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Human Exposure Assessment of Element Pollution for Environmental Health Implications: Teeth as a Biomonitoring Tool  [PDF]
Athimoolam Sukumar
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2018.63005
Reference values reflecting the findings of natural concentrations of teeth in a well-defined group of individuals, are indispensable, if one is to interpret results generated for clinical utility. Hence, a comprehensive compilation of literature survey is attempted to make available as a reference guideline for tooth element concentrations. Presently, the reference values are proposed for 19 elements. Several factors that are found influencing element levels, are common to any biosample and are broadly grouped under four categories namely, the factors of teeth, donor, environment and analytical methods. How best the influencing factors to be considered during analysis, are discussed. It is elucidated that standardized method of analysis with quality assurance and precision will reduce the ambiguity of comparison of inter-laboratory measurement. When the merits and demerits of element measurements are evaluated, it is recognized that except a hurdle of difficult specific sampling, many advantages make teeth an attractive material for environmental health monitoring of population and for assessment of element status of deficiency and excess due to differential exposure. The available data of tooth elements are lesser in comparison to data of blood and hair; further studies are required for reference values of others elements and for distribution pattern in different conditions, parts and types of teeth.
Corrosion Response of Ti6Al4V and Ti15Mo Dental Implant Alloys in the Presence of Listerine Oral Rinse
Rahul Bhola,Charu Chandra,Faisal M. Alabbas,Sukumar Kundu,Brajendra Mishra,David L. Olson
International Journal of Corrosion , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/739841
Abstract: The influence of a commonly used antibacterial mouth rinse, Listerine, on the corrosion behavior of one of the commonly used titanium alloys Ti6Al4V (two-phase structure, i.e., α and β) and a newer Ti15Mo (single β phase) in normal saline solution has been investigated using electrochemical techniques. Interfacial electrochemical changes occurring at the oxide-solution interface have been analysed using EIS circuit modeling. Listerine acts as a corrosion inhibitor for Ti15Mo alloy and a corrosion promoter for Ti6Al4V alloy. 1. Introduction Listerine is a commonly used mouth rinse with antiplaque, anticaries, and antibacterial properties. It is used in several dental applications following periodontal procedures and routine oral prophylaxis. It was awarded the American Dental Association’s seal of recognition in 1987 for its clinical efficacy in plaque control and gingival improvement [1]. Listerine antiseptic, developed by Warner-Lambert, was the first over-the-counter mouth rinse [2]. Listerine contains different essential oils, which are phenolics such as thymol, eucalyptol, menthol, and methyl salicylate and are known to retard plaque buildup and reduce gingivitis [3–10]. Thymol, eucalyptol, and menthol are known to possess proven antibacterial activity and are found in thyme (Thymus vulgaris), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), and peppermint (Mentha piperita), respectively. Methyl salicylate has anti-inflammatory activity and is found in meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) and willow (Salix spp.) [2]. The effect of Listerine on plaque was ascribed to its bactericidal properties related to the alteration of bacterial cell wall, which has been well documented in vitro and in vivo [11–15]. A newly inserted prosthesis and various surrounding tissues may get exposed to Listerine from minutes to days, depending upon the therapy performed and the local and systemic patient factors. It is thus important to understand the effect of Listerine on the electrochemical and corrosion behavior of titanium alloys in order to predict treatment prognosis. Cestarolli et al. [16] have compared the effect of mouthwashes including Listerine and a simulated body fluid on the corrosion behavior of an Fe-Cr-Ni alloy. The corrosion resistance of this alloy was the highest in the presence of Listerine mouthwash. However, the present study simulates the use of Listerine as an oral prophylactic rinse, in other words, the condition when the concentration of saliva gets altered due to the presence of Listerine in the mouth. The effect of this normal saline-Listerine solution has,
Metaheuristic Based Noise Identification and Image Denoising Using Adaptive Block Selection Based Filtering  [PDF]
M. Sasikala Devi, R. Sukumar
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.79235
Abstract: Image denoising has become one of the major forms of image enhancement methods that form the basis of image processing. Due to the inconsistencies in the machinery producing these signals, medical images tend to require these techniques. In real time, images do not contain a single noise, and instead they contain multiple types of noise distributions in several indistinct regions. This paper presents an image denoising method that uses Metaheuristics to perform noise identification. Adaptive block selection is used to identify and correct the noise contained in these blocks. Though the system uses a block selection scheme, modifications are performed on pixel- to-pixel basis and not on the entire blocks; hence the image accuracy is preserved. PSO is used to identify the noise distribution, and appropriate noise correction techniques are applied to denoise the images. Experiments were conducted using salt and pepper noise, Gaussian noise and a combination of both the noise in the same image. It was observed that the proposed method performed effectively on noise levels up-to 0.5 and was able to produce results with PSNR values ranging from 20 to 30 in most of the cases. Excellent reduction rates were observed on salt and pepper noise and moderate reduction rates were observed on Gaussian noise. Experimental results show that our proposed system has a wide range of applicability in any domain specific image denoising scenario, such as medical imaging, mammogram etc.
Dispersion of Love Waves in a Composite Layer Resting on Monoclinic Half-Space
Sukumar Saha
Journal of Applied Mathematics , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/721349
Abstract: Dispersion of Love waves is studied in a fibre-reinforced layer resting on monoclinic half-space. The wave velocity equation has been obtained for a fiber-reinforced layer resting on monoclinic half space. Shear wave velocity ratio curve for Love waves has been shown graphically for fibre reinforced material layer resting on various monoclinic half-spaces. In a similar way, shear wave velocity ratio curve for Love waves has been plotted for an isotropic layer resting on various monoclinic half-spaces. From these curves, it has been observed that the curves are of similar type for a fibre reinforced layer resting on monoclinic half-spaces, and the shear wave velocity ratio ranges from 1.14 to 7.19, whereas for the case isotropic layer, this range varies from 1.0 to 2.19. 1. Introduction Fiber-reinforced composite materials have become very attractive in many engineering applications recently due to their superiority over the structural materials in applications requiring high strength and stiffness in light-weight material. Consequently, the characterization of their mechanical behavior is an utmost requirement. The monoclinic system is the largest symmetry system with almost a third of all minerals belonging to one of its classes. This system contains two nonequal axes ( and ) that are perpendicular to each other and a third ( ), that is, inclined with respect to the axes. The and axis lie in a plane. The - plane can be, but is not always, a mirror plane with left side of -axis a reflection of the right side. Fledspar which is an example of monoclinic material is the name of a group of rock-forming minerals which make up as much as 60% of earth’s crust. Feldspars crystallize from magma in both intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks, and they also can occur as compact minerals, as veins, and are also present in many types of metamorphic rock. Rock formed entirely of plagioclase feldspar is known as an orthosite. Feldspars are also found in many types of sedimentary rock. The wave propagation in reinforced medium was studied by Chattopadhyay and Choudhury [1] and in crystalline monoclinic plate was studied by Chattopadhyay and Bandyopadhyay [2]. Propagation of elastic waves in laminated composite plates was studied by Datta et al. [3]. Chattopadhyay et al. [4] studied the propagation, reflection, and transmission of shear waves in monoclinic media and obtained a dispersion equation for a monoclinic layer overlying monoclinic half-space. Besides these, a large number of papers on elastic wave propagation have been published in different journals. Without
Reduction of hexavalent chromium by Rhizopus Oryzae
M Sukumar
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: The ability of Rhizopus oryzae to reduce Cr6+ was evaluated in batch microcosms. The optimum pH of R. oryzae growth was between 6.0 and 7.0. The maximum chromium reduction efficiency of 91.15% and biomass growth was achieved at a pH of 7, temperature of 37°C, with an initial Cr6+ concentration of 400 ppm and incubation period of 72 h. Monod and Haldane models were used to describe the chromium reduction data and the specific growth rate constant value was calculated as 0.082 and the reduction rate was found to be highest at 400 mg Cr6+ /l. The high removal of chromate by R. oryzae indicates a feasible, economical technique for chromate removal from industrial wastewater effluents.
Determinants of Enrolment in Voluntary Health Insurance: Evidences from a Mixed Method Study, Kerala, India
Sukumar Vellakkal
International Journal of Financial Research , 2013, DOI: 10.5430/ijfr.v4n2p99
Abstract: Background &Objectives: Financial burden on households due to healthcare is high in India but only small segments of the population are covered with health insurance. This study has two objectives: 1. to investigate the factors affecting enrolment in voluntary health insurance, and 2. to examine the characteristics of enrolment in terms of income-related inequality and adverse selection problem. Data and Methods: This is a cross sectional study. Mixed method approaches- qualitative and quantitative methods- were used. In-depth interviews were conducted among officials of insurance companies, insurance consultants (insurance agents), insured and uninsured people. Subsequently, household surveys among insured and uninsured were carried to examine the significance of the determinants on enrolment. Results: In addition to income, education and health risk, the level of awareness of people about insurance and the significant role of insurance consultants matter in the enrolment in voluntary health insurance. The enrolment in health insurance is characterised by income-related inequality in enrolment, and ii) no adverse selection. Conclusion: We identified several demand and supply side factors negatively and positively affecting the enrolment. This study suggest that, in addition to developing a competitive insurance market with the availability of attractive health insurance products and ensuring reimbursement about eligible claims, appropriate policy measures such as promoting people’s awareness on insurance and introducing better incentive structures for insurance consultants are needed to increase enrolment in health insurance.
Advances in management of HIV infection
Mukherjee Sukumar
Indian Journal of Dermatology , 2005,
Income-Tax And Medical Profession
Bhattacharya Sukumar
Indian Journal of Dermatology , 1995,
The Asian Elephant: Ecology and Management
R. Sukumar
African Zoology , 2012,
Abstract: This is a book on a very topical and emotional subject. It is a pleasure to read such a rational and objective discussion of the problems of elephant management. For those who are involved in or simply interested in elephant ecology and management in Africa, the similarities and differences between Asian and African elephant ecology and management problems discussed provide much food for thought. In addition the relatively little information available on Asian elephant biology is scattered through the literature and this book goes some way toward consolidating this knowledge, as well as providing a comprehensive reference list and plenty of new findings from the author's own doctoral research.
A Novel Multi-Agent Controller for Dynamic Systems based on Supervisory Loop Approach
Sukumar Kamalasadan
Engineering Letters , 2007,
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