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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 22327 matches for " Sunil Kumar Raina "
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A study on Nalidixic Acid Resistant Salmonella among the patients attending Shree Birendra Hospital
Raina Chaudhary,Khagendra Sijapati,Sunil Kumar Singh
Medical Journal of Shree Birendra Hospital , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/mjsbh.v10i2.6453
Abstract: Introduction: Enteric fever is the commonest public health problem in developing countries like Nepal. Multi Drug Resistant Salmonella isolates are in vitro susceptible to Quinolone but exhibited a higher Minimum Inhibitory Concentration in vivo. Such phenomenon can be demonstrated by simple disc diffusion test of Nalidixic Acid which shows resistance. This study is conducted to determine prevalence of Nalidixic Acid Resistant Salmonella with their anti biotic sensitivity pattern at Shree Birendra Hospital, Chauni, kathmandu.
Aorto-Pulmonary Artery Fistula Following Aortic Valve Replacement: A Diagnostic Dilemma  [PDF]
Tarun Raina Ramman, Shyamveer Khangarot, Sunil Kumar, M. A. Geelani, D. K. Satsangi
World Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery (WJCS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjcs.2016.63007
Abstract: Aorto-pulmonary artery fistula is a rare and lethal occurrence after thoracic surgery and aortic aneurysms. Here we present a rare occurrence of acute aorto-pulmonary artery fistula in outpatient department in a follow up patient of aortic valve replacement and discuss challenges faced in diagnosis, etiopathogenesis and management.
Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Its Risk Factors among Permanently Settled Tribal Individuals in Tribal and Urban Areas in Northern State of Sub-Himalayan Region of India
Dhiraj Kapoor,Ashok Kumar Bhardwaj,Dinesh Kumar,Sunil Kumar Raina
International Journal of Chronic Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/380597
Abstract: Background. Effect of urban environment on the development of DM and its risk factors is studied with an ecological fallacy due to their study designs that formulate the background for the present study. Objective. To study the prevalence of DM and associated lifestyle related risk factors in traditional tribal individuals residing in tribal area and migrating persons of the same tribe to urban area of sub-Himalayan northern state of India. Methodology. Population based cross-sectional study. Results. A total of 8000 individuals (tribal: 4000; urban: 4000) were recruited. Overall, among urban tribes the prevalence of central obesity (59.0%), overweight (29.3%), stage 1 (22.8%) and stage 2 (5.3%) hypertension, and DM (fasting: 7.8%; OGTT: 8.5%) was significantly higher than the tribes of tribal area. Based on OGTT, the prevalence of DM was found to be 9.2% among central obese tribes of urban area and 6.7% of tribal area . DM showed a significant high prevalence among urban tribes with prehypertension (urban: 8.3%; tribal: 2.9%; ), and stage 1 (urban: 14.1%; tribal: 8.7%; ) and stage 2 (urban: 17.5%; tribal: 13.9%; ) hypertension. Conclusion. Urban environment showed a changing lifestyle and high prevalence of DM among tribal migrating urban tribes as compared to traditional tribes. 1. Introduction Emerging trend of diabetes mellitus (DM) is observed worldwide, as by 2025, its prevalence is projected to be 6.3%, which is a 24.0% increase compared with 2003. There will be 333 million (a 72.0% increase) diabetics by 2030 in individuals of 20 to 79 years of age. The developing world (mainly central Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa) accounted for 141 million people with diabetes (72.5% of the world total) in 2003 [1]. Environmental factors like obesity (central or general), physical inactivity, and diet (saturated fats and transfatty acids) and socioeconomic factors are responsible for development of DM [2–6]. Diet rich in polyunsaturated fats and long chain omega-3 fatty acids reduces the risk for DM [7]. Along with the rising trend of DM, rapid urbanization has been observed as from 2008 to 2030 the global urban population will increase by 1.6 billion people (from 3.3 billion to 4.9 billion). While during the same period the rural population is going to reduce by 28 million. This demographic transition will largely take place in developing countries (particularly in Asia and Africa), as by 2030, the developing world population will constitute more than 80% of the world’s urban population [2, 3]. United Nations (UN) recognized that urbanization has health
Community Based Assessment of Biochemical Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases in Rural and Tribal Area of Himalayan Region, India
Ashok Kumar Bhardwaj,Dinesh Kumar,Sunil Kumar Raina,Pradeep Bansal,Satya Bhushan,Vishav Chander
Biochemistry Research International , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/696845
Abstract: Context. Evident change in nutrition and lifestyle among individuals of urban and rural areas raises suspicion for similar change in tribal area population of India. Aim. To study the biochemical risk factor for CVDs in rural and tribal population of Sub-Himalayan state of India. Settings and Design. Cross-sectional study in rural (low altitude) and tribal (high altitude) area of Himachal Pradesh, India. Methodology. Blood lipid profile using standard laboratory methods. Statistical Analysis. Chi-square test and multiple linear regression analysis. Results. Total of 900 individuals were studied in both areas. As per Asian criteria, obesity (BMI 27.5–30.0?kg/m2) was observed to be significantly high ( ) as 13.7% in tribal area as compared to 5.5% in rural area. Normal level of TC (<200?mg/dL) and LDL (<130?mg/dL) was observed in the majority of the population of both areas, whereas, at risk level of HDL (<40?mg/dL) was present in half of the population of both rural and tribal areas. The prevalence of borderline to high level of TGs was observed to be 60.2% and 55.2% in rural and tribal ( ) area, respectively. Conclusion. Prevalent abnormal lipid profile in tribal area demands establishment of an effective surveillance system for development of chronic diseases. 1. Introduction Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) include mainly heart attack, stroke, peripheral vascular diseases, and hypertension. Heart attack (ischemic heart diseases) alone contributes to 21.6 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and ranks the third most common cause of death in the world [1]. It is well-known fact that the CVDs are the leading cause of death in urban population [2, 3]. But over the period of time, CVDs contribute significantly to mortality in rural areas of India as well [4–6]. This evident shift could be possibly due to ongoing social and economic transition. It is now a well-known fact that atherosclerosis begins in childhood and progresses in adulthood due to multiple coronary risk factors and is observed in early age of life [7]. Diet rich in salt and saturated fatty acids, physical inactivity, stress, and alcohol are known risk factors for CVDs [3]. The study of biochemical risk factors like total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) can assess individual predisposition towards CVDs. Tribal population shares about 8.0% of total population of India and most of it resides Jammu and Kashmir state, Himachal Pradesh, and northeastern states (Himalayan belt) of India [8]. Like urban and rural population, socioeconomic
Feasibility of Development of a Cohort in a Rural Area of Sub-Himalayan Region of India to Assess the Emergence of Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors
Ashok Kumar Bhardwaj,Dinesh Kumar,Sunil Kumar Raina,Satya Bhushan,Vishav Chander,Sushant Sharma
International Journal of Chronic Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/761243
Abstract: Introduction. Rural area of India is facing epidemiological transitions due to growth and development, warranting a longitudinal study to assess the development of CVDs risk factors. Objective. Feasibility of setting up a rural cohort for the assessment and development of biochemical risk factors for CVDs. Methodology. In Himachal Pradesh, house-to-house surveys were carried out in six villages for anthropometry and assessment of lipid profile. All the information was stored in specifically designed web-based software, which can be retrieved at any time. Results. A total of 2749 individuals of more than 20 years of age were recruited with a 14.3% refusal rate. According to Asian criteria, measured overweight and obesity (BMI?>?27.5?kg/m2) were 44.9% and 10.5%, respectively. Obesity was significantly more ( ) among females (11.7%) as compared to males (8.4%). The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was observed to be 16.3% and 37.4%, respectively. Eighty percent of individuals had borderline (46.5%) to high (35.4%) level of triglycerides (TGs). Elevated total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) level were observed among 30.0% and 11.0% individuals only. Conclusion. A high prevalence of biochemical risk factors for CVDs in a rural area urges establishment of an effective surveillance system. 1. Introduction In India, approximately half of the mortality is due to chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), diabetes mellitus (DM), and cancer [1]. In urban areas of India, the weighted prevalence of ischemic heart diseases (IHD) and DM was 25.3 and 118.0 per 1000 population, respectively [2]. During the last 25 years the risk factors for IHD like obesity, hypertension, and DM were observed to be highly prevalent in urban communities of India [3]. This was due to changing environmental factors like physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, stress, tobacco, and alcohol [4, 5]. Similar to urban areas, chronic disease was also found in countrified areas and IHD-related deaths contributed significantly to mortality in rural areas [6–8]. As a result, a geographical epidemiological transition has occurred throughout the country. This might be due to changing socioeconomic status in rural areas because of urbanization [9], as most parts of the rural areas in India are close to urban areas (cities/big cities and towns). Therefore, recruiting and following up of individuals in rural areas provide an opportunity to understand the complex interplay of urbanization and occurrence of chronic diseases. The hypothesis of “developmental origins”
Factors Influencing Early Health Facility Contact and Low Default Rate among New Sputum Smear Positive Tuberculosis Patients, India
Ashok Kumar Bhardwaj,Surender Kashyap,Pradeep Bansal,Dinesh Kumar,Sunil Kumar Raina,Vishav Chander,Sushant Sharma
Pulmonary Medicine , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/132047
Abstract: Early case identification and prompt treatment of new sputum smear positive case are important to reduce the spread of tuberculosis (TB). Present study was planned to study the associated factors for duration to contact the health facility since appearance of symptoms and treatment default. Methodology. It was prospective cohort study of TB patients already registered for treatment in randomly selected TB units (TUs) in Himachal Pradesh, India. Relative risk (RR) was calculated as risk estimate to find out the explanatory variables for early contact and default. Results. Total 1607 patients were recruited and 25 (1.5%) defaulted treatment. Patients from nuclear family (aRR: 1.37; 1.09–1.73), ashamed of TB (aRR: 1.32; 1.03–1.70), wishing to disclose disease status (aRR: 1.79; 1.43–2.24), but aware of curable nature (aRR: 1.67; 1.17–2.39) and preventable (aRR: 1.35; 1.07–1.70) nature of disease, contacted health facility early since appearance of symptoms. Conclusion. Better awareness and less misconceptions about disease influences the early contact of health facility and low default rate in North India. 1. Introduction One-third of the world population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis causing disease in about 10 million individuals and resulting in 1.3 million deaths per year. Asia and Africa regions together share 85.0% of the global disease burden [1]. India notified total 1.3 million cases including 0.62 million sputum smear positive cases [2]. Evidence from India showed that tuberculosis (TB) contributes about 30% of deaths due to communicable disease and 7% of total deaths [2]. Based upon World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, the Government of India implemented Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) strategy under Revised National Tuberculosis Program (RNTCP) [2]. Since then, treatment success rate among sputum smear positive patients improved from 25% in the year 1985 to about 90% by the year 2011 [2] as compared to the global treatment success rate of 84% [1]. Early case detection and treatment is a public health principle for disease control. Under RNTCP, an awareness campaign for signs and symptoms of TB demands an early contact of health facility for diagnosis. Contact of patient to health facility for treatment compliance depended on the program and patient related factors [3–5]. A lot has been done for disease awareness under program; the community behavior becomes supportive toward patient. However, evidence also showed that still stigma associated with signs and symptoms of TB, availability of diagnostic, and
Clinico-Epidemiological Profile of Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Report from a High Prevalence State of Northern India
Vishav Chander,Sunil Kumar Raina,Ashok Kumar Bhardwaj,Anmol Gupta,Surender Kashyap,Abhilash Sood
International Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/ijtmed.2012.117.120
Abstract: Extra pulmonary tuberculosis is substantially higher in Himachal Pradesh State of India than the national average according to the available data. The aim of the study was to understand the clinco-epidemiological profile of patients diagnosed as EPTB cases. The study was a questionnaire based cross sectional survey in low and high prevalence tuberculosis units of Himachal Pradesh. Of the 86 patients enrolled, 70.9% were from high prevalence TU and 29.1% were from low prevalence TU. Mean age of the patients was 26.67 11.72 years. Of 86 patients 57 (66.3%) were in the age group of 15-34 years. Overall, pleural TB was the most common type of EPTB followed by lymph node TB (53 cases, 61.6% and 20 cases, 23.2%, respectively). Pleural TB was more common among male patients (32; 37.2% in males vs. 21; 24.4% in females) whereas lymph node TB was found to be more common in females.
Rapid Assessment for Coexistence of Vitamin B12 and Iron Deficiency Anemia among Adolescent Males and Females in Northern Himalayan State of India
Ashok Bhardwaj,Dinesh Kumar,Sunil Kumar Raina,Pardeep Bansal,Satya Bhushan,Vishav Chander
Anemia , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/959605
Abstract: Coexistence of folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency has been observed among adolescents with iron deficiency anemia, but limited evidence is available from India. So, a rapid assessment was done to study the prevalence of iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12 deficiency among adolescent males and females in northern Himalayan state in India. Methods. Total 885 (female: 60.9%) adolescents (11 to 19 completed years) were surveyed from 30-cluster village from two community development blocks of Himachal Pradesh. Serum ferritin, folic acid, and vitamin B12 were estimated among randomly selected 100 male and 100 female adolescents. Results. Under-nutrition (BMI < 18.5?kg/m2) was observed among 68.9% of adolescents (male: 67.1%; female: 70.7; ). Anemia was observed to be prevalent among 87.2% males and 96.7% females ( ). Mild form of anemia was observed to be the most common (53.9%) form followed by moderate (29.7%) anemia. Strikingly, it was found that all the adolescents were deficient in vitamin B12 and none of the adolescents was observed to be deficient in folic acid. Conclusion. Among both male and female adolescents anemia with vitamin B12 deficiency was observed to be a significant public health problem. Folic acid deficiency was not observed as a problem among surveyed adolescents. 1. Introduction Iron deficiency anemia is still a condition of a major public health concern for researchers and policy makers [1]. Period of adolescence is a significant phase of life as the physiologic growth spurt requires adequate nutrition in order to achieve healthy adulthood. Iron deficiency anemia reflects the state of undernutrition among adolescents. It results due to inadequate nutrition, blood loss, and inflammatory and infectious diseases. Iron deficiency anemia occurs because of poor intake and absorption is the most common form of anemia [2]. In India, the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia had been reported to be 55.8% among females and 30.2% among males in age group of 15–19 years [3]. Adolescent girls of 11–19 years across 16 districts observed the prevalence of anemia to be 90.0%, which was significantly more as compared to national level survey [4]. Iron requires haemglobin (Hb) synthesis in red blood cells and low level of Hb clinically determines anemia. In addition to iron, the haematopoiesis requires sufficient amount of other nutrients, like folic acid and vitamin B12 require red blood cells production [5]. Folic acid is a water soluble vitamin involved in nucleic acid, blood cell, and nervous tissue synthesis. It is widely distributed in green
Active Epilepsy as Indicator of Neurocysticercosis in Rural Northwest India
Sunil Kumar Raina,Sushil Razdan,K. K. Pandita,Rajesh Sharma,V. P. Gupta,Shiveta Razdan
Epilepsy Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/802747
Abstract: Objective. To determine the contribution of neurocysticercosis as a cause for active epilepsy and to establish Neurocysticercosis as major definable risk of epilepsy in our setup. Methods. We conducted a door-to-door survey of 2,209 individuals of Bhore Pind and Bhore Kullian villages in Chattah zone of district Jammu (Jumma and Kashmir, Northwest India) to identify patients with symptomatic epilepsy. Patients with active epilepsy were investigated with neuroimaging techniques to establish diagnosis of NCC (neurocysticercosis). Results. Among 25 patients with epilepsy 10(40%) had CT/MR evidence of past or recent NCC infection. This gave us the point prevalence of 4.5/1000 for Neurocysticercosis in our study population. Interpretation. The study shows a high prevalence of NCC accounting for symptomatic epilepsy in our part of India. 1. Introduction Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a frequent cause of neurological disorders in many developing countries and is a predominant cause of epilepsy in India [1–4]. NCC is the cause of seizures in about 37% of otherwise healthy children >3 years of age. The prevalence of human cysticercosis has been estimated between 3% (based on autopsy studies) [5] and 9% (based on immunological data) [6]. However its true prevalence and association with neurological disorders at community level is largely unknown. The association of NCC with high prevalence of epilepsy in developing countries is mostly based on hospital studies [7–9]. NCC was found to cause nearly one-third of all cases of active epilepsy in both the urban and rural regions as per a study conducted in Vellore district of Tamil Nadu [10]. 2. Material and Methods The study was conducted in 2,209 individuals of 6 villages of Chattah zone of Jammu district, the winter capital city of Jammu and Kashmir state of India. The villages were randomly selected by simple random technique from a total of 36 villages of Chattah zone with a total population of 30,975. Chattah was chosen because of the presence of known cases of NCC as recorded by our Neurology Department. This choice was helped further by the willingness of community members to participate in operational research project. Majority (60%) of population of Chattah is directly or indirectly involved with transport business. Villagers in Chattah take mixed diet (both vegetarian and non-vegetarian). A door-to-door survey, covering a sample population of 2,209, was performed by a team of interns with the help of clinical epidemiologist from the Department of Community Medicine. A register was set up with one record for
Attitude Towards Joint Family System Among Undergraduate Students of A Medical College in Rural Area
C L Prasher, A K Bhardwaj Sunil Kumar Raina, Vishav Chander, B P Badola, Abhilash Sood
National Journal of Community Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction: Since more women in India are joining the labor force without proper support and assistance often in the face of extended family and community opposition, an increase in family difficulties is to be expected. Aim: To assess the attitudes of MBBS students towards joint family. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study using a prestructured questionnaire was used for conducting this study. Results: Out of 118 respondents, a majority, 66.95 percent expressed their preference in it. 58 percent female respondents do not prefer the joint family living, only 42 percent women respondents preferred it.
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