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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 144616 matches for " Suleiman F. Ambali "
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Ameliorative Effect of Vitamin C on Alterations in Thyroid Hormones Concentrations Induced by Subchronic Coadministration of Chlorpyrifos and Lead in Wistar Rats
Suleiman F. Ambali,Chinedu Orieji,Woziri O. Abubakar,Muftau Shittu,Mohammed U. Kawu
Journal of Thyroid Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/214924
Abstract: The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of vitamin C on alteration in thyroid hormones induced by low-dose subchronic coadministration of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and lead (Pb). Forty Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals each. Groups I and II were administered soya oil (2?mL/kg) and vitamin C (100?mg/kg), respectively. Group III was coadministered CPF (4.25?mg/kg ~1/20th LD50) and Pb (250?mg/kg ~1/20th LD50), respectively. Group IV was pretreated with vitamin C (100?mg/kg) and then coadministered with CPF (4.25?mg/kg) and Pb (250?mg/kg), 30?min later. The regimens were administered by gavage for a period of 9 weeks. The marginal decrease in serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine and the significant increase in the concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone and malonaldehyde in the group coadministered with CPF and Pb were ameliorated by vitamin C partly due to its antioxidant properties. 1. Introduction Man and animals are exposed to a “soup” of chemical contaminants in the environment, which directly or indirectly affect their health and well-being. Pesticides and heavy metals are the most common environmental contaminants because of their respective widespread use in agriculture and industries. Hitherto, most studies on these chemical contaminants have centered on the examination of one single agent and therefore, current understanding of the toxicity of many environmental toxicants/pollutants is based primarily on toxicity studies performed on laboratory animals exposed to a single toxic agent [1, 2]. However, the environment is heavily contaminated with many chemicals, which interact with each other in such a way that modify their toxic response in humans and animals. Organophosphate (OP) compounds are the most widely used insecticides accounting for 50% of global insecticidal use [3] while Pb is the most widespread heavy metal contaminants with wide applications [4]. Occupational and environmental Pb exposure continues to be among the most significant public health problems [4–7]. Due to their persistent nature in the environment and their toxicodynamics, CPF and Pb have resulted in deleterious effects in man and animals [8]. The toxicity of Pb remains a matter of public health concern [9] due to its pervasiveness in the environment and the awareness about its toxic effects [10] at exposure levels lower than what was previously considered harmful [11]. Reproductive consequences of Pb exposure are widespread [12], affecting almost all aspects of reproduction [13]. Pb induces decreased sperm count and motility and increased
Hemotoxicity Induced by Chronic Chlorpyrifos Exposure in Wistar Rats: Mitigating Effect of Vitamin C
Suleiman F. Ambali,Joseph O. Ayo,King A. N. Esievo,Samuel A. Ojo
Veterinary Medicine International , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/945439
Abstract: The study evaluated the ameliorative effect of vitamin C on chronic chlorpyrifos-induced hematological alterations in Wistar rats. Twenty adult male rats divided into 4 groups of 5 animals each were exposed to the following regimens: group I (S/oil) was administered soya oil (2?mL/kg?b.w.), while group II (VC) was given vitamin C (100?mg/kg?b.w.); group III was dosed with CPF (10.6?mg/kg?b.w.); group IV was pretreated with vitamin C (100?mg/kg) and then exposed to CPF (10.6?mg/kg?b.w.), 30 minutes later. The regimens were administered by oral gavage once daily for a period of 17 weeks. Blood samples collected at the end of the study revealed reduction in the levels of pack cell volume, hemoglobin, red blood cells, leukocytes (attributed to neutropenia, lymphopenia, and monocytopenia), and platelets in the CPF group, which were ameliorated in the vitamin C- pretreated group. The elevated values of malonaldehyde, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in the CPF group were restored in those pretreated with vitamin C. The study has shown that chronic CPF-induced adversity on hematological parameters of Wistar rats was mitigated by pretreatment with vitamin C. 1. Introduction Organophosphate (OP) insecticides are used in the agricultural and domestic pest control [1], accounting for 50% of the global insecticidal use [2]. Their use is, however, accompanied by widespread toxicity in nontarget organisms, including man. Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most widely used OP insecticides until 2000 when the United States Environmental Protection Agency restricted some of its domestic uses due to its toxicity. Despite this, CPF remains one of the most widely used OP insecticides. Anemia and alteration in other hematological parameters have been recorded following repeated CPF exposure [3, 4]. Although the mechanism of acute CPF toxicity involves acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, other mechanisms unrelated to AChE inhibition, including the induction of oxidative stress, have been implicated [4–8]. As a lipophilic molecule, CPF easily passes through the cells into the cytoplasm [9]. Once inside the cell, CPF induces damage to the cellular molecules [10]. Oxidative damage primarily occurs through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which causes damage to macromolecules such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. Under normal circumstances, the body copes with oxidative assault through the repair of the damage or the invocation of the indigenous antioxidant enzymatic and
Subchronic chlorpyrifos-induced clinical, hematological and biochemical changes in swiss albino mice: protective effect of vitamin e
Suleiman F. Ambali,Akanbi D O, Oladipo O O, Yaqub LS, Kawu MU
International Journal of Biological and Medical Research , 2011,
Abstract: Forty adult Swiss albino mice of either sex divided into 4 groups of 10 mice in each group were used to evaluate the ameliorating effect vitamin E on hematological and serum biochemical changes induced by subchronic chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposure. Group I (control~C/oil) and group II (VE) were administered corn oil (2 ml/kg) and vitamin E (75 mg/kg), respectively. Group III was administered CPF (21.3 mg/kg~ 1/5th LD50) only while group IV (VE + CPF) was pretreated with vitamin E (100 mg/kg) followed by CPF administration, 30 min later. The regimens were administered orally by gavage, every other week days for a period of ten weeks. The mice were evaluated for signs of toxicity and weekly body weight changes. At the end of the dosing period, blood samples collected were analyzed for packed cell volume, total red blood cell, white blood cell and total protein. The sera obtained from the blood samples were analyzed for the levels of Na+, K+, Cl-, total protein, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and malonaldehyde. The results showed that pretreatment with vitamin E ameliorated deficits in clinical, body weight, hematological and biochemical changes induced by repeated CPF administration in mice, partly due to its antioxidant properties.
Effect of packing on changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility and malondialdehyde concentration in donkeys administered with ascorbic acid
Folashade Olaifa,Joseph O. Ayo,Suleiman F. Ambali,Peter I. Rekwot
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 2012,
Abstract: Experiments were performed with the aim of investigating the effect of packing on erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in donkeys, and the effect of ascorbic acid (AA). Twelve apparently healthy donkeys raised under the traditional extensive system served as experimental subjects. Six donkeys administered orally with AA (200 mg/kg) and subjected to packing were used as experimental animals, whilst six others not administered with AA served as controls. Blood samples were collected pre- and post-packing from all the donkeys for the determination of MDA and EOF. At 0.3% Sodium Chloride (NaCl) concentration, the percentage haemolysis was 93.69% ± 2.21% in the control donkeys and the value was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the value of 71.31% ± 8.33%, recorded in the experimental donkeys. The post-packing MDA concentration obtained in the control donkeys was 39.62 μmol ± 4.16 μmol, and was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the value of 35.97 μmol ± 2.88 μmol recorded in the experimental donkeys. In conclusion, the increase in haemolysis obtained in the donkeys suggested that packing induced oxidative stress, which was ameliorated by AA administration.
Evaluation of chronic chlorpyrifos-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rat: protective effects of vitamin C
Muftau Shittu,Suleiman F. Ambali,Joseph O. Ayo,Mohammed Y. Fatihu
Journal of Experimental and Integrative Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/jeim.041012.or.047
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin C on reproductive toxicity, induced by chronic chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposure in male Wistar rats. Twenty adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 5 animals in each group. Group I received soya oil (2 ml/kg); group II was given vitamin C only (100 mg/kg); group III was administered CPF only (10.6 mg/kg; ~1/8th LD50), while group IV was pretreated with vitamin C and then exposed to CPF, 30 min later. The regimens were administered by gavage once daily for 15 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the animals were sacrificed by jugular venesection after light chloroform anesthesia, and sera obtained from the blood samples were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone concentrations. Pituitary gland and the testicular tissues of each rat were quickly dissected, removed and assayed for the levels of glycogen and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. The right caudal epididymis was evaluated for spermatozoa concentrations. The results showed that decrease in concentrations of spermatozoa, luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones, testosterone, testicular glycogen, and inhibition of pituitary gland and testicular AChE activities caused by CPF were ameliorated by vitamin C. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(1): 23-30]
Economic Evaluation pf Antibacterial Usage in Ear, Nose and Throat Infections in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital
IA Suleiman, F Tayo
International Journal of Health Research , 2011,
Abstract: Purpose: To carry out economic evaluation of antibacterial usage for Ear, Nose and Throat infections in a tertiary health care facility in Nigeria. Methods: Antibacterial utilisation evaluation was carried out retrospectively over one year period by reviewing 122 case notes containing 182 prescriptions of patient with Ear Nose and Throat infections. Relevant data including demographics, diagnosis, prescribed drugs, dosages, were extracted and the associated costs analysed. Results: Highest prevalent rate of Ear, Nose and Throat infections occurred in children under 10 years of age (59.3%) with otitis media predominating (45.0%). Average antibacterial cost per case was 1971.37 (US$15.16). Penicillins were the most frequently prescribed (35.5%) at a cost of 89,468.00 (US$688.22) representing 24.9% of the total antibacterial cost. Cephalosporins were used at a rate of 12.1% with a percentage total antibacterial cost of 48.4% ( 173,554.00, US$1335.03). Conclusion: The average cost of antibacterial agents to patients studied is high. This call for prudent use of these agents which should be evidence based and closely monitored.
Hyperglycemia induced by subchronic co-administration of chlorpyrifos and lead in Wistar rats: Role of pancreatic lipoperoxidation and alleviating effect of vitamin C
SF Ambali
Biology and Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Studies were conducted to evaluate the role of pancreatic lipoperoxidation on hyperglycemia induced by subchronicco-administration of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and lead (Pb) in Wistar rats and the ameliorative effect of vitamin C. Fortymale Wistar rats divided into 4 groups of 5 animals in each group were used for this study. Rats in group were dosedwith corn oil (2 ml/kg) while those in group II were dosed with vitamin C (100 mg/kg). Group III were co-administeredCPF ( 4.25 mg/kg~ 1/20th LD50) and Pb (250 mg/kg~1/20th LD50) while those in group IV were pretreated with vitaminC (100 mg/kg) and then co-administered with CPF (4.25 mg/kg) and Pb (250 mg/kg) 30 min later. The regimen wereadministered once daily by gavage for a period of 9 weeks. The rats were sacrificed and serum obtained from theblood samples were analyzed for glucose concentration. The liver and pancreas samples were analyzed for glycogenand malonaldehyde (MDA) concentrations, respectively. The study showed that co-administration of CPF and leadcaused increased glucose and MDA concentrations, and a reduced glycogen concentration. Pretreatment withvitamin C restored the concentrations of glucose, glycogen and MDA to apparently normal level. In conclusion,pretreatment with vitamin C restored the hyperglycemia and reduced glycogen concentration induced by coadministrationof CPF and Pb partly due to its antioxidant properties.
A Variable Step-Size Exponentially Fitted Explicit Hybrid Method for Solving Oscillatory Problems
F. Samat,F. Ismail,M. B. Suleiman
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/328197
Abstract: An exponentially fitted explicit hybrid method for solving oscillatory problems is obtained. This method has four stages. The first three stages of the method integrate exactly differential systems whose solutions can be expressed as linear combinations of {1,,exp(),exp(?)},∈C, while the last stage of this method integrates exactly systems whose solutions are linear combinations of {1,,2,3,4,exp(),exp(?)}. This method is implemented in variable step-size code basing on an embedding approach. The stability analysis is given. Numerical experiments that have been carried out show the efficiency of our method.
A Model of Dark Matter and Dark Energy Based on Relativizing Newton’s Physics  [PDF]
Ramzi Suleiman
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2018.83009
Abstract: The nature and properties of dark matter and dark energy in the universe are among the outstanding open issues of modern cosmology. Despite extensive theoretical and empirical efforts, the question “what is dark matter made of?” has not been answered satisfactorily. Candidates proposed to identify particle dark matter span over ninety orders of magnitude in mass, from ultra-light bosons, to massive black holes. Dark energy is a greater enigma. It is believed to be some kind of negative vacuum energy, responsible for driving galaxies apart in accelerated motion. In this article we take a relativistic approach in theorizing about dark matter and dark energy. Our approach is based on our recently proposed Information Relativity theory. Rather than theorizing about the identities of particle dark matter candidates, we investigate the relativistic effects on large scale celestial structures at their recession from an observer on Earth. We analyze a simplified model of the universe, in which large scale celestial bodies, like galaxies and galaxy clusters, are non-charged compact bodies that recede rectilinearly along the line-of-sight of an observer on Earth. We neglect contributions to dark matter caused by the rotation of celestial structures (e.g., the rotation of galaxies) and of their constituents (e.g., rotations of stars inside galaxies). We define the mass of dark matter as the complimentary portion of the derived relativistic mass, such that at any given recession velocity the sum of the two is equal to the Newtonian mass. The emerging picture from our analysis could be summarized as follows: 1) At any given redshift, the dark matter of a receding body exists in duality to its observable matter. 2) The dynamical interaction between the dark and the observed matter is determined by the body’s recession velocity (or redshift). 3) The observable matter mass density decreases with its recession velocity, with matter transforming to dark matter. 4) For redshifts z < 0.5, the universe is dominated by matter, while for redshifts z > 0.5 the universe is dominated by dark matter. 5) Consistent with observational data, at redshift z = 0.5, the densities of matter and dark matter in the universe are predicted to be equal. 6) At redshift equaling the Golden Ratio (z ≈ 1.618), baryonic matter undergoes a quantum phase transition. The universe at higher redshifts is comprised of a dominant dark matter alongside with quantum matter. 7) Contrary to the current conjecture that dark energy is a negative vacuum energy that might interact with dark matter,
Toxicological Screening of Lyophilized Extract of Some Nigerian Wild Mushrooms in Mice
S.F. Ambali,M. Mamman,A.O. Adaudi,K.A.N. Esievo
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: Mushrooms are macrofungi widely consumed as food. However, many mushrooms rot away in the wild because of fear of toxicity. Therefore, lyophilized aqueous extracts of 6 mushroom species collected from Zaria, Nigeria and taxonomically identified as Chlorophyllum molybdites, Panaeolus subalteatus, Macrolepiota procera, Leucopaxillus albissmus, Hygrophoropsis aurantiacus and Pholiota aurea were screened for toxicity in mice. Lyophilized aqueous extract of each of these mushrooms was administered to three groups of 3 mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) at doses of 100, 1000 and 10, 000 mg kg-1, respectively. Another group of three mice given distilled water served as control. The mice were examined for clinical signs of toxicity over a period of 72 h and pathological examinations conducted on dead animals. The severity of clinical signs, onset of death and pathological lesions were dose dependent. Death occurred within 10 min in all the mice dosed at 10,000 mg kg-1 with the lyophilized extracts of all the mushrooms screened, with the exception of that of H. aurantiacus, which produced death 21-23 h post administration. This result showed that all the screened mushrooms, including the popular edible M. procera were found toxic. Therefore, since all the mushrooms screened were found toxic, it is recommended that extreme caution should be exercised in their consumption. Furthermore, in view of the regional differences in the toxicity of mushrooms, there is the need to screen more wild mushrooms found in Nigeria for toxicity. This will boost mushroom mycophagy, reduce poisoning incidence and reduce wastage of edible mushrooms in the wild.
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