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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4193 matches for " Sunghyung Kong "
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Homeobox Transcription Factors Are Required for Conidiation and Appressorium Development in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae
Seryun Kim,Sook-Young Park,Kyoung Su Kim,Hee-Sool Rho,Myoung-Hwan Chi,Jaehyuk Choi,Jongsun Park,Sunghyung Kong,Jaejin Park,Jaeduk Goh,Yong-Hwan Lee
PLOS Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000757
Abstract: The appropriate development of conidia and appressoria is critical in the disease cycle of many fungal pathogens, including Magnaporthe oryzae. A total of eight genes (MoHOX1 to MoHOX8) encoding putative homeobox transcription factors (TFs) were identified from the M. oryzae genome. Knockout mutants for each MoHOX gene were obtained via homology-dependent gene replacement. Two mutants, ΔMohox3 and ΔMohox5, exhibited no difference to wild-type in growth, conidiation, conidium size, conidial germination, appressorium formation, and pathogenicity. However, the ΔMohox1 showed a dramatic reduction in hyphal growth and increase in melanin pigmentation, compared to those in wild-type. ΔMohox4 and ΔMohox6 showed significantly reduced conidium size and hyphal growth, respectively. ΔMohox8 formed normal appressoria, but failed in pathogenicity, probably due to defects in the development of penetration peg and invasive growth. It is most notable that asexual reproduction was completely abolished in ΔMohox2, in which no conidia formed. ΔMohox2 was still pathogenic through hypha-driven appressoria in a manner similar to that of the wild-type. However, ΔMohox7 was unable to form appressoria either on conidial germ tubes, or at hyphal tips, being non-pathogenic. These factors indicate that M. oryzae is able to cause foliar disease via hyphal appressorium-mediated penetration, and MoHOX7 is mutually required to drive appressorium formation from hyphae and germ tubes. Transcriptional analyses suggest that the functioning of M. oryzae homeobox TFs is mediated through the regulation of gene expression and is affected by cAMP and Ca2+ signaling and/or MAPK pathways. The divergent roles of this gene set may help reveal how the genome and regulatory pathways evolved within the rice blast pathogen and close relatives.
Global Expression Profiling of Transcription Factor Genes Provides New Insights into Pathogenicity and Stress Responses in the Rice Blast Fungus
Sook-Young Park,Jaeyoung Choi,Se-Eun Lim,Gir-Won Lee,Jongsun Park,Yang Kim,Sunghyung Kong,Se Ryun Kim,Hee-Sool Rho,Junhyun Jeon,Myung-Hwan Chi,Soonok Kim,Chang Hyun Khang,Seogchan Kang,Yong-Hwan Lee
PLOS Pathogens , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003350
Abstract: Because most efforts to understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning fungal pathogenicity have focused on studying the function and role of individual genes, relatively little is known about how transcriptional machineries globally regulate and coordinate the expression of a large group of genes involved in pathogenesis. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we analyzed the expression patterns of 206 transcription factor (TF) genes in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae under 32 conditions, including multiple infection-related developmental stages and various abiotic stresses. The resulting data, which are publicly available via an online platform, provided new insights into how these TFs are regulated and potentially work together to control cellular responses to a diverse array of stimuli. High degrees of differential TF expression were observed under the conditions tested. More than 50% of the 206 TF genes were up-regulated during conidiation and/or in conidia. Mutations in ten conidiation-specific TF genes caused defects in conidiation. Expression patterns in planta were similar to those under oxidative stress conditions. Mutants of in planta inducible genes not only exhibited sensitive to oxidative stress but also failed to infect rice. These experimental validations clearly demonstrated the value of TF expression patterns in predicting the function of individual TF genes. The regulatory network of TF genes revealed by this study provides a solid foundation for elucidating how M. oryzae regulates its pathogenesis, development, and stress responses.
Construct the Community of IT Education and Break the Bottleneck of Rural School Educational Informationization  [PDF]
Dehua Kong
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2012.44025
Abstract: Based on the current situation of rural educational informationization, my study found that the boost of rural elementary and secondary school’s educational informationization needed the cooperation of higher normal universities and local education administrative department. The construction of “IT education community” is the key to step off the predicament. The practice application and effect in Gaoping City further proved that the cooperation project broke the bottleneck of rural elementary and secondary school’s educational informationization.
The Atomic Regular Polyhedron Electronic Shell  [PDF]
Zilong Kong
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.410A1001

The periodic table of elements is arranged based on a series of regular polyhedron. The stability of inert gas atoms can be explained by the distribution of electrons, as well as their motion and magnetic force structure. A magnetic force regular octahedron is proposed. It is a unique configuration that best satisfies the convergence of electrons moving in the same direction within regular polyhedra. In the case of an electrostatic force crust, the formal electron spin accounts for the crusts intrinsic magnetic moment exceeding the speed of light. If one is to consider that the electron has a magnetic outer layer and an electrostatic inner layer, then the question can be solved and abovementioned inference can provide the basis for magnetic force and momentum for the regular octahedron model. The electron periphery has twenty-petal adsorptive substances; the existence of adsorptive substance causes the magnetic force greater than the electrostatic force. Each electronic shell in the regular polyhedron is in accordance with the electron configuration of periodic table of elements; the kinetic track of each electron is a surface of regular polyhedron. The magnetic properties of iron, cobalt, and nickel can be explained by the regular dodecahedron electronic shell of an atom. The electron orbit converged from reverse direction can explain diamond. The adsorptive substances found in atomic nuclei and electrons are defined as magnetic particles called magnetons. The thermodynamic magneton theory can be better explained when it is analyzed using principles of thermodynamics, superconductivity, viscosity, and even in the creation of glass. The structure of the light is a helical line.

Ferromagnetic Calculation of Terbium Dysprosium and Holmium with Polyhedron Electron Shell  [PDF]
Zilong Kong
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.613179
Abstract: Based on the regular polyhedron model of multi-electronic atom combined with the Bohr hypothesis, the following supposition is put forward: the electron momentum multiplied by the inscribed sphere radius of edges of each regular polyhedron is equal to the Planck constant. The relationship between saturation magnetization rates and Planck constants is determined, and the ferromagnetism of atoms is obtained from regular dodecahedron and regular hexahedron. Then, terbium, dysprosium, and holmium saturation magnetization rate are obtained from electronic regular polyhedron configuration. Derivation of matter wave formula is from thermodynamics, avoiding over speed of light.
The Pricing of IPO by Investment Banks and Venture Capital: A Theoretical Model  [PDF]
Huanran Kong
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.610017
Abstract: The venture capitalists provide supervision and certification service for shareholding enterprises, which reduce the information asymmetry and attract more high quality investment banks. Thus, the price is close to the market price when the enterprise enters the market and under-pricing is avoided thereby. Based on the supervision and certification hypothesis, this paper builds a pricing model of investment banks and venture capital to explain the pricing mechanism of investment bank, investment risk pricing mechanism and the causes of underpricing.
Research and application of sidewall stability predic-tion method based on analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy integrative evaluation method  [PDF]
Bin Liu, Fanjun Kong
Natural Science (NS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2012.42021
Abstract: As a difficult problem, sidewall instability has been beset drilling workers all the time. Not only does it cause huge economic losses, but also it determines the success or failure of drilling engineering. Due to complex relationship between various factors which influence sidewall stability, it hasn’t been found a widely applied method to predicate sidewall stability so far. Therefore, in order to formulate corresponding measures to ensure successful drilling, searching for a kind of better method to forecast sidewall stability before drilling becomes an imperative and significant topic for drilling engineering. On the basis of traditional sidewall stability analytical method, we have put forward the Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method to forecast sidewall stability regulation using physico-chemical performance parameters of the clay mineral. This method has been improved by introducing the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Maximum Subjection Principle in the application process. After introducing Analytic Hierarchy Process to identify weight, and Maximum Subjection Principle to obtain evaluation results, it has reduced the influence of human factors and enhanced the accuracy of the fuzzy evaluation results. The application in Hailaer Area indicates that this method can predict sidewall stability of gas-oil well with high credibility and strong practicability.
Electromagnetic Wave and Gaseous Communication between Individuals  [PDF]
Kong Derick Njikeh
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2014.51004

The brain produces an electromagnetic wave throughout the day and the strength of this wave depends on the activity of the brain. It is said that this wave is a weak wave which does not cover a greater distance. But I do believe that it is like the radio wave in the distance it covers and frequency it possesses. I do believe that there is a communication between individuals through electromagnetic wave (brain wave) and a gas (Nitric Oxide) produced by the brain. This can be observed in our daily experiences. This can also help us understand that as a computer can receive and record the brain waves, so an individual can also receive and integrate these waves and it is being decoded to release the message it contains. In this respect, it can be said that the state of consciousness in an individual can be understood by another through concentration.

Applications of Homomorphism on the Structure of Semigroups  [PDF]
Huishu Yuan, Xiangzhi Kong
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2014.42010

By utilizing homomorphisms and -strong semilattice of semigroups, we show that the Green (*,~)-relation H*,~ is a regular band congruence on a r-ample semigroup if and only if it is a G-strong semilattice of completely J*,~-simple semigroups. The result generalizes Petrichs result on completely regular semigroups with Greens relation H a normal band congruence or a regular band congruence from the round of regular semigroups to the round of r-ample semigroups.

An Algorithm and Data Process Scheme for Indoor Location Based on Mobile Devices  [PDF]
Bin Wen, Ruoshan Kong
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2014.22020

Limited by the sampling capacity of the mobile devices, many real-time indoor location systems have such problems as low accuracy, large variance, and non-smooth movement of the estimated position. A new positioning algorithm and a new processing method for sampled data are proposed. Firstly, a positioning algorithm is designed based on the cluster-based nearest neighbour or probability. Secondly, a weighted average method with sliding window is used to process the sampled data as to overcome the mobile devices’ weak capability of signal sampling. Experimental results show that, for the general mobile devices, the accuracy of indoor position estimation increases from 56.5% to 76.6% for a 2-meter precision, and from 77.4% to 90.9% for a 3-meter precision. Therefore, the proposed methods can significantly and stably improve the positioning accuracy.

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