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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5165 matches for " Susan; Phiri "
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Root-Zone Soil Water Balance and Sunflower Yield under Deficit Irrigated in Zambia  [PDF]
Elijah Phiri, Simon Zimba
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2018.81005
Abstract: The study was conducted at the University of Zambia, Research Field Station, Lusaka, Zambia to evaluate the root zone soil water balance under full, and deficit irrigated sunflower. The specific objectives were: 1) to assess the sunflower growth and yield under varying irrigation water regimes; 2) to evaluate the root-zone water balance; and 3) to evaluate the water use efficiency of sunflower. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus, var Milika) was planted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four irrigated water regimes in four replications. The treatments comprised: treatment (T1) = 30% ETc; treatment (T2) = 54% ETc; treatment (T3) = 65% ETc; and treatment (T4) = 100% ETc. The sunflower crop was irrigated on a weekly irrigation schedule using sprinklers. The measured parameters included: weather data, soil moisture profiles, growth stages (emergence, flowering, maturity), above-ground biomass, and grain yield. The results of the study showed that growth parameter (biomass and seed yield) decreased with a decrease in applied irrigation water. The sunflower seed yield varied from 0.22 to 1.40-ton·ha-1 with an average yield of 0.81-ton·ha-1. The highest grain yield was obtained under treatment (T4), and the least grain in yield harvest was at treatment (T1). The statistical analysis showed significant differences in seed yield among the treatments. The treatments (T1 and T2) were not significantly different (p > 0.05). These results showed that when water deficit was set at 65% and 100% ETc and uniformly distributed throughout the sunflower growth, there were no significant differences in biomass, stover and seed yield. In literature, the allowable soil moisture depletion factor for irrigation scheduling of sunflower is set at 45%. The yield components decreased as irrigation levels decreased for each irrigation interval. The 65% ETc treatment could be recommended for sunflower irrigated in semi-arid regions and be used as a good basis for improved irrigation strategy development under water stressed environment.
Translating evidence into policy in low-income countries: lessons from co-trimoxazole preventive therapy
Hutchinson,Eleanor; Droti,Benson; Gibb,Diana; Chishinga,Nathaniel; Hoskins,Susan; Phiri,Sam; Parkhurst,Justin;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862011000400015
Abstract: in the april 2010 issue of this journal, date et al. expressed concern over the slow scale-up in low-income settings of two therapies for the prevention of opportunistic infections in people living with the human immunodeficiency virus: co-trimoxazole prophylaxis and isoniazid preventive therapy. this short paper discusses the important ways in which policy analysis can be of use in understanding and explaining how and why certain evidence makes its way into policy and practice and what local factors influence this process. key lessons about policy development are drawn from the research evidence on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, as such lessons may prove helpful to those who seek to influence the development of national policy on isoniazid preventive therapy and other treatments. researchers are encouraged to disseminate their findings in a manner that is clear, but they must also pay attention to how structural, institutional and political factors shape policy development and implementation. doing so will help them to understand and address the concerns raised by date et al. and other experts. mainstreaming policy analysis approaches that explain how local factors shape the uptake of research evidence can provide an additional tool for researchers who feel frustrated because their research findings have not made their way into policy and practice.
A Model for Improving E-Tax Systems Adoption in Rural Zambia Based on the TAM Model  [PDF]
Patience Njina Soneka, Jackson Phiri
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2019.72062
Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the factors that influence the level of e-tax systems adoption in Zambia. The study focused on TaxOnline system used by domestic taxes division in Zambia. The study was conducted in rural Zambia. In this study, the researcher used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The sample size was purposively selected from various taxpayers who were coming through to Zambia Revenue Authority Solwezi internet bureau. 100 semi structured survey questionnaires were distributed with 100% response. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that, E-tax system in Zambia is useful, easy to use and also secure. Based on the findings, majority of the taxpayers are filing their returns and paying taxes online. However, there are few taxpayers who still feel E-tax is not useful, easy to use and secure. Therefore, more awareness and taxpayer education must continue to bring everyone on board. E-Tax involves E-Filing and E-Payment which is the process of submitting returns over the internet using an approved E-Tax system. Adoption is the action or fact of choosing to take up or follow something. Technology Acceptance Model is an information system theory that models how users come to accept and use a technology. TaxOnline is a system used in Zambia to file returns and pay taxes online.
Articles The prevalence, intensity and ecological determinants of helminth infection among children in an urban and rural community in Southern Malawi
KS Phiri
Malawi Medical Journal , 2001,
Abstract: Rapid urbanisation and poor town planning in Malawi has been associated with poor environmental hygiene and sanitation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence, intensity and some potential risk factors of intestinal helminth infections among children aged 3 - 14 years in an urban and rural community in Southern Malawi. A randomised cross-sectional survey was conducted in July, 1998. Data were collected through questionnaire interview regarding socio-demographic and environmental conditions from households in both areas. Stool samples were collected from 273 children in the urban community and 280 in the rural. There was a significant difference (p<0.001) in the prevalence of helminth infections between the urban and rural communities, 16.5% and 3.6% respectively. Most of the infections were light (93.2% for Ascaris lumbricodes, 85.7% for hookworm). Large variance to mean ratios of egg intensity within age groups and the total study population suggested a high degree of aggregation of the parasites in the communities. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that certain groups of children in the urban community were much more likely to develop helminth infection. They included children who had pools of water/sewage around houses (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.4 - 5), did not wear shoes (OR = 7.1, 95% CI = 2.7 - 19.2), did not attend school (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.2 - 6.5), had mothers who had 4 to 8 years of education (OR = 5.2, 95% CI = 2.0 - 14.0), had mothers below 35 years of age (OR = 4.09, 95% CI = 1.39 -16.28) and living in an urban community (OR = 5.3, 95% CI = 2.6-12.1). Efforts to reduce helminth infections should focus on reducing exposures. Malawi Medical Journal Vol 13, No.3 (Sept 2001): pp22-26
Evolution of anti-corruption journalism in Africa: lessons from Zambia
Isaac Phiri
Global Media Journal : African Edition , 2011, DOI: 10.5789/2-1-32
Abstract: All African countries, where there are functioning states, express a strong desire to curb corruption. The African Union has a convention to prevent and combat corruption. Zambia, under President Levy Mwanawasa, has positioned itself as a leader in Africa's fight against corruption. Last year, former Zambian President Frederick Chiluba was found guilty of grand corruption by a London court in a case brought against him by the Zambian government. There is general agreement that the media plays a significant role in the war against plunder of national resources by African leaders. However, studies that examine exactly how the media influences the decisions and actions of public actors in Africa's anti-corruption agenda are few. This paper aims to fill this gap. The goal is to use the Zambian case to gain a clearer understanding of the evolution of anti-graft journalism in Africa and to derive enduring insights into the relationship between the anti-corruption actions of the state and anti-corruption reporting by the press. Three key questions provide a framework for this investigation: 1) Is the press driving the Zambian government's anti-corruption campaign? 2) Is President Mwanawasa's 'zero-tolerance' campaign self-generated and the press simply following and reporting news events coming out of the bold steps already determined by the government? 3) Is it possible that the press and the state have found common ground and formed an informal but formidable alliance to combat graft?
Common conditions leading to cattle carcass and offal condemnations at 3 abattoirs in the Western Province of Zambia and their zoonotic implications to consumers
A.M. Phiri
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v77i1.336
Abstract: From a total of 32 717 cattle slaughtered, 183 whole carcass condemnations were attributable to 9 diseases and conditions, namely, tuberculosis (TB), cysticercosis, emaciation, generalised lymphadenitis, jaundice, abscesses, moribund, sarcosporidiosis and odour. Bovine TB was the most important cause of condemnations (152 / 183, 83.1 %). Bovine cysticercosis and sarcosporidiosis accounted for 5 / 183 (2.7 %) and 8 / 183 (4.4 %), respectively, while each of the remaining conditions contributed less. Among the many conditions responsible for offal / organ condemnations were fascioliasis, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, hydatidosis and TB. In terms of number and weight, Fasciola gigantica infections made livers and lungs the most condemned offals (20.1 % and 0.7 %, respectively). Hydatidosis was the cause of 0.9%lung and 0.1%liver losses. Cysticercus bovis contributed to only 0.05%of all inspected tongues, hearts, and heads.TB was very rare in heads (0.01 %). The financial impact of whole carcasses and offals condemned during the study period was enormous and deprived livestock farmers of the much needed revenue and consumers of protein sources. Much or all of the condemned material that could have been useful was wasted by not being retrieved for conversion to processed meat, bone meal or pet food. Failure to detect lesions of potential zoonotic diseases at slaughter poses a health risk to consumers especially when meat is eaten undercooked.
Fasciolosis, J.P. Dalton : book review
I.K. Phiri
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v71i2.698
Aircraft Spares Supply Chain Management for the Aviation Industry in Zambia Based on the Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) Model  [PDF]
Danny Milambo, Jackson Phiri
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2019.73083
Abstract: This research articulates the challenges faced in the Supply Chain Management (SCM) of aircraft spares in the Zambian Aviation Industry. The study was conducted in Lusaka, Zambia. It was discovered that some of the challenges faced in SCM were due to unreliable lead times, non-adherence to service level agreements between buyers and suppliers and the unavailability of local players in the industry among others. The sample size was purposively selected from the aviation industry in Zambia. Data were collected from one hundred respondents from public and private institutions in the Aviation sector which was later analysed using descriptive statistics. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) Model can be adopted to eliminate delays in procurement and delivery of spare parts and solve many other challenges found in the aviation industry in the Country. This can be ironed out using the model’s five management practices of plan, source, make, deliver and return. The model structure also provides four major components (People, Practices, Processes and Performance) to assess the status of any given situation. These elements ensure a smooth supply chain for products as they incorporate demand management, inventory management, and freight management among others. The study recommended the need to employ Enterprise Resource Planning for supplier-vendor management and the need to adhere to service level agreements. Furthermore, it stressed on the need to use supply chain techniques in improving efficiency in the SCM function to reduce costs.
An Explanation of the Levels of Compliance in Filing Company Annual Returns Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior: A Case for Zambia  [PDF]
Chimuka Mweetwa, Jackson Phiri
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2019.73094
Abstract: Company registers are increasingly becoming a crucial source of business information for many stakeholders. While most company registers have concentrated on simplifying business registrations, reducing the number of procedures, time and cost for small entities to be formed, compliance remains a big challenge for many company registers. Compliance is not just influenced by economic variables of enforcement and penalties but influenced by demographic, socio-economic and institutional factors. The aim of this study was to identify and explain the factors influencing compliance behaviour in filing company annual returns based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The study used a mixed research approach. A sample of 165 registered companies was randomly selected from the population of 68,049 active companies on the PACRA register. 9 PACRA officers were selected using judgment sampling and in-depth interviews were used. Primary data were collected through structured questionnaires. The secondary data were also collected by reviewing related published materials. Statistical tests of independence (chi-square tests) formed the basis of analysis. The results showed that annual return filings are influenced both by demographic and external factors. The demographic factors like employment status, age and education were found to positively influence compliance. Further, compliance was highest (68%) among those with tertiary education compared with (47%) those with no form of schooling. The study also revealed that those in formal employment were more compliant (64%) than those without employment (47%). Gender was found to be an insignificant factor and it has no influence on compliance. On external factors, cultural norms, government policies and compliance fees were identified in the study and were found to have an influence on compliance (save for compliance fees). Finally, the findings of the study may guide government institutions to save on enforcement costs (i.e. before they implement costly sensitization campaigns and educational clinics, they need to understand variables that affect compliance behaviour). The study findings can help policy makers and PACRA meet their strategic goals of raising compliance levels.
Factors Affecting Adoption and Use of Mobile Banking Services in Zambia Based on TAM Model  [PDF]
Lute Sakala, Jackson Phiri
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2019.73095
Abstract: The aim of the study was to identify the factors that affect the adoption and use of mobile banking services in Zambia based on the Technology Acceptance Model. Mobile banking a product offered under electronic banking services was the focus of the study. A quantitative research design was used, with a sample size of 384 respondents who held retail savings and current accounts that were eligible for mobile banking services in three commercial banks. A survey questionnaire was used as the primary data collection tool and the data collected was analysed using the IBM SPSS statistics. The results of study were that there is a significant positive relationship between perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, user attitude, external variables, user intention and system use. The regression results further showed that, the independent variables in the TAM model, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, external factors, user attitude and user intention account for 47% of the variance in the factors that determine the use of electronic banking technologies such as mobile banking. The study recommends that commercial banks and the providers of mobile banking services need to improve the perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, external factors; and promote positive user attitude and user intention. This would result in improved adoption and use of mobile banking services. They should also provide information on how to access and use these services.
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