Abstract:
We introduce and motivate the study of quantum spin chains on a one-dimensional lattice. We classify the varieties of methods that have been used to study these models into three categories, - a) exact methods to study specific models b) field theories to describe fluctuations about the classical ordered phases and c) numerical methods. We then discuss the $J_1$-$J_2$-$\delta$ model in some detail and end with a few comments on open problems.

Abstract:
In this set of lectures, we give a pedagogical introduction to the subject of anyons. We discuss 1) basic concepts in anyon physics, 2) quantum mechanics of two anyon systems, 3) statistical mechanics of many anyon systems, 4) mean field approach to many anyon systems and anyon superconductivity, 5) anyons in field theory and 6) anyons in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE). (Based on lectures delivered at the VII SERC school in High Energy Physics at the Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, January 1992 and at the I SERC school in Statistical Mechanics at Puri, February 1994.)

Abstract:
We obtain the exact spectrum and the unique ground state of two composite fermions (in a Rajaraman - Sondhi like formulation) in an external magnetic field $B$. We show that the energy eigenvalues decrease with increasing angular momentum, thus making it energetically favourable for composite fermions to stay apart. Generalising this result to a gas of composite fermions, we provide an energetic justification of the Laughlin and Jain wave-functions.

Abstract:
We give a brief introduction to the phenomenon of the Fractional Quantum Hall effect, whose discovery was awarded the Nobel prize in 1998. We also explain the composite fermion picture which describes the fractional quantum Hall effect as the integer quantum Hall effect of composite fermions.

Abstract:
We give a brief introduction to Luttinger liquids and to the phenomena of electronic transport or conductance in quantum wires. We explain why the subject of transport in Luttinger liquids is relevant and fascinating and review some important results on tunneling through barriers in a one-dimensional quantum wire and the phenomena of persistent currents in mesoscopic rings. We give a brief description of our own work on transport through doubly-crossed Luttinger liquids and transport in the Schulz-Shastry exactly solvable Luttinger-like model.

Abstract:
Regression models based on zero inflated distributions are oftenly used in exploratory data analysis having excess zeroes. The difficulty faced by many researchers is regarding the selection of covariates to be included in the model. Following the idea of focused information criterion, observed focused information criterion is proposed for model selection. The motivation for this has its roots in the concept of observed fisher information. Using this criterion, a forward selection procedure is proposed for selection of variables in regression models based on inflated distributions. The procedure is illustrated using a dataset on DMFT index using the modified observed focused information criterion.

Abstract:
The Heisenberg antiferromagnetic spin chain with both dimerization and frustration is studied. The classical ground state has three phases (a Neel phase, a spiral phase and a colinear phase), around which a planar spin-wave analysis is performed. In each phase, we discuss a non-linear sigma model field theory describing the low energy excitations. A renormalization group analysis of the SO(3) matrix-valued field theory of the spiral phase leads to the conclusion that the theory becomes $SO(3) \times SO(3)$ and Lorentz invariant at long distances. This theory is analytically known to have a massive spin-1/2 excitation. We also show that $Z_2 ~$ solitons in the field theory lead to a double degeneracy in the spectrum for half-integer spins.

Abstract:
We derive a continuum field theory for the Majumdar-Ghosh model in the large-$S$ limit, where the field takes values in the manifold of the $SO(3)$ group. No topological term is induced in the action and the cases for integer spin and half-integer spin appear to be indistinguishable. A one-loop $\beta -$function calculation indicates that the theory flows towards a strong coupling (disordered) phase at long distances. This is verified in the large-$N$ limit, where all excitations are shown to be massive. (Three figures not included)

Abstract:
We study junctions of single-channel spinless Luttinger liquids using bosonisation. We generalize earlier studies by allowing the junction to be superconducting and find new charge non-conserving low energy fixed points. We establish the existence of $g \leftrightarrow 1/g$ duality (where $g$ is the Luttinger Liquid parameter) between the charge conserving (normal) junction and the charge non-conserving (superconducting) junction by evaluating and comparing the scaling dimensions of various operators around the fixed points in normal and superconducting sectors of the theory. For the most general two-wire junction, we show that there are two conformally invariant one-parameter families of fixed points which are also connected by a duality transformation. We also show that the stable fixed point for the two-wire superconducting junction corresponds to the situation where the crossed Andreev reflection is perfect between the wires. For the three-wire junction, we study, in particular, the superconducting analogs of the chiral, $D_P$ and the disconnected fixed points obtained earlier in the literature in the context of charge conserving three-wire junctions. We show that these fixed points can be stabilized for $g < 1$ (repulsive electrons) within the superconducting sector of the theory which makes them experimentally relevant.

Abstract:
We develop a novel bosonic mean field theory to describe the spiral phases of a Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a one-dimensional chain, in terms of three bosons at each site. The ground state is disordered and for large values of the spin $S$, two different and exponentially small energy gaps are found. The spin-spin correlation function is computed and is shown to decay exponentially at large distances. Our mean field theory is also shown to be exact in a large-$N$ generalization.