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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 145923 matches for " Susanne B?geholz "
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Socioscientific Decision Making in the Science Classroom: The Effect of Embedded Metacognitive Instructions on Students' Learning Outcomes
Sabina Eggert,Frauke Ostermeyer,Marcus Hasselhorn,Susanne Bgeholz
Education Research International , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/309894
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of cooperative training strategies to enhance students' socioscientific decision making as well as their metacognitive skills in the science classroom. Socioscientific decision making refers to both “describing socioscientific issues” as well as “developing and evaluating solutions” to socioscientific issues. We investigated two cooperative training strategies which differed with respect to embedded metacognitive instructions that were developed on the basis of the IMPROVE method. Participants were 360 senior high school students who studied either in a cooperative learning setting (COOP), a cooperative learning setting with embedded metacognitive questions (COOP+META), or a nontreatment control group. Results indicate that students in the two training conditions outperformed students in the control group on both processes of socioscientific decision making. However, students in the COOP+META condition did not outperform students in the COOP condition. With respect to students' learning outcomes on the regulation facet of metacognition, results indicate that all conditions improved over time. Students in the COOP+META condition exhibited highest mean scores at posttest measures, but again, results were not significant. Implications for integrating metacognitive instructions into science classrooms are discussed. 1. Introduction Over the past decades curriculum authorities as well as science educators and researchers worldwide have called for changes in the way science is taught at schools (e.g., [1–4]). Modern science education should not only foster the acquisition of scientific content knowledge but engage students in scientific inquiry, in lifelong learning and in discussions about modern science problems, their technological applications as well as their personal and societal implications [1–5]. In a similar vein, the implementation of socioscientific issues into the science classroom has been proposed for more than two decades (e.g., [6–10]). Socioscientific issues represent modern science problems, such as global climate change or the loss of worldwide biodiversity, that are tightly linked to social, political, and economical concerns (e.g., [11]). They are complex, real-world scenarios at the interplay between science and society and thus, can no longer be solved by relying on scientific knowledge only [8, 10, 11]. Consequently, they fundamentally challenge the aims and scope of traditional science instruction. A growing body of research within the area of science education highlights
Knowledge of Indonesian University Students on the Sustainable Management of Natural Resources
Sebastian Koch,Jan Barkmann,Micha Strack,Leti Sundawati,Susanne Bgeholz
Sustainability , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/su5041443
Abstract: Graduates of university programs addressing sustainable resource management are likely to shape strategies for natural resource use in the future. Their academic training needs to foster student knowledge of the multiple dimensions of natural resource management. This paper investigates university student understanding of such challenges. We differentiated situational, conceptual, and procedural types of knowledge, and three domains of knowledge (ecological, socio-economic and institutional knowledge), and sampled beginners (third semester) and seniors (seventh semester) of seven natural resource related programs at the leading Indonesian institution of higher education in the field of natural resource management (IPB Bogor; n = 882). The questionnaire consisted of multiple choice and rating scale items covering ‘locally’ relevant open-access resource use issues. With a confirmatory tau-equivalent LISREL model, construct validity was assessed. The ability to extract relevant information from problem descriptions provided (situational knowledge) did not differ between third and seventh semester students. While it was high for ecological and socio-economic items, it was markedly lower for institutional knowledge. Knowledge of relevant scientific concepts (conceptual knowledge) increased in the ecological and socio-economic domains but the effect was small. Conceptual knowledge in the socio-economical and institutional domains tended to be lower than ecological knowledge. Although there was certain improvement, student judgments on the efficacy of resource management options (procedural knowledge) differed strongly from expert judgments for beginners as well as for senior students. We conclude that many of the university students in the sampled programs displayed substantial gaps in their capacity to solve complex, real-world natural resource management problems. Specifically, the socio-economic and institutional knowledge domains—and their integration with ecological knowledge—may require attention by educational planners.
Socioscientific Decision Making in the Science Classroom: The Effect of Embedded Metacognitive Instructions on Students' Learning Outcomes
Sabina Eggert,Frauke Ostermeyer,Marcus Hasselhorn,Susanne Bögeholz
Education Research International , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/309894
Insurance Coverage Policies for Personalized Medicine
Andrew Hresko,Susanne B. Haga
Journal of Personalized Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/jpm2040201
Abstract: Adoption of personalized medicine in practice has been slow, in part due to the lack of evidence of clinical benefit provided by these technologies. Coverage by insurers is a critical step in achieving widespread adoption of personalized medicine. Insurers consider a variety of factors when formulating medical coverage policies for personalized medicine, including the overall strength of evidence for a test, availability of clinical guidelines and health technology assessments by independent organizations. In this study, we reviewed coverage policies of the largest U.S. insurers for genomic (disease-related) and pharmacogenetic (PGx) tests to determine the extent that these tests were covered and the evidence basis for the coverage decisions. We identified 41 coverage policies for 49 unique testing: 22 tests for disease diagnosis, prognosis and risk and 27 PGx tests. Fifty percent (or less) of the tests reviewed were covered by insurers. Lack of evidence of clinical utility appears to be a major factor in decisions of non-coverage. The inclusion of PGx information in drug package inserts appears to be a common theme of PGx tests that are covered. This analysis highlights the variability of coverage determinations and factors considered, suggesting that the adoption of personal medicine will affected by numerous factors, but will continue to be slowed due to lack of demonstrated clinical benefit.
Childhood clumsiness and peer victimization: a case--control study of psychiatric patients
Susanne Bejerot, Mats B Humble
BMC Psychiatry , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-13-68
Abstract: 277 patients (133 males, 144 females), mean age 31 years, investigated for ADHD or autism spectrum disorder in adulthood and with normal intelligence, were interviewed about childhood peer victimization and examined for gross motor skills. The parents completed a comprehensive questionnaire on childhood problems, the Five to Fifteen. The Five to Fifteen is a validated questionnaire with 181 statements that covers various symptoms in childhood across eight different domains, one of them targeting motor skills. Regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between motor skills and the risk and duration of peer victimization, adjusted for sex and diagnosis.Victims were described as more clumsy in childhood than their non-victimized counterparts. A significant independent association was found between reportedly poor childhood gross motor skills and peer victimization (adjusted odds ratio: 2.97 [95% confidence interval: 1.46-6.07], n = 235, p = 0.003). In adulthood, the victimized group performed worse on vertical jumps, a gross motor task, and were lonelier. Other factors that were expected to be associated with peer victimization were not found in this highly selected group.Poor gross motor skills constitute a strong and independent risk factor for peer victimization in childhood, regardless of sex, childhood psychiatric care and diagnosis.
Model of statistically coupled chiral fields on the circle
Serguei B. Isakov,Susanne Viefers
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1142/S0217751X97001195
Abstract: Starting from a field theoretical description of multicomponent anyons with mutual statistical interactions in the lowest Landau level, we construct a model of interacting chiral fields on the circle, with the energy spectrum characterized by a symmetric matrix $g_{\alpha\beta}$ with nonnegative entries. Being represented in a free form, the model provides a field theoretical realization of (ideal) fractional exclusion statistics for particles with linear dispersion, with $g_{\alpha\beta}$ as a statistics matrix. We derive the bosonized form of the model and discuss the relation to the effective low-energy description of the edge excitations for abelian fractional quantum Hall states in multilayer systems.
Antenatal and postnatal management of congenital cystic adenomatoid lung malformation diagnosed by ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)  [PDF]
Susanne E. Gruessner, Hermann Hertel, Eva Bültmann, Charles O. A. Omwandho, Gerhard Alzen, Corinna Peter
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2012.24076
Abstract: Purpose: Antenatal diagnosis of congenital cystic adenomatoid lung malformation (CCAM) is vital for disease surveillance and postnatal care. Ultrasonography (US) has been the imaging gold standard for antenatal CCAM assessment. However, one of the limitations of US is the “vanishing phenomenon” caused by isoechogenicity of CCAM tissue and adjacent normal lung parenchyma. Methods: Antenatal serial US were concurrently used with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor macro- and microcystic lesions. Results: In both pregnant women, antenatal US and MRI confirmed the presence, in the fetus, of cystic lesions and predicted disease regression/progression as well as the need for postnatal surgical intervention. Several advantages were detected by using both—serial US and MRI (over serial US alone)—including improved signal intensity, exact volume size measurements, precise CCAM location in particular for patients with adverse ultrasound conditions. Both neonates underwent surgical resection and had an uneventful post-operative course. Conclusions: Antenatal use of MRI as well as serial US improved information regarding tissue resolution and delineation of CCAM. The information from two imaging modalities was complementary. Our literature review confirmed the emerging role of prenatal MRI for postnatal monitoring and management of CCAM.
deal: A Package for Learning Bayesian Networks
Susanne G. B?tcher,Claus Dethlefsen
Journal of Statistical Software , 2003,
In vitro activity and function of B7-H4-Ig fusion protein  [PDF]
Susanne B. Rasmussen, Michael Kosicki, Signe G. Svendsen, Mogens H. Claesson, Nanna N. Kristensen
Open Journal of Immunology (OJI) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oji.2013.31004
Abstract: B7-H4 has been shown to inhibit T cell proliferation, cytokine production and cell cycle in vitro. B7-H4 deficient mice develop exacerbated disease in the mouse models of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE). On the other hand, B7-H4-Ig fusion protein has been documented to assuage the symptoms in mouse models of RA, T1D, and multiple sclerosis in vivo. In the present study, B7-H4-Ig bound to the majority of human peripheral blood monocytes and NK cells, but not to either normal or activated T cells. B7-H4-Ig fusion protein was assayed for its effects in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) systems. Soluble B7- H4-Ig had no significant effect in the MLC, but with a tendency to promote allogeneic response. Immobilized, but not soluble B7-H4-Ig inhibited plastic bound anti-CD3 mediated activation of T cells. This inhibition however was largely due to B7-H4-Ig mediated displacement of anti-CD3 antibody from the plastic plate. Finally, B7-H4-Ig had no effect on the cytotoxicity mediated by NK and LAK cells in PBMC. Our findings thus caution against the interpretation of suppressive effect observed solely in plate-bound anti-CD3 mediated T cell co-stimulation in vitro.
An Experimental and Computational Study of the Effect of ActA Polarity on the Speed of Listeria monocytogenes Actin-based Motility
Susanne M. Rafelski ,Jonathan B. Alberts ,Garrett M. Odell
PLOS Computational Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000434
Abstract: Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogenic bacterium that moves within infected cells and spreads directly between cells by harnessing the cell's dendritic actin machinery. This motility is dependent on expression of a single bacterial surface protein, ActA, a constitutively active Arp2,3 activator, and has been widely studied as a biochemical and biophysical model system for actin-based motility. Dendritic actin network dynamics are important for cell processes including eukaryotic cell motility, cytokinesis, and endocytosis. Here we experimentally altered the degree of ActA polarity on a population of bacteria and made use of an ActA-RFP fusion to determine the relationship between ActA distribution and speed of bacterial motion. We found a positive linear relationship for both ActA intensity and polarity with speed. We explored the underlying mechanisms of this dependence with two distinctly different quantitative models: a detailed agent-based model in which each actin filament and branched network is explicitly simulated, and a three-state continuum model that describes a simplified relationship between bacterial speed and barbed-end actin populations. In silico bacterial motility required a cooperative restraining mechanism to reconstitute our observed speed-polarity relationship, suggesting that kinetic friction between actin filaments and the bacterial surface, a restraining force previously neglected in motility models, is important in determining the effect of ActA polarity on bacterial motility. The continuum model was less restrictive, requiring only a filament number-dependent restraining mechanism to reproduce our experimental observations. However, seemingly rational assumptions in the continuum model, e.g. an average propulsive force per filament, were invalidated by further analysis with the agent-based model. We found that the average contribution to motility from side-interacting filaments was actually a function of the ActA distribution. This ActA-dependence would be difficult to intuit but emerges naturally from the nanoscale interactions in the agent-based representation.
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