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The Effect of King Grass Silage on the Nitrogen Balance and Hematological Profile of Ettawa Grade Male Goat
S. Sunarso
International Journal of Science and Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.12777/ijse.v3i1.3011
Abstract: The aims of this research was to study the nutritional value of ensiled King Grass (Pennisetum purpuphoides) to be applied for goat. Twelve Ettawa grade male (PE), + 10 months old, and with average body weight of 19.45 + 3.03 kg were used to determine the voluntary intake, balance nitrogen and their hematological profile. All of the animals were randomly allotted at individual pens. Data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance, based on completely randomized design arrangement with four treatments (level of King Grass silage) and three replicates. Treatment means were compared using Duncan multiple range test. The result showed that increasing level of King Grass silage within ration significantly increased the average dry matter (DM) intake per metabolic body weight. In fact, the daily DM intake, nitrogen balance, blood hemoglobin and blood hematocrit of the experimental animals were not affected by level of King Grass silage feed. Experiment had no bad effect on healthy condition of the treated goat, so it implies that conserving grass as silage and then feeding grass silage to goat might be implemented by farmers to secure the continuous supply of green forage to keep the goat production sustainability all year round. [Keywords: silage, nitrogen balance, haemoglobin, haematocryt, goat]
Study on Slaughterhouse Wastes Potency and Characteristic for Biogas Production
Budiyono Budiyono,I N. Widiasa,Seno Johari,Sunarso Sunarso
International Journal of Waste Resources , 2012, DOI: 10.12777/ijwr.v1i2.18
Abstract: The objective of study was to indentify of the sources and characteristic of slaughterhouse waste for biogas production. The identification waste was done by observing the slaughtering activities on slaughterhouse owned by Regional Government of Semarang City. The wastes studied include the rumen, wastewater, and manure and the characteristics include physical and chemical. Based on the slaughterhouse waste characteristic, either liquid or solid, slaughterhouse waste was very suitable and has high potential to be treated anaerobically for biogas production. The wastewater has the potency for producing total biogas as 2.472 m3/m3 of wastewater. The degradation of cattle manure has the potency for producing total biogas of 618,90 L/kg in dry based by the composition of CH4, CO2, NH3 were 48.89, 47.87, and 2.43 % volume, respectively. In other terms, cattle manure will produce CH4 as 305.06 L/kg in dry based. [Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas production, rumen fluid, slaughterhouse wastes]
Influence of Inoculum Content on Performance of Anaerobic Reactors for Treating Cattle Manure using Rumen Fluid Inoculum
Budiyono,I N. Widiasa,S. Johari,Sunarso
International Journal of Engineering and Technology , 2009,
Abstract: Biogas productions of cattle manure using rumen fluid inoculums were determined using batch anaerobic digesters at mesophilic temperatures (room and 38.5 oC). The aim of this paper was to analyze the influence of rumen fluid contents on biogas yield from cattle manure using fluid rumen inoculums. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure (M) was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid (R) and tap water (W) in several ratio resulting six different M:W:R ratio contents i.e. 1:1:0; 1:0.75:0.25; 1:0.5:0.5; 1:0.25:0.75; and 1:0:1 (correspond to 0; 12.5; 25, 37.5; 50, and 100 % rumen, respectively). The research showed that, either in room temperature as well as in 38.5 C, the best performance of biogas production was obtained with rumen fluid in the range of 25-50 %. Increasing rumen content will also increase biogas production. This is suggest that, due to the optimum total solid (TS) content for biogas production between 7-9 % (or correspond to more and less manure and total liquid 1:1), the rumen fluid content of 50 % will give the best performance for biogas production. However, intensively research need to be carried in further research to study interaction effect of TS and rumen content to biogas production.
The Effects of Amofer Palm Oil Waste-based Complete Feed to Blood Profiles and Liver Function on Local Sheep
Hamdi Mayulu,Sunarso,C. Imam Sutrisno,Sumarsono
International Journal of Science and Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: Amoniation-Fermentation (amofer) technology should be conducted in order to improve the low quality of by product produced from palm oil plantations and mills (palm oil waste) which is used for constituent of feed ingredients in complete feed (CF). This technology also reforms the feed material into edible form. Before broadly applicable, it must be ensured that the feed does not have toxic effects on livestock. This research was peformed to evaluate the effects of amofer palm oil waste-based CF to blood profile and liver function on local sheep. Completely Randomly Design (CRD) was used with 4 treaments and 4 replications. The observed variables were the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, blood glucose, ALT and AST was analyzed by ANOVA. The average value of blood glucose levels at T1= 80.68 mg/dl, T2=79.08 mg/dl, T3=81.18 mg/dl and T4=73.70 mg/dl. The average value of hemoglobin levels at T1=10.80 g/dl, T2=10.30 g/dl, T3=11.23 g/dl and T4=10.25 g/dl. The average value of hematocrit levels at T1=31.00%, T2=31.00%, T3=33.75% and T4=30%. The average value of ALT levels at T1=17.90 l, T2=13.83 l, T3=18.75 l and, T4=13.40 l. The average value of AST level at T1=106.20 l, T2=88.98 l, T3=104.40 l and T4=91.25 l. There was no significant difference among four treatments (p>0.05). The administration CF did not cause hematological disorders which showed by the blood profiles and liver function were in normal range, so that suggested the CF was appropriate and safe for local sheep.
Biogas Production Using Anaerobic Biodigester from Cassava Starch Effluent
S. Sunarso,B. Budiyono,Siswo Sumardiono
International Journal of Science and Engineering , 2010, DOI: 10.12777/ijse.v1i2.1230
Abstract: IKMs’ factory activity in Margoyoso produces liquid and solid wastes. The possible alternative was to use the liquid effluent as biogas raw material. This study focuses on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production that perform at ambient temperature for 30 days. Ruminant bacteria, yeast, urea, and microalgae was added 10% (v/v), 0.08% (w/v), 0.04% (w/v), 50% (v/v) of mixing solution volume, respectively. The pH of slurry was adjusted with range 6.8-7.2 and was measured daily and corrected when necessary with Na2CO3. The total biogas production was measured daily by the water displacement technique. Biogas production from the ungelling and gelling mixture of cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid and 198 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture without yeast was 58.6 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture added by microalgae without yeast was 58.72 ml/g total solid and that with yeast was 189 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture of cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea in semi-continuous process was 581.15 ml/g total solid. Adding of microalgae as nitrogen source did not give significant effect to biogas production. But adding of yeast as substrate activator was very helpful to accelerate biogas production. The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added. Requirement of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) to increase alkalinity or buffering capacity of fermenting solution depends on pH-value
The Effect of Feed to Inoculums Ratio on Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure Using Rumen Fluid as Inoculums
S Sunarso,Seno Johari,I N. Widiasa
International Journal of Waste Resources , 2012, DOI: 10.12777/ijwr.v2i1.21
Abstract: In this study, rumen fluid of animal ruminant was used as inoculums to increase biogas production rate from cattle manure at mesophilic condition. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid and tap water resulting five different feed to inoculum (F/I) ratios (i.e. 17.64, 23.51, 35.27, and 70.54). The operating temperatures were varied at room temperature. The results showed that the rumen fluid inoculated to biodigester significantly effected the biogas production. Rumen fluid inoculums caused biogas production rate and efficiency increase more than two times in compare to manure substrate without rumen fluid inoculums. At four F/Is tested, after 80 days digestion, the biogas yield were 191, 162, 144 and 112 mL/g VS, respectively. About 80% of the biogas production was obtained during the first 40 days of digestion. The best performance of biogas production will be obtained if F/I ratio is in the range of 17.64 to 35.27 (correspond to 25 – 50 % of rumen fluid). The future work will be carried out to study the dynamics of biogas production if both the rumen fluid inoculums and manure are fed in the continuous system. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijwr.2.1.2012.1-4 [How to cite this article: Sunarso, S., Johari, S., & Widiasa, I. N. (2012). The Effect of Feed to Inoculums Ratio on Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure Using Rumen Fluid as Inoculums. International Journal of Waste Resources (IJWR), 2(1). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijwr.2.1.2012.1-4 ]
Synthesis of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate by Hydrothermal Route and Conversion to Porous Sintered Scaffold  [PDF]
Sunarso  , Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Noor, Shah Rizal Kasim, Radzali Othman, Ika Dewi Ana, Kunio Ishikawa
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2013.43034
Abstract: Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was successfully synthesized by new hydrothermal route using β-TCP as precursor. The X-ray diffraction analysis of as-synthesized powder indicated that β-TCP had been transformed into HA phase and amount of HA formed gradually increased with prolonged time. The results revealed that the recent technique may be able to control the composition of the obtained BCP which would influence the bioresorbability. Porous body of BCP was prepared by impregnation of polymeric sponge template with the slurry of the powder followed by sintering. The X-ray diffraction of porous product revealed that the composition of β-TCP increased after sintering indicating that HA had been decomposed. Porous BCP obtained from the recent technique possessed both macro and micropores structure which are useful for rapid tissue formation. Besides, the recent porous fabrication technique yielded porous BCP which preserved the sponge template morphology, enabling it to fabricate porous material with controlled pores structure.
Scalable Protein Sequence Similarity Search using Locality-Sensitive Hashing and MapReduce
Freddie Sunarso,Srikumar Venugopal,Federico Lauro
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Metagenomics is the study of environments through genetic sampling of their microbiota. Metagenomic studies produce large datasets that are estimated to grow at a faster rate than the available computational capacity. A key step in the study of metagenome data is sequence similarity searching which is computationally intensive over large datasets. Tools such as BLAST require large dedicated computing infrastructure to perform such analysis and may not be available to every researcher. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called ScalLoPS that performs searching on protein sequence datasets using LSH (Locality-Sensitive Hashing) that is implemented using the MapReduce distributed framework. ScalLoPS is designed to scale across computing resources sourced from cloud computing providers. We present the design and implementation of ScalLoPS followed by evaluation with datasets derived from both traditional as well as metagenomic studies. Our experiments show that with this method approximates the quality of BLAST results while improving the scalability of protein sequence search.
The Effect of Feed to Inoculums Ratio on Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure Using Rumen Fluid as Inoculums
S. Sunarso,Seno Johari,I Nyoman Widiasa,B. Budiyono
International Journal of Science and Engineering , 2010, DOI: 10.12777/ijse.v1i2.1233
Abstract: In this study, rumen fluid of animal ruminant was used as inoculums to increase biogas production rate from cattle manure at mesophilic condition. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid and tap water resulting five different feed to inoculum (F/I) ratios (i.e. 17.64, 23.51, 35.27, and 70.54). The operating temperatures were varied at room temperature. The results showed that the rumen fluid inoculated to biodigester significantly effected the biogas production. Rumen fluid inoculums caused biogas production rate and efficiency increase more than two times in compare to manure substrate without rumen fluid inoculums. At four F/Is tested, after 80 days digestion, the biogas yield were 191, 162, 144 and 112 mL/g VS, respectively. About 80% of the biogas production was obtained during the first 40 days of digestion. The best performance of biogas production will be obtained if F/I ratio is in the range of 17.64 to 35.27 (correspond to 25 – 50 % of rumen fluid). The future work will be carried out to study the dynamics of biogas production if both the rumen fluid inoculums and manure are fed in the continuous system
The Effects of Different Energy and Protein Ratio to Goat’s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility
Sri Mawati,S. Soedarsono,S. Sunarso,Agung Purnomoadi
International Journal of Science and Engineering , 2013, DOI: 10.12777/ijse.v4i2.4584
Abstract: The objective of this research was to study the effects of different energy and protein ratio towards goat’s nutrient intake and digestibility. Twenty four male goats, 6 – 7 months old with initial average live weight 13+1.56 kg, coefficient variant11.78%) were used in this research. The complete feed ration which consisted of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureum), soybean powder, rice bran, dried cassava and molasses was used in this research. Protein content on each component was 10, 12 and 14% and total digestible nutrients (TDN) 60 and 65%, respectively. Dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake, DM and OM digestibility were studied in this research. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to analyze the data. Test of Small Difference (P<0.05) was then carried out if significant different occurred. The research results showed that Dry matter and OM ration intake showed significant different among treatments (P<0.05). The highest DM intake was obtained at crude protein (CP) 14% and TDN 65% i.e. 695.54 g while the lowest value was CP 14% and TDN 65% i.e. 462.11 g. Thus different DM and OM intake were caused by different ration ingredients composition. Dry matter and OM ration digestibility were not show different (P>0.05) among crude protein and TDN treatments. Different energy and protein ration treatments caused different DM and OM intake but were not cause different in DM and OM digestibility. Based on the research results, a study on the effects of different ration’s energy and protein ratio towards N efficiency should be conducted in order to increase cattle productivity. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.76-79 [How to cite this article: Mawati, S., Soedarsono, S., Sunarso, S. & Purnomoadi, A. (2013). The Effects of Different Energy and Ratio to Goat’s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 4(2),76-79. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.76-79]
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