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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 757 matches for " Susanna Raisamo "
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Misperceptions of peer gambling norms among adolescents: Analysis of a national sample in Finland  [PDF]
Susanna Raisamo, Tomi Lintonen
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.22019
Abstract: Introduction: Misperceptions of peer drinking norms are widely documented in the US student populations and are associated with increased personal consumption. Few studies have examined misperceptions of peer gambling, and none of these have been conducted among adolescents in the European context. In a national sample, we examined misperceptions of peer gambling in Finland. Tenets of the social norms approach form a framework for discussion of the findings. Methods: Participants were 4526 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years who completed the nationwide Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey in 2011. Main measures were gambling behavior and the perception of same age-sex peers’ gambling. Misperception was an overestimation of the frequency of gambling by others compared to the actual frequency of gambling. Results: Adolescents held substantial misperceptions of peer gambling, imagining they gambled much more than they actually did. Age, sex, and gambling behavior were correlated with the perceptions. The extent of misperception was greatest among monthly gamblers, whereas non-gamblers and daily gamblers were more accurate in their perceptions. Estimations of peers’ gambling frequency were more accurate in boys than in girls and among those aged 12 years than among older adolescents. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that adolescent gambling prevention efforts could benefit from adopting a social norms approach; that is, correcting gambling-related misperceptions might discourage gambling and protect adolescents from adopting more severe gambling patterns.
Do socioeconomic differences in tobacco use exist also in developing countries? A study of Ghanaian adolescents
David Doku, Leena Koivusilta, Susanna Raisamo, Arja Rimpel?
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-758
Abstract: A school-based survey of a representative sample of 13-18-year-old Ghanaians (N = 1,165, response rate = 89.7%) was conducted in three regions, in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship of smoking, tawa (smokeless tobacco) use with familial SES (parental occupation and education, material affluence scale, family structure), an adolescent's individual social position (school performance, plans after graduation) and inter-generational social mobility (predicted by the differences of familial and individual positions).Socioeconomic differences existed in tobacco use whether measured by familial SES or individual social position with higher prevalence in lower socioeconomic groups. Low father's education and living in a non-nuclear family were associated with both forms of tobacco use while low material affluence was associated with tawa use only; individual social position measured by plans after graduation was the strongest predictor of both smoking and tawa use. Inter-generational downward social mobility and particularly staying in low SES was related to both forms of tobacco use.Similar to Western countries, lower SES is related to an adolescent's tobacco use also in developing countries. Cumulative socioeconomic disadvantage over generations increases the probability of tobacco use.Socioeconomic inequality and its impact on health is a growing global public health concern [1]. Smoking has been identified as the single biggest cause of inequality in morbidity and mortality between rich and poor people in many countries [2]. Studies from Western countries have reported an association between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking to the disadvantage of those in lower SES groups [3]. Studies among adolescents have shown the same pattern, with some exceptions where the association was found only for some ages, genders or SES indicators [4-9]. In developing countries among adolescents, the relationship between socioeconomic factors and
Virtual Sectioning and Haptic Exploration of Volumetric Shapes in the Absence of Visual Feedback
Tatiana V. Evreinova,Grigori Evreinov,Roope Raisamo
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/740324
Abstract: The reduced behavior for exploration of volumetric data based on the virtual sectioning concept was compared with the free scanning at the use of the StickGrip linkage-free haptic device. Profiles of the virtual surface were simulated through the penholder displacements in relation to the pen tip of the stylus. One or two geometric shapes (cylinder, trapezoidal prism, ball, and torus) or their halves and the ripple surface were explored in the absence of visual feedback. In the free scanning, the person physically moved the stylus. In the parallel scanning, cross-sectional profiles were generated automatically starting from the location indicated by the stylus. Analysis of the performance of 18 subjects demonstrated that the new haptic visualization and exploration technique allowed to create accurate mental images, to recognize and identify virtual shapes. The mean number of errors was about 2.5% in the free scanning mode and 1.9% and 1.5% in the parallel scanning mode at the playback velocity of 28?mm/s and 42?mm/s, respectively. All participants agreed that the haptic visualization of the 3D virtual surface presented as the cross-sectional slices of the workspace was robust and easy to use. The method was developed for visualization of spatially distributed data collected by sensors. 1. Introduction Even in the absence of direct contact and visual feedback, people have to explore physical properties such as friction and roughness, compliance and stiffness of environment (in geophysics and monitoring), and materials (nondestructive testing). Complementing visual information, the existing haptic shape-rendering algorithms focus on rendering the interaction between the tip of a haptic probe and the virtual surface. Using haptic interface and analyzing the effects of different types of the force feedback, the operator of the hand-held detector can feel the change of roughness, rigidity, and other physical properties of a contact. However, human perception of spatially distributed data, for example, the surface topography with varying stiffness, relying on single-point-based exploration techniques often fails to provide a realistic feeling of the complex topological 3D surfaces and intersections [1–7]. Although manual palpation can be very effective, free scanning with a single-point inspection is unnatural and significantly increases the cognitive load to establish the right relations between successive samples of sensory information separated in space and time [8]. Haptic recognition and identification of spatial objects, their unique shape, and
A Set of GRASS GIS-Based Shell Scripts for the Calculation and Graphical Display of the Main Morphometric Parameters of a River Channel  [PDF]
Aldo Clerici, Susanna Perego
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2016.72011
Abstract: For the analysis of river evolution, the use of quantitative parameters can be quite useful in order to assess changes in the channel planform. Among the several parameters proposed by different authors in a number of papers, channel length and width, braiding and sinuosity indexes, and channel lateral shifting are proved to be the most effective ones for a quantitative analysis of river changes. However, the calculation of these parameters is time-consuming, tedious and error-prone, even where made in a GIS environment. This work describes four shell scripts that perform fast and automatic calculation of the morphometric parameters and draw curves showing thevariation of the calculated parameters along the entire channel development. The scripts arebased on commands of the GRASS GIS free and open source software and, as input, they require a simple vector map containing the essential features of a river channel,i.e.bankfull channel limits and longitudinal and lateral bars.
Proactive Agents to Assist Multimodal Explorative Learning of Astronomical Phenomena
Eva Tuominen,Marjatta Kangassalo,Pentti Hietala,Roope Raisamo,Kari Peltola
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/387076
Abstract: This paper focuses on developing, testing, and examining the Proagents multimodal learning environment to support blind children's explorative learning in the area of astronomy. We utilize haptic, auditive, and visual interaction. Haptic and auditory feedbacks make the system accessible to blind children. The system is used as an exploration tool for children's spontaneous and question-driven explorations. High-level interaction and play are essential with environments for young children. Proactive agents support and guide children to deepen their explorations and discover the central concepts and relations in phenomena. It has been challenging to integrate together in a pedagogically relevant way the explorative learning approach, proactive agents' actions, haptic perception's possibilities, and the selected astronomical phenomena. Our tests have shown that children are very interested in using the system and the operations of the agents.
PbD: Visual Guidance for Robot-Arm Manipulation
Evreinov Grigori,Raisamo Roope,Hulin Thomas,Zimmerman Uwe
BIO Web of Conferences , 2011, DOI: 10.1051/bioconf/20110100023
Abstract: Robot control requires comprehending the workspace and limitations of the complex multi-joint robotic system. The structure of visual guidance system accompanying the training scenario affects the efficiency of eye-hand coordination and decision making of how to avoid and compensate for a situation of crash functioning when operators should directly move the robot arm to the desired position. We have demonstrated that the use of the visual guidance in a form of semi-transparent virtual image (phantom) indicating the right robot-arm configuration enabled trainees to achieve significant improvements in the target acquisition task. Their cumulative motor experience1 was increased by 1.8 times, while only by 1.2 times under the passive learning condition.
Human dental pulp stem cells differentiate into neural precursors but not into mature functional neurons  [PDF]
Riikka Aanismaa, Jenna Hautala, Annukka Vuorinen, Susanna Miettinen, Susanna Narkilahti
Stem Cell Discovery (SCD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/scd.2012.23013
Abstract: Large numbers of neuronal cells are needed for regenerative medicine to treat patients suffering from central nervous system diseases and deficits such as Parkinson’s disease and spinal cord injury. One suggestion has been the utilization of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) for production of neuronal cells which would offer a patient-specific cell source for these treatments. Neuronal differentiation of hDPSCs has been described previously. Here, we tested the differentiation of DPSCs into neuronal cells with previously reported protocol and characterized the cells according to their morphology, gene and protein expressions and most importantly according to their spontaneous electrical functionality with microelectrode array platform (MEA). Our results showed that even though hDPSC-derived neural progenitor stage cells could be produced, these cells did not mature further into functional neuronal cells. Thus, utilization of DPSCs as a cell source for producing grafts to treat neurological deficits requires more efforts before being optimal.
Social Determinants of Stroke as Related to Stress at Work among Working Women: A Literature Review
Susanna Toivanen
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/873678
Abstract: In adult life, many of the social determinants of health are connected to working life. Yet, our knowledge of the role of work-related factors for the risk of stroke is fairly limited. In contemporary occupational health research, the Demand-Control Model (DCM) is frequently used to measure work stress. Previous literature reviews of the association of work stress and cardiovascular disease (CVD) do not include stroke as a specific outcome. Results regarding work stress and the risk of CVD are less evident in working women. With the focus on working women, the purpose of the present paper was to review the current research into the DCM in relation to stroke and to scrutinize potential gender differences. A literature search was performed and eight studies from three countries were identified. Based on the reviewed studies, there is some evidence that high psychological demands, low job control, and job strain are associated with increased stroke risk in women as well as in men. Any major reduction in deaths and disability from stroke is likely to come from decreasing social inequalities in health, and reducing work stress has a potential to contribute to a reduced risk of stroke in working populations. 1. Introduction Social determinants of health, that is, those conditions under which people are born, live, work, and grow old, shape population health in a systematic way [1]. Unequal distribution of and access to resources such as power, education, income, goods, and services influence social inequalities in health between countries and between groups of people within countries. In adult life, many of the social determinants of health are connected to working life. Both employment conditions and adverse work environments contribute to social inequalities in health, and these conditions are unequally distributed across occupational classes and women and men in working populations [2]. Labor markets are clearly segregated by gender meaning that women and men usually work in different industrial sectors with different types of work environments. More women than men have a low occupational class and the share of work stress is usually higher in women’s jobs [3]. Yet, our knowledge of associations of work related factors and the risk of stroke is fairly limited [4–6]. There is a clear social gradient in stroke mortality and morbidity as lower socioeconomic groups worldwide have consistently higher rates of stroke than higher socioeconomic groups [7]. A fourth of all stroke events occur among people of working age (<65 years of age), and the consequences with
La proliferación de discursos en los estudios de género
Estudios de filosof?-a pr??ctica e historia de las ideas , 2007,
Abstract: as teacher of gender studies, the author observed a gap between the flourishing of sexual and gender diversity, and the persistence in academic courses of binary, biologically-based models. she graphically mapped different approaches including masculinities, the sociology of sex/gender, and internet studies. the proliferation of discourses proposed by foucault and butler has the potential to subvert the hegemony claimed by any current -such as the history of feminism or women in development- as obligatory entry-point to this area of study. from a postmodern perspective, the method opens up the field from women's studies to new themes and subjects of gender studies.
A Report on the Examination of Animal Skin Artefacts from the Bronze Age Salt Mines of Hallstatt, Austria
Susanna Harris
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 2006, DOI: 10.5334/pia.270
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