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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 31 matches for " Supachai Rerks-Ngarm "
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An HIV Vaccine for South-East Asia—Opportunities and Challenges
Punnee Pitisuttithum,Supachai Rerks-Ngarm,Robert J. O'Connell,Jerome H. Kim,Jean-Louis Excler
Vaccines , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/vaccines1030348
Abstract: Recent advances in HIV vaccine development along with a better understanding of the immune correlates of risk have emerged from the RV144 efficacy trial conducted in Thailand. Epidemiological data suggest that CRF01_AE is still predominant in South-East Asia and is spreading in China with a growing number of circulating recombinant forms due to increasing human contact, particularly in large urban centers, tourist locations and in sites of common infrastructure. A vaccine countering CRF01_AE is a priority for the region. An Asia HIV vaccine against expanding B/E or BCE recombinant forms should be actively pursued. A major challenge that remains is the conduct of efficacy trials in heterosexual populations in this region. Men who have sex with men represent the main target population for future efficacy trials in Asia. Coupling HIV vaccines with other prevention modalities in efficacy trials might also be envisaged. These new avenues will only be made possible through the conduct of large-scale efficacy trials, interdisciplinary teams, international collaborations, and strong political and community commitments.
AIDS Vaccine for Asia Network (AVAN): Expanding the Regional Role in Developing HIV Vaccines
Stephen J. Kent,David A. Cooper,Mean Chhi Vun,Yiming Shao ,Linqi Zhang,Nirmal Ganguly,Budiman Bela,Hiko Tamashiro,Rossana Ditangco,Supachai Rerks-Ngarm,Punnee Pitisuttithum,Nguyen Van Kinh,Alan Bernstein,Saladin Osmanov,for the AIDS Vaccine for Asia Network investigators and supporters
PLOS Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000331
Abstract:
Safety and Reactogenicity of Canarypox ALVAC-HIV (vCP1521) and HIV-1 gp120 AIDSVAX B/E Vaccination in an Efficacy Trial in Thailand
Punnee Pitisuttithum, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Valai Bussaratid, Jittima Dhitavat, Wirach Maekanantawat, Swangjai Pungpak, Pravan Suntharasamai, Sirivan Vanijanonta, Sorachai Nitayapan, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Michael Benenson, Patricia Morgan, Robert J. O'Connell, Jeffrey Berenberg, Sanjay Gurunathan, Donald P. Francis, Robert Paris, Joseph Chiu, Donald Stablein, Nelson L. Michael, Jean-Louis Excler, Merlin L. Robb, Jerome H. Kim
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027837
Abstract: Background A prime-boost vaccination regimen with ALVAC-HIV (vCP1521) administered intramuscularly at 0, 4, 12, and 24 weeks and gp120 AIDSVAX B/E at 12 and 24 weeks demonstrated modest efficacy of 31.2% for prevention of HIV acquisition in HIV-uninfected adults participating in a community-based efficacy trial in Thailand. Methodology/Principal Findings Reactogenicity was recorded for 3 days following vaccination. Adverse events were monitored every 6 months for 3.5 years, during which pregnancy outcomes were recorded. Of the 16,402 volunteers, 69% of the participants reported an adverse event any time after the first dose. Only 32.9% experienced an AE within 30 days following any vaccination. Overall adverse event rates and attribution of relatedness did not differ between groups. The frequency of serious adverse events was similar in vaccine (14.3%) and placebo (14.9%) recipients (p = 0.33). None of the 160 deaths (85 in vaccine and 75 in placebo recipients, p = 0.43) was assessed as related to vaccine. The most common cause of death was trauma or traffic accident. Approximately 30% of female participants reported a pregnancy during the study. Abnormal pregnancy outcomes were experienced in 17.1% of vaccine and 14.6% (p = 0.13) of placebo recipients. When the conception occurred within 3 months (estimated) of a vaccination, the majority of these abnormal outcomes were spontaneous or elective abortions among 22.2% and 15.3% of vaccine and placebo pregnant recipients, respectively (p = 0.08). Local reactions occurred in 88.0% of vaccine and 61.0% of placebo recipients (p<0.001) and were more frequent after ALVAC-HIV than AIDSVAX B/E vaccination. Systemic reactions were more frequent in vaccine than placebo recipients (77.2% vs. 59.8%, p<0.001). Local and systemic reactions were mostly mild to moderate, resolving within 3 days. Conclusions/Significance The ALVAC-HIV and AIDSVAX B/E vaccine regimen was found to be safe, well tolerated and suitable for potential large-scale use in Thailand. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00223080
Plasma IgG to Linear Epitopes in the V2 and V3 Regions of HIV-1 gp120 Correlate with a Reduced Risk of Infection in the RV144 Vaccine Efficacy Trial
Raphael Gottardo, Robert T. Bailer, Bette T. Korber, S. Gnanakaran, Joshua Phillips, Xiaoying Shen, Georgia D. Tomaras, Ellen Turk, Gregory Imholte, Larry Eckler, Holger Wenschuh, Johannes Zerweck, Kelli Greene, Hongmei Gao, Phillip W. Berman, Donald Francis, Faruk Sinangil, Carter Lee, Sorachai Nitayaphan, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Punnee Pitisuttithum, James Tartaglia, Merlin L. Robb, Nelson L. Michael, Jerome H. Kim, Susan Zolla-Pazner, Barton F. Haynes, John R. Mascola, Steve Self, Peter Gilbert, David C. Montefiori
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075665
Abstract: Neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies to linear epitopes on HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins have potential to mediate antiviral effector functions that could be beneficial to vaccine-induced protection. Here, plasma IgG responses were assessed in three HIV-1 gp120 vaccine efficacy trials (RV144, Vax003, Vax004) and in HIV-1-infected individuals by using arrays of overlapping peptides spanning the entire consensus gp160 of all major genetic subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) of the virus. In RV144, where 31.2% efficacy against HIV-1 infection was seen, dominant responses targeted the C1, V2, V3 and C5 regions of gp120. An analysis of RV144 case-control samples showed that IgG to V2 CRF01_AE significantly inversely correlated with infection risk (OR= 0.54, p=0.0042), as did the response to other V2 subtypes (OR=0.60-0.63, p=0.016-0.025). The response to V3 CRF01_AE also inversely correlated with infection risk but only in vaccine recipients who had lower levels of other antibodies, especially Env-specific plasma IgA (OR=0.49, p=0.007) and neutralizing antibodies (OR=0.5, p=0.008). Responses to C1 and C5 showed no significant correlation with infection risk. In Vax003 and Vax004, where no significant protection was seen, serum IgG responses targeted the same epitopes as in RV144 with the exception of an additional C1 reactivity in Vax003 and infrequent V2 reactivity in Vax004. In HIV-1 infected subjects, dominant responses targeted the V3 and C5 regions of gp120, as well as the immunodominant domain, heptad repeat 1 (HR-1) and membrane proximal external region (MPER) of gp41. These results highlight the presence of several dominant linear B cell epitopes on the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. They also generate the hypothesis that IgG to linear epitopes in the V2 and V3 regions of gp120 are part of a complex interplay of immune responses that contributed to protection in RV144.
Analysis of V2 Antibody Responses Induced in Vaccinees in the ALVAC/AIDSVAX HIV-1 Vaccine Efficacy Trial
Susan Zolla-Pazner, Allan C. deCamp, Timothy Cardozo, Nicos Karasavvas, Raphael Gottardo, Constance Williams, Daryl E. Morris, Georgia Tomaras, Mangala Rao, Erik Billings, Phillip Berman, Xiaoying Shen, Charla Andrews, Robert J. O'Connell, Viseth Ngauy, Sorachai Nitayaphan, Mark de Souza, Bette Korber, Richard Koup, Robert T. Bailer, John R. Mascola, Abraham Pinter, David Montefiori, Barton F. Haynes, Merlin L. Robb, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Nelson L. Michael, Peter B. Gilbert, Jerome H. Kim
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053629
Abstract: The RV144 clinical trial of a prime/boost immunizing regimen using recombinant canary pox (ALVAC-HIV) and two gp120 proteins (AIDSVAX B and E) was previously shown to have a 31.2% efficacy rate. Plasma specimens from vaccine and placebo recipients were used in an extensive set of assays to identify correlates of HIV-1 infection risk. Of six primary variables that were studied, only one displayed a significant inverse correlation with risk of infection: the antibody (Ab) response to a fusion protein containing the V1 and V2 regions of gp120 (gp70-V1V2). This finding prompted a thorough examination of the results generated with the complete panel of 13 assays measuring various V2 Abs in the stored plasma used in the initial pilot studies and those used in the subsequent case-control study. The studies revealed that the ALVAC-HIV/AIDSVAX vaccine induced V2-specific Abs that cross-react with multiple HIV-1 subgroups and recognize both conformational and linear epitopes. The conformational epitope was present on gp70-V1V2, while the predominant linear V2 epitope mapped to residues 165–178, immediately N-terminal to the putative α4β7 binding motif in the mid-loop region of V2. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to compare the risk of infection with data from 12 V2 assays, and in 11 of these, the ORs were ≤1, reaching statistical significance for two of the variables: Ab responses to gp70-V1V2 and to overlapping V2 linear peptides. It remains to be determined whether anti-V2 Ab responses were directly responsible for the reduced infection rate in RV144 and whether anti-V2 Abs will prove to be important with other candidate HIV vaccines that show efficacy, however, the results support continued dissection of Ab responses to the V2 region which may illuminate mechanisms of protection from HIV-1 infection and may facilitate the development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine.
Vaccine-Induced IgG Antibodies to V1V2 Regions of Multiple HIV-1 Subtypes Correlate with Decreased Risk of HIV-1 Infection
Susan Zolla-Pazner, Allan deCamp, Peter B. Gilbert, Constance Williams, Nicole L. Yates, William T. Williams, Robert Howington, Youyi Fong, Daryl E. Morris, Kelly A. Soderberg, Carmela Irene, Charles Reichman, Abraham Pinter, Robert Parks, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Sorachai Nitayaphan, Charla Andrews, Robert J. O’Connell, Zhi-yong Yang, Gary J. Nabel, Jerome H. Kim, Nelson L. Michael, David C. Montefiori, Hua-Xin Liao, Barton F. Haynes, Georgia D. Tomaras
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087572
Abstract: In the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial, IgG antibody (Ab) binding levels to variable regions 1 and 2 (V1V2) of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 were an inverse correlate of risk of HIV-1 infection. To determine if V1V2-specific Abs cross-react with V1V2 from different HIV-1 subtypes, if the nature of the V1V2 antigen used to asses cross-reactivity influenced infection risk, and to identify immune assays for upcoming HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials, new V1V2-scaffold antigens were designed and tested. Protein scaffold antigens carrying the V1V2 regions from HIV-1 subtypes A, B, C, D or CRF01_AE were assayed in pilot studies, and six were selected to assess cross-reactive Abs in the plasma from the original RV144 case-control cohort (41 infected vaccinees, 205 frequency-matched uninfected vaccinees, and 40 placebo recipients) using ELISA and a binding Ab multiplex assay. IgG levels to these antigens were assessed as correlates of risk in vaccine recipients using weighted logistic regression models. Levels of Abs reactive with subtype A, B, C and CRF01_AE V1V2-scaffold antigens were all significant inverse correlates of risk (p-values of 0.0008–0.05; estimated odds ratios of 0.53–0.68 per 1 standard deviation increase). Thus, levels of vaccine-induced IgG Abs recognizing V1V2 regions from multiple HIV-1 subtypes, and presented on different scaffolds, constitute inverse correlates of risk for HIV-1 infection in the RV144 vaccine trial. The V1V2 antigens provide a link between RV144 and upcoming HIV-1 vaccine trials, and identify reagents and methods for evaluating V1V2 Abs as possible correlates of protection against HIV-1 infection. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00223080
Comparison of rectangular array and triangular array arrangements of cylindrical cans in corrugated box
Supachai Pisuchpen
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2008,
Abstract: Rectangular and triangular array arrangements of cans in a box were mathematically analyzed. A set of developed equations offers systematic approach of comparing two patterns. In general, a triangular array shows a better economical way for loading cylindrical cans in a box. Sets of best can packing were tabulated which can assist packaging engineers to understand and select a better efficient arrangement of cans in a box. The required smallest volume and least surface area of box obtained from this analysis lead to find the most economical way in arrangement of cylindrical cans in box.
Path Loss Prediction for Low-Rise Buildings with Image Classification on 2-D Aerial Photographs
Supachai Phaiboon;Pisit Phokharatkul
PIER , 2009, DOI: 10.2528/PIER09061101
Abstract: This paper presents a radio wave propagation prediction method for low-rise buildings using 2-D aerial images taken from actual areas. The prediction procedure was done in three steps. Firstly, the images were classified in order to identify the objects by Color Temperature Properties with Maximum Likelihood Algorithm (CTP_MLA). The objects in the images consist of buildings, trees, roads, water and plain. These objects influence wave propagation highly. The MLA classification is a common supervised image segmentation technique in remote sensing domain. However it still needs human editing in case of classification errors. Secondly, the appropriate path loss models were selected to predict path loss. The original Xia path loss model was modified to include the effects of airy buildings and vegetation around the buildings. Finally, preliminary tests provide a better solution compared with measured path losses with the root mean square error (RMSE) and maximum relative error (MRE) of 3.47 and 0.16, respectively. Therefore, the positions for micro-cell base stations could be designed on a 2-D aerial map.
Use of the p-SINE1-r2 in inferring evolutionary relationships of Thai rice varieties with AA genome
Preecha Prathepha,Supachai Samappito
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2006,
Abstract: In a previous study we described the prevalence and distribution in Thailand of the retroposon p- SINE1-r2, in the intron 10 of the waxy gene in cultivated and wild rice with the AA genome. In this study, additional varieties of rice were collected and sequencing was used to further characterize p-SINE1-r2. It was found that the length of the p-SINE1-r2 nucleotide sequences was about 125 bp, flanked by identical direct repeats of a 14 bp sequence. These sequences were compared and found to be similar to the sequences of p- SINE1-r2 found in Nipponbare, a rice strain discussed in a separate study. However, when compared the 48 DNA sequences identified in this study, much dissimilarity was found within the nucleotide sequences of p- SINE1-r2, in the form of base substitution mutations. Phylogenetic relationships inferred from the nucleotide sequences of these elements in cultivated rice (O. sativa) and wild rice (O. nivara). It was found that rice accessions collected from the same geographical distribution have been placed in the same clade. The phylogenetic tree supports the origin and distribution of these rice strains.
The detectability of habitable exomoons with Kepler
Supachai Awiphan,Eamonn Kerins
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt614
Abstract: In this paper, the detectability of habitable exomoons orbiting around giant planets in M-dwarf systems using Transit Timing Variations (TTVs) and Transit Timing Durations (TDVs) with Kepler-class photometry is investigated. Light curves of systems with various configurations were simulated around M-dwarf hosts of mass 0.5 Msun and radius 0.55 Rsun. Jupiter-like giant planets which offer the best potential for hosting habitable exomoons were considered with rocky super-Earth-mass moons. The detectability is measured by using the phase-correlation between TTV and TDV signals. Since the TDV signal is typically weaker than the TTV signal, confirmation of an exomoon detection will depend on being able to detect a TDV signal. We find that exomoons around planets orbiting within the habitable zone of an M-dwarf host star can produce both detectable TTV and TDV signatures with Kepler-class photometry. While aliasing between the planet period and moon period may hinder exomoon detection, we also find some strong correlation signatures in our simulation (eg. correlation: >0.7) which would provide convincing exomoon signatures. With the addition of red noise stellar variability, correlations generally weaken. However simulated examples with planet masses less than around 25 Mearth, moons of mass 8-10 Mearth and specific values of planet and moon periods still yield detectable correlation in 25-50% of cases. Our simulation indicates that Kepler provides one of the best available opportunities for exomoon detection.
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