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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8512 matches for " Susan White "
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Design of Reflective, Photonic Shields for Atmospheric Reentry  [PDF]
Nikolay Komarevskiy, Valery Shklover, Leonid Braginsky, Christian Hafner, Olga Fabrichnaya, John Lawson, Susan White
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2011.36037
Abstract: We present the design of one-dimensional photonic crystal structures, which can be used as omnidirectional reflecting shields against radiative heating of space vehicles entering the Earth’s atmosphere. This radiation is approximated by two broad bands centered at visible and nearinfrared energies. We applied two approaches to find structures with the best omnidirectional reflecting performance. The first approach is based on a band gap analysis and leads to structures composed of stacked Bragg mirrors. In the second approach, we optimize the structure using an evolutionary strategy. The suggested structures are compared with a simple design of two stacked Bragg mirrors. Choice of the constituent materials for the layers as well as the influence of interlayer diffusion at high temperatures are discussed.
Erratum to “Stroke Survivors Scoring Zero on the NIH Stroke Scale Score Still Exhibit Significant Motor Impairment and Functional Limitation”
Brittany Hand,Stephen J. Page,Susan White
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/542638
Abstract:
Our Journeys: Paths toward Social Education
Cameron White,Sabrina Marsh,Susan McCormack
Journal of Social Studies Education Research , 2011,
Abstract: For educators and students to have the chance to become more critically aware, we believe educators need opportunities to experience different realities about teaching and learning, and to critique their own views of education and their role within it. Thus social education emerges as a lifelong journey for us – to question, to challenge, to do, and to create. It is our hope that our common shared experiences, designed around a basic belief in the rightness of social education to transform individuals and communities, may help inform views of learning and reflective knowledge construction, and open the way for emancipatory critical dialogue and action among multiple voices.
Stroke Survivors Scoring Zero on the NIH Stroke Scale Score Still Exhibit Significant Motor Impairment and Functional Limitation
Brittany Hand,Stephen J. Page,Susan White
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/462681
Abstract: Objective. To determine the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale’s (NIHSS’s) association with upper extremity (UE) impairment and functional outcomes. Design. Secondary, retrospective analysis of randomized controlled trial data. Setting. Not applicable. Participants. 146 subjects with stable, chronic stroke-induced hemiparesis. Intervention. The NIHSS, the UE Fugl-Meyer (FM), and the Arm Motor Ability Test (AMAT) were administered prior to their participation in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Main Outcome Measures. The NIHSS, FM, and AMAT. Results. The association between the NIHSS and UE impairment was statistically significant but explained less than 4% of the variance among UE FM scores. The association between NIHSS total score and function as measured by the AMAT was not statistically significant . Subjects scoring a “zero” on the NIHSS exhibited discernible UE motor deficits and varied scores on the UE FM and AMAT. Conclusion. While being used in stroke trials, the NIHSS may have limited ability to discriminate between treatment responses, even when only a relatively narrow array of impairment levels exists among patients. Given these findings, NIHSS use should be restricted to acute stroke studies and clinical settings with the goal of reporting stroke severity. 1. Introduction Upper extremity (UE) hemiparesis remains one of the most frequent stroke-induced impairments [1] and considerably undermines performance of valued activities. Yet, despite weeks of rehabilitation, 50% of patients retain some degree of UE weakness [2] and up to seventy percent remain unable to functionally use their paretic UEs [3] in the months after stroke. Scores on the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale [4] (NIHSS) are associated with stroke outcomes [5–7], causing the NIHSS to be recommended for determining “appropriate treatment and predicting patient outcome” [8]. However, the “functional” measures with which the NIHSS has been associated in stroke trials [7, 9, 10] (e.g., Glasgow Coma Scale; Barthel Index) do not directly assess active UE movement or functional UE activity performance. For example, the Barthel Index ascertains the level of help that a patient requires to carry out various daily activities, but not the actual level of movement that the patient exhibits or how active movements conspire to facilitate participation in valued activities. These levels of help may be related to adaptive equipment use, available care partner support, or other factors, but do not tell the user how the client has actually responded to treatment
Introduction of the Thin Prep Imaging System (TIS): Experience in a high volume academic practice
Chivukula Mamatha,Saad Reda,Elishaev Esther,White Susan
CytoJournal , 2007,
Abstract: Objective: Since the introduction of the liquid-based ThinPrep testing in 1996, most cytology laboratories across the country have adopted the liquid-based cytology (LBC) for Pap test screening. Subsequent to wide-spread adoption of the ThinPrep Pap test, the ThinPrep Imaging System (TIS) Cytyc Corp, Marlborough, MA was introduced to improve the accuracy and efficiency of screening interpretation. We report our initial experience with the TIS at Magee Women′s Hospital. We introduced the TIS in December 2004. Methods: The imager assisted Pap test results over the first 12 months (December 2004 to December 2005) of implementation were reviewed and analyzed. Our implementation protocol included each cytotechnologist manually prescreening 200 negative slides to gain experience with the imager slides and serve as a quality check for the TIS. We re-screened 3400 slides (200 slides each for 17 cytotechnologists) manually which were initially determined to be negative using the TIS. 104,457 Pap tests were imaged on the TIS. 95,899 manually screened Pap tests, 12 months prior to the introduction of the TIS (December 2003-November 2004) are taken as the historic control group for our study. Results :The mean ASC-US rate employing the automated imager was 8.70% [9088/104,457]. The mean LSIL detection rate was 4.22% [4409/104,457]. The imager did not miss any detectible high-grade lesions during these months, with a HSIL (+) detection rate of 0.68% in comparison to 0.60% by manual screening confirmed by follow-up biopsies. The difference is statistically significant with a p value of 0.022 . The definition of false negative rate for purposes of this study is calculated as the number of false negative cases identified out of number of negatives re-screened. The TIS false negative rate was estimated at 0.012% [4/3400]. Conclusion :The overall performance of the TIS in our lab appears to be highly satisfactory in terms of improving sensitivity in screening cervical precursor lesions. The increased accuracy of detection of HSIL indicates a positive impact of the TIS in our laboratory.
Introduction of the Thin Prep Imaging System (TIS): experience in a high volume academic practice
Chivukula Mamatha,Saad Reda,Elishaev Esther,White Susan
CytoJournal , 2007,
Abstract: Objective Since the introduction of the liquid-based ThinPrep testing in 1996, most cytology laboratories across the country have adopted the liquid-based cytology (LBC) for Pap test screening. Subsequent to wide-spread adoption of the ThinPrep Pap test, the ThinPrep Imaging System (TIS) Cytyc Corp, Marlborough, MA was introduced to improve the accuracy and efficiency of screening interpretation. We report our initial experience with the TIS at Magee Women's Hospital. We introduced the TIS in December 2004. Methods The imager assisted Pap test results over the first 12 months (December 2004 to December 2005) of implementation were reviewed and analyzed. Our implementation protocol included each cytotechnologist manually prescreening 200 negative slides to gain experience with the imager slides and serve as a quality check for the TIS. We re-screened 3400 slides (200 slides each for 17 cytotechnologists) manually which were initially determined to be negative using the TIS. 104,457 Pap tests were imaged on the TIS. 95,899 manually screened Pap tests, 12 months prior to the introduction of the TIS (December 2003–November 2004) are taken as the historic control group for our study. Results The mean ASC-US rate employing the automated imager was 8.70% [9088/104,457]. The mean LSIL detection rate was 4.22% [4409/104,457]. The imager did not miss any detectible high-grade lesions during these months, with a HSIL (+) detection rate of 0.68% in comparison to 0.60% by manual screening confirmed by follow-up biopsies. The difference is statistically significant with a p value of 0.022. The definition of false negative rate for purposes of this study is calculated as the number of false negative cases identified out of number of negatives re-screened. The TIS false negative rate was estimated at 0.012% [4/3400]. Conclusion The overall performance of the TIS in our lab appears to be highly satisfactory in terms of improving sensitivity in screening cervical precursor lesions. The increased accuracy of detection of HSIL indicates a positive impact of the TIS in our laboratory.
Variations on Narrow Dots-and-Boxes and Dots-and-Triangles
Adam Jobson,Levi Sledd,Susan C. White,D. Jacob Wildstrom
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: We verify a conjecture of Nowakowski and Ottaway that closed $1 \times n$ Dots-and-Triangles is a first-player win when $n \neq 2$. We also prove that in both the open and closed $1 \times n$ Dots-and-Boxes games where $n$ is even, the first player can guarantee a tie.
Effectiveness of Holistic Interventions for People with Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Systematic Review of Controlled Clinical Trials
Ulugbek Nurmatov, Susan Buckingham, Marilyn Kendall, Scott A. Murray, Patrick White, Aziz Sheikh, Hilary Pinnock
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046433
Abstract: Background Despite a well-recognised burden of disabling physical symptoms compounded by co-morbidities, psychological distress and social isolation, the needs of people with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are typically poorly addressed. Aim To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to deliver holistic care for people with severe COPD. Methods We searched 11 biomedical databases, three trial repositories (January 1990-March 2012; no language restrictions) and contacted international experts to locate published, unpublished and in-progress randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) that investigated holistic interventions to support patients with severe COPD in any healthcare context. The primary outcome was health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Quality assessment and data extraction followed Cochrane Collaboration methodology. We used a piloted data extraction sheet and undertook narrative synthesis. Results From 2,866 potentially relevant papers, we identified three trials: two RCTs (from United States and Australia), and one CCT (from Thailand): total 216 patients. Risk of bias was assessed as moderate in two studies and high in the third. All the interventions were led by nurses acting in a co-ordinating role (e.g. facilitating community support in Thailand, providing case-management in the USA, or co-ordinating inpatient care in Australia). HRQoL improved significantly in the Thai CCT compared to the (very limited) usual care (p<0.001), in two sub-domains in the American trial, but showed no significant changes in the Australian trial. Exercise tolerance, dyspnoea, and satisfaction with care also improved in the Thai trial. Conclusions Some 15 years after reports first highlighted the unmet needs of people with severe COPD, we have been unable to find robust trial evidence about interventions that can address those needs. There is an urgent need to develop and evaluate holistic care interventions designed improve HRQoL for people with severe COPD. Systematic Review Registration PROSPERO (CRD42012002430).
Retinal Pathology of Pediatric Cerebral Malaria in Malawi
Valerie A. White, Susan Lewallen, Nicholas A. V. Beare, Malcolm E. Molyneux, Terrie E. Taylor
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004317
Abstract: Introduction The causes of coma and death in cerebral malaria remain unknown. Malarial retinopathy has been identified as an important clinical sign in the diagnosis and prognosis of cerebral malaria. As part of a larger autopsy study to determine causes of death in children with coma presenting to hospital in Blantyre, Malawi, who were fully evaluated clinically prior to death, we examined the histopathology of eyes of patients who died and underwent autopsy. Methodology/Principal Findings Children with coma were admitted to the pediatric research ward, classified according to clinical definitions as having cerebral malaria or another cause of coma, evaluated and treated. The eyes were examined by direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy. If a child died and permission was given, a standardized autopsy was carried out. The patient was then assigned an actual cause of death according to the autopsy findings. The eyes were examined pathologically for hemorrhages, cystoid macular edema, parasite sequestration and thrombi. They were stained immunohistochemically for fibrin and CD61 to identify the components of thrombi, β-amyloid precursor protein to detect axonal damage, for fibrinogen to identify vascular leakage and for glial fibrillary acidic protein to detect gliosis. Sixty-four eyes from 64 patients were examined: 35 with cerebral malaria and 29 with comas of other causes. Cerebral malaria was distinguished by sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes, the presence and severity of retinal hemorrhages, the presence of cystoid macular edema, the occurrence and number of fibrin-platelet thrombi, the presence and amount of axonal damage and vascular leakage. Conclusions/Significance We found significant differences in retinal histopathology between patients who died of cerebral malaria and those with other diagnoses. These histopathological findings offer insights into the etiology of malarial retinopathy and provide a pathological basis for recently described retinal capillary non-perfusion in children with malarial retinopathy. Because of the similarities between the retina and the brain it also suggests mechanisms that may contribute to coma and death in cerebral malaria.
The Impact of Different Types of Assistive Devices on Gait Measures and Safety in Huntington's Disease
Anne D. Kloos, Deborah A. Kegelmeyer, Susan E. White, Sandra K. Kostyk
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030903
Abstract: Background Gait and balance impairments lead to frequent falls and injuries in individuals with Huntington's disease (HD). Assistive devices (ADs) such as canes and walkers are often prescribed to prevent falls, but their efficacy is unknown. We systematically examined the effects of different types of ADs on quantitative gait measures during walking in a straight path and around obstacles. Methods Spatial and temporal gait parameters were measured in 21 subjects with HD as they walked across a GAITRite walkway under 7 conditions (i.e., using no AD and 6 commonly prescribed ADs: a cane, a weighted cane, a standard walker, and a 2, 3 or 4 wheeled walker). Subjects also were timed and observed for number of stumbles and falls while walking around two obstacles in a figure-of-eight pattern. Results Gait measure variability (i.e., coefficient of variation), an indicator of fall risk, was consistently better when using the 4WW compared to other ADs. Subjects also walked the fastest and had the fewest number of stumbles and falls when using the 4WW in the figure-of-eight course. Subjects walked significantly slower using ADs compared to no AD both across the GAITRite and in the figure-of-eight. Measures reflecting gait stability and safety improved with the 4WW but were made worse by some other ADs.
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