisting recovery from alcohol related issues.
Psychometric Evaluation of the Perceived Stress Scale in Early Postmenopausal Chinese Women  [PDF]
Ruby Yu, Suzanne C. Ho
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2010.11001
Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) in a population-based sample of early postmenopausal Chinese women in Hong Kong. Methods: 509 postmenopausal women, 50 to 64 years, recruited from the community through random telephone dialing were interviewed. The inter-view included the PSS, the Center of the Epidemiological Study of Depression Scale (CES-D), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the menopausal symptom checklist, and questions on sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors. Principle component analysis was used to determine the component structure of the PSS items. The reliability related to internal consistency was measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and test-retest by intra-class correlation coefficients. Construct validity was investigated with subgroup comparisons on the basis of sociodemographic characteristics, and through correlations with the CES-D, the STAI, menopausal symptoms, and health behaviors. Results: Principle component analysis of the PSS showed that the scale consisted of 2 factors, which explained 52% of variance. Internal consistency was adequate (Cronbach’s α = 0.81) and the test-retest reliability after an interval of 2 weeks was 0.86. The PSS distinguished well, and in the expected manner, between subgroups on the basis of age, work status, and marital status, providing evidence of construct validity. The PSS was also correlated with CES-D, STAI, menopausal symptoms, and health behaviors; hence the construct validity was further supported. Conclusions: The PSS appears to be a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring psychological perceived stress for Chinese women in midlife.
Presenilins and the γ-secretase: still a complex problem
David H Small, David W Klaver, Lisa Foa
Molecular Brain , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-6606-3-7
Abstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Typically 5-10% of the population over the age of 65 have dementia, and of these cases, a large percentage have AD [1]. AD is characterised by the presence of proteinaceous deposits in the brain [2]. The extracellular amyloid deposits, which are found in the neuropil (amyloid plaques) and in association with small-medium size cerebral blood vessels (cerebral amyloid angiopathy), are composed of a 4 kDa polypeptide known as the amyloid-β protein (Aβ) which is derived by proteolytic cleavage from a much larger amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) [3]. Aβ displays a spontaneous ability to aggregate into oligomers and larger fibrillar structures, and it is generally thought that the accumulation of oligomeric Aβ is chiefly responsible for the neurodegeneration that occurs in AD [4].For the generation of Aβ, APP is first cleaved on the N-terminal side of the Aβ sequence by the β-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1), a transmembrane aspartyl protease [3]. The resulting 99-amino acid residue C-terminal fragment (C99) is then cleaved by the γ-secretase to yield Aβ and a C-terminal APP intracellular domain (AICD) fragment (Fig. 1). The function of the AICD fragment is unclear, although it is thought to have a role in intracellular signalling. For example, AICD may be involved in the regulation of gene transcription, synaptic plasticity and cytoskeletal dynamics [5].The major form of Aβ possesses 40 amino-acid residues (Aβ1-40). However, other minor species are also produced which vary in the C-terminal sequence. Production of a longer 42-residue species (Aβ1-42) is thought to be intimately associated with AD pathogenesis [6]. Aβ1-42 aggregates more readily than Aβ1-40, and increased production of Aβ1-42 may seed aggregation of Aβ1-40 or other Aβ species [4].Approximately 5% of all AD cases are autosomal dominant [7]. Soon after the complete APP sequence was cloned in 1987 [8], it became clear that at le
Defect and solute properties in dilute Fe-Cr-Ni austenitic alloys from first principles
T. P. C. Klaver,D. J. Hepburn,G. J. Ackland
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.174111
Abstract: We present results of an extensive set of first-principles density functional theory calculations of point defect formation, binding and clustering energies in austenitic Fe with dilute concentrations of Cr and Ni solutes.
First Principles Calculations of Defects in Unstable Crystals: Austenitic Iron
G. J. Ackland,T. P. C. Klaver,D. J. Hepburn
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: First principles calculations have given a new insight into the energies of point defects in many different materials, information which cannot be readily obtained from experiment. Most such calculation are done at zero Kelvin, with the assumption that finite temperature effects on defect energies and barriers are small. In some materials, however, the stable crystal structre of interest is mechanically unstable at 0K. In such cases, alternate approaches are needed. Here we present results of first principles calculations of austenitic iron using the VASP code. We determine an appropriate reference state for collinear magnetism to be the antiferromagnetic double-layer (AFM-d) which is both stable and lower in energy than other possible models for the low temperature limit of paramagnetic fcc iron. We then consider the energetics of dissolving typical alloying impurities (Ni, Cr) in the materials, and their interaction with point defects typical of the irradiated environment. We show that using standard methods there is a very strong dependence of calculated defect formation energies on the reference state chosen. Furthermore, there is a correlation between local free volume magnetism and energetics. The effect of substitutional Ni and Cr on defect properties is weak, rarely more than tenths of eV, so it is unlikely that small amounts of Ni and Cr will have a significant effect on the radiation damage in austenitic iron at high temperatures.
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