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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1640 matches for " Susmita Chatterjee "
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Comparison of Amino Acid Sequences of Halloween Genes in Spodoptera litura and Spodoptera littoralis  [PDF]
Susmita Chatterjee
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.65054

20-Hydroxyecdyone (20E), an active form of ecdysteroid, is the key hormone in insect growth and development. To date five P450 enzymes involved in the last four steps of ecdysteroid biosynthesis from ketodiol to 20E namely Spook (Spo), Phantom (Phm), Disembodied (Dib), Shadow (Sad) and Shade (Shd) related to ecdysteroid biosynthesis, are identified and the character of last four enzymes is well studied in Drosophila melanogaster, Bombyx mori and Manduca sexta. All of these genes are called Halloween genes. In this study, we extended these works to a major pest insect in agriculture in India, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). We identified the sequence of five Halloween genes partially and converted into amino acid sequences and then three of them were compared with a very near African species of Spodoptera, Spodoptera littoralis. The results suggest amino acid substitution in open reading frame of phantom, shade and disembodied protein in Spodoptera litura.

Hierarchical Analysis of Variation in the Mitochondrial 16SrRNA Gene among Five Different Insect Orders  [PDF]
Chatterjee Susmita
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.611132
Abstract: Nucleotide sequences from a 500 bp region of the 16SrRNA gene were analyzed for ten insect pests of five different orders to examine the patterns of variation within the gene fragment and the taxonomic levels for which it showed maximum utility in phylogeny estimation. A hierarchical approach was adopted in the study through comparison of levels of sequence variation among taxa at different taxonomic levels. Among them, partial 16SrRNA gene was amplified in ten insects of five different orders. As previously reported for many holometabolous insects, the 16SrRNA gene data is reported here for 5 different orders were highly AT-rich and exhibited strong site-to-site variation in substitution rate. The partial 16SrRNA genes of five out of ten insects were reported first time. Primers were made from blasting 2 different genera of the order Diptera. These primers were proven to be universal as it amplified the partial 16SrRNA gene in ten different insects across five different orders, Diptera, Coleoptera, Heteroptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera. Later, a phylogenetic tree was also constructed for understanding and analyzing the relation of above five orders. This study resulted in unusual findings which were as follows: All the species of Drosophila of order Diptera were evolutionary more closely related to Dysdercus koenigii of order Heteroptera than Bactrocera cucurbitae of Drosophilan order, Diptera in terms of partial 16SrRNA gene sequence. Similarly, Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera belonged to same family Noctuidae whereas Pieris brassicae belonged to family Pieridae. All belonged to order Lepidoptera. The results showed that Spodoptera litura in terms of partial 16SrRNA gene sequence was evolutionary more close to Pieris brassicae than Helicoverpa armigera.
Unit Cost of Medical Services at Different Hospitals in India
Susmita Chatterjee, Carol Levin, Ramanan Laxminarayan
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069728
Abstract: Institutional care is a growing component of health care costs in low- and middle-income countries, but local health planners in these countries have inadequate knowledge of the costs of different medical services. In India, greater utilisation of hospital services is driven both by rising incomes and by government insurance programmes that cover the cost of inpatient services; however, there is still a paucity of unit cost information from Indian hospitals. In this study, we estimated operating costs and cost per outpatient visit, cost per inpatient stay, cost per emergency room visit, and cost per surgery for five hospitals of different types across India: a 57-bed charitable hospital, a 200-bed private hospital, a 400-bed government district hospital, a 655-bed private teaching hospital, and a 778-bed government tertiary care hospital for the financial year 2010–11. The major cost component varied among human resources, capital costs, and material costs, by hospital type. The outpatient visit cost ranged from Rs. 94 (district hospital) to Rs. 2,213 (private hospital) (USD 1 = INR 52). The inpatient stay cost was Rs. 345 in the private teaching hospital, Rs. 394 in the district hospital, Rs. 614 in the tertiary care hospital, Rs. 1,959 in the charitable hospital, and Rs. 6,996 in the private hospital. Our study results can help hospital administrators understand their cost structures and run their facilities more efficiently, and we identify areas where improvements in efficiency might significantly lower unit costs. The study also demonstrates that detailed costing of Indian hospital operations is both feasible and essential, given the significant variation in the country’s hospital types. Because of the size and diversity of the country and variations across hospitals, a large-scale study should be undertaken to refine hospital costing for different types of hospitals so that the results can be used for policy purposes, such as revising payment rates under government-sponsored insurance schemes.
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: neuroplastic changes underlying alcohol and nicotine addictions
Allison A. Feduccia,Susmita Chatterjee,Selena E. Bartlett
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fnmol.2012.00083
Abstract: Addictive drugs can activate systems involved in normal reward-related learning, creating long-lasting memories of the drug's reinforcing effects and the environmental cues surrounding the experience. These memories significantly contribute to the maintenance of compulsive drug use as well as cue-induced relapse which can occur even after long periods of abstinence. Synaptic plasticity is thought to be a prominent molecular mechanism underlying drug-induced learning and memories. Ethanol and nicotine are both widely abused drugs that share a common molecular target in the brain, the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The nAChRs are ligand-gated ion channels that are vastly distributed throughout the brain and play a key role in synaptic neurotransmission. In this review, we will delineate the role of nAChRs in the development of ethanol and nicotine addiction. We will characterize both ethanol and nicotine's effects on nAChR-mediated synaptic transmission and plasticity in several key brain areas that are important for addiction. Finally, we will discuss some of the behavioral outcomes of drug-induced synaptic plasticity in animal models. An understanding of the molecular and cellular changes that occur following administration of ethanol and nicotine will lead to better therapeutic strategies.
Modified NSGA-II for a Bi-Objective Job Sequencing Problem  [PDF]
Susmita Bandyopadhyay
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2012.46036
Abstract: This paper proposes a better modified version of a well-known Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA) known as Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II). The proposed algorithm contains a new mutation algorithm and has been applied on a bi-objective job sequencing problem. The objectives are the minimization of total weighted tardiness and the minimization of the deterioration cost. The results of the proposed algorithm have been compared with those of original NSGA-II. The comparison of the results shows that the modified NSGA-II performs better than the original NSGA-II.
Studies of protein adsorption on implant materials in relation to biofilm formation I. Activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on Polypropylene and High density Polyethylene in presence of serum albumin
S Dutta Sinha,Susmita Chatterjee,P. K. Maity,S. Tarafdar,S. P. Moulik
Quantitative Biology , 2014,
Abstract: The surface of biomaterials used as implants are highly susceptible to bacterial colonization and subsequent infection. The amount of protein adsorption on biomaterials, among other factors, can affect the nature and quality of biofilms formed on them. The variation in the adsorption time of the protein on the biomaterial surface produces a phenotypic change in the bacteria by alteration of the production of EPS (exoplysaccharide) matrix. Knowledge of the effects of protein adsorption on implant infection will be very useful in understanding the chemistry of the biomaterial surfaces, which can deter the formation of biofilms. It is observed that the adsorption of BSA on the biomaterial surfaces increases with time and concentration, irrespective of their type and the nature of the EPS matrix of the bacterial biofilm is dependent on the amount of protein adsorbed on the biomaterial surface. The adsorption of protein (BSA) on the biomaterials, polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) has been studied and the formation of the biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on them has been examined.
Effect of Electron and/or Ion Nonthermality on Dust Acoustic Wave Propagation in a Complex Plasma in Presence of Positively Charged Dust Grains Generated by Secondary Electron Emission Process  [PDF]
Susmita Sarkar, Subrata Bhakta
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.71008
Abstract: In this paper we have developed a model to study the role of both electron and ion nonthermalities on dust acoustic wave propagation in a complex plasma in presence of positively charged dust grains. Secondary electron emission from dust grains has been considered as the source of positive dust charging. As secondary emission current depends on the flux of primary electrons, nonthermality of primary electrons changes the expression of secondary emission current from that of earlier work where primary electrons were thermal. Expression of nonthermal electron current flowing to the positively charged dust grains and consequently the expression of secondary electron current flowing out of the dust grains have been first time calculated in this paper, whereas the expression for nonthermal ion current flowing to the positively charged dust grains is present in existing literature. Dispersion relation of dust acoustic wave has been derived. From this dispersion relation real frequency and growth rate of the wave have been calculated. Results have been plotted for different strength of nonthermalities of electrons and ions.
A Novel Cascaded Nonlinear Equalizer Configuration on Recurrent Neural Network Framework for Communication Channel
Susmita Das
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2009,
Analysis of Effect of Conductor Line on Folded Type Meander-Line Antenna
Susmita Ghosh
International Journal of Engineering Research , 2014,
Abstract: Abstract— In this paper folded type meander line antennas have been proposed. Performance of three different meander line antennas have been investigated, first one without conductor line and the other two with conductor line. First antenna is a triple band resonator while second antenna with conductor line becomes tetra band resonator and the last design is a dual band resonator but with higher return loss, -35 dB at 1.86 GHz. CST_STUDIO_2012 is being used for simulation. Far-field response, efficiency, gain, directivity and reflection coefficients have been chosen as factors for performance analysis and it has been successfully illustrated here that insertion of conductor line makes the antenna a better resonator and also improves the return loss. The proposed antennas in this paper work are able to operate in the LTE700, LTE/GSM1800, PCS/ UMTS/ WLAN/ LTE2400, L band (1-2 GHz) and S band (2-4 GHz).
A Review on Secured Money Transaction with Fingerprint Technique in ATM System
Susmita Mandal
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: In the present day, the requirement of securing electronic cash flow system are increasing significantly. Todays life is so busy that spending a valuable second cost so much. In, such situation if money flow is possible swiftly by just one swipe it would be a great relief. Biometric based authentication can be a new approach to satisfy user needs by replacing password-based authentication. Among all biometric techniques fingerprinting is the oldest and secured methodology practised till date. In the proposed system user can transact money by placing his/her thumb imprint on new proposed ATM card. This new system will smoothen the transaction with security.
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