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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8149 matches for " Suhail Ahmad "
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Pathogenesis, Immunology, and Diagnosis of Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection
Suhail Ahmad
Clinical and Developmental Immunology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/814943
Abstract: Phagocytosis of tubercle bacilli by antigen-presenting cells in human lung alveoli initiates a complex infection process by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a potentially protective immune response by the host. M. tuberculosis has devoted a large part of its genome towards functions that allow it to successfully establish latent or progressive infection in the majority of infected individuals. The failure of immune-mediated clearance is due to multiple strategies adopted by M. tuberculosis that blunt the microbicidal mechanisms of infected immune cells and formation of distinct granulomatous lesions that differ in their ability to support or suppress the persistence of viable M. tuberculosis. In this paper, current understanding of various immune processes that lead to the establishment of latent M. tuberculosis infection, bacterial spreading, persistence, reactivation, and waning or elimination of latent infection as well as new diagnostic approaches being used for identification of latently infected individuals for possible control of tuberculosis epidemic are described.
New approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection
Suhail Ahmad
Respiratory Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-11-169
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) is a formidable public health challenge as it contributes considerably to illness and death around the world. The most common causative agent of TB in humans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a member of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) which includes six other closely related species: M. bovis, M. africanum, M. microti, M. pinnipedii, M. caprae and M. canettii. All MTBC members are obligate pathogens and cause TB; however, they exhibit distinct phenotypic properties and host range. Genetically, MTBC members are closely related, the genome of M. tuberculosis shows >99.9% similarity with M. bovis, the species that primarily infects cattle but can also cause TB in other mammals including man [1,2]. The current TB epidemic is being sustained by two important factors; the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its association with active TB disease and increasing resistance of M. tuberculosis strains to the most effective (first-line) anti-TB drugs [3-5]. Other contributing factors include population expansion, poor case detection and cure rates in impoverished countries, wars, famine, diabetes mellitus and social decay and homelessness [6,7].According to recent estimates, 9.4 million new active disease cases corresponding to an estimated incidence of 139 per 100,000 population occurred throughout the world in 2008 [3,4]. Only 5.7 million of 9.4 million cases of TB (new cases and relapse cases) were notified to national tuberculosis programs of various countries while the rest were based on assessments of effectiveness of surveillance systems. The highest number of TB cases occurred in Asia (55%) followed by Africa (30%). The highest incidence rate (351 per 100,000 population) was recorded for the African region, mainly due to high prevalence of HIV infection. An estimated 1.4 million (15%) of incident TB patients were coinfected with HIV in 2008. Globally, the total prevalent TB cases in 2008 were 11.1 million corresponding to 164 cases per
Pathogenesis, Immunology, and Diagnosis of Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection
Suhail Ahmad
Journal of Immunology Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/814943
Abstract: Phagocytosis of tubercle bacilli by antigen-presenting cells in human lung alveoli initiates a complex infection process by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a potentially protective immune response by the host. M. tuberculosis has devoted a large part of its genome towards functions that allow it to successfully establish latent or progressive infection in the majority of infected individuals. The failure of immune-mediated clearance is due to multiple strategies adopted by M. tuberculosis that blunt the microbicidal mechanisms of infected immune cells and formation of distinct granulomatous lesions that differ in their ability to support or suppress the persistence of viable M. tuberculosis. In this paper, current understanding of various immune processes that lead to the establishment of latent M. tuberculosis infection, bacterial spreading, persistence, reactivation, and waning or elimination of latent infection as well as new diagnostic approaches being used for identification of latently infected individuals for possible control of tuberculosis epidemic are described. 1. Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) has afflicted mankind from the time immemorial. Evidence of spinal disease has been found in Egyptian mummies of several thousand years BC and references to TB are found in ancient Babylonian and Chinese writings. Recent molecular genetic studies have shown that Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the most common cause of TB in humans worldwide, has a progenitor ~3 million years old [1]. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a member of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) which includes six other closely related species: M. bovis, M. africanum, M. microti, M. pinnipedii, M. caprae, and M. canetti. Although all MTBC members are obligate pathogens and cause TB, they exhibit distinct phenotypic properties and host range. The MTBC members are genetically extremely closely related, the genome of M. tuberculosis shows <0.05% difference with M. bovis, the latter species primarily infects cattle but can also cause TB in other mammals including humans [2, 3]. Tuberculosis is one of the most prevalent infections of human beings and a formidable public health challenge that shows little sign of abating. The disease contributes considerably to illness and death around the world, exacting a heavy toll on the world’s most vulnerable citizens. The current TB epidemic is being sustained and fuelled by two important factors: the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its association with active TB disease and increasing resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains to the
General Formalism For the BRST Symmetry
Suhail Ahmad
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0253-6102/59/4/09
Abstract: In this paper we will discuss Faddeev-Popov method for field theories with a gauge symmetry in an abstract way. We will then develope a general formalism for dealing with the BRST symmetry. This formalism will make it possible to analyse the BRST symmetry for any theory.
Role of fluoroquinolones in the treatment of tuberculosis
Suhail Ahmad,Eiman Mokaddas
Reviews in Health Care , 2012, DOI: 10.7175/rhc.v3i1.67
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is hampering efforts to control the global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. Although treatment of drug-susceptible TB is possible in ≥ 95% of disease cases, long (≥ 6 months) duration of supervised combination therapy is challenging. Non-adherence to treatment often results in much lower cure rates. Treatment of MDR-TB and XDR-TB is far less effective. The aim of this review is to summarize the current status of fluoroquinolones in shortening the duration of drug-susceptible pulmonary TB and in improving the outcome of MDR-TB/XDR-TB. METHODS: All the relevant articles were identified through a search of PubMed and Scopus databases by using search terms like tuberculosis (or M. tuberculosis), fluoroquinolones, drug-susceptible TB, MDR-TB, XDR-TB, combination therapy, treatment regimens, treatment duration, drug target and drug resistance. The current literature on the role of fluoroquinolones in the treatment of TB was reviewed. RESULTS: The fluoroquinolones, particularly newer compounds such as levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin, have bactericidal activity against M. tuberculosis, excellent oral bioavailability, favorable safety profile and no cross-resistance with other first-line anti-TB drugs. Data from phase II trials of fluoroquinolones-containing regimens for shortening the duration of treatment for pulmonary TB are encouraging and phase III trials are currently underway. The fluoroquinolones are also effective as substitute agents for those individuals who are intolerant to first-line drugs. Several studies and clinical trials have also supported the use of fluoroquinolones in patients with MDR-TB/XDR-TB. DISCUSSION: The fluoroquinolones-containing regimens are being tested to shorten the duration of treatment for pulmonary TB to 4 months. They are also regarded as one of the two cornerstone drugs for the treatment of MDR-TB/XDR-TB. However, they are also among the commonly prescribed antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infections and are becoming increasingly associated with delayed treatment and resistance in TB. If these trends are not reversed soon, we may lose fluoroquinolones as effective anti-TB agents very rapidly.
Subleading Corrections to entropy formulae (convergences and divergences)
Suhail Ahmad,Sharf Alam
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: We know that sub-leading corrections to the hawking area law is riddled with issues which have some convergent and divergent aspects. Depending on the theory, scheme, model or even method sub-leading terms turn out to have trivial and non- trivial aspects which we are going to dwell upon. The generic character of the first sub leading logarithmic term comes out unanimously the same from all theories of quantum gravity like Strings, Loops, or even semi-classical methods with the exception that sometimes the pre-factor of logarithmic term turns out to be model dependent parameter or number hence consensus on this issue is yet to be finalized. In this paper we will try to compare and contrast how we get the corrections in various theories of quantum gravity including semi-classical methods on the variant of Black Hole that is BTZ Black Hole. Towards the end we see how the addition of chern-simon terms affects the entropy of black holes and we will make brief observations regarding the same.
A Prospective Study of Cholilithiasis in Children  [PDF]
Raiees Ahmad, Alfer Nafae, Shahnawaz Bashir, Pervaze Salam, Qayoom Khan, Malik Suhail, Umer Mushtaq, Javid Ahmad
Surgical Science (SS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2015.63024
Abstract:

Background: Gallstones are generally uncommon in infants and children. Formation of gallstone is a very poorly understood phenomenon. In general, the risk factors for cholithiasis in infants include patients who are ill, are receiving hyperalimentation, are premature, have congenital anomalies and have necrotizing enterocolitis. Children aged 1 - 5 years most frequently have hemolysis as the underlying condition [1]. Materials and Methods: From Jan 2012 to Feb 2014, a study entitled “A Prospective Study of Cholelithiasis in Children” was conducted in Postgraduate Department of General Surgery Govt. Medical College Srinagar. The patients selected for the study were in the age group of 1 to 14 years of either sex. There were a total of 141 cases, out of which only 38 had ultrasound documented gallstones. All the patients included in the study were evaluated for prevalence, clinical presentation, and pathological features of gallstones, and were analysed for metabolic causes of gallstones. Results: The prevalence of chliothiasis in symptomatic patients was found to be 26.95% higher than the prevalence of gallstones in children in other parts of world, also the mean age of presentation was 9.3 years ranging from 6 - 14 years. Male to female ratio was 3:2 and male predominance was found in all age groups contrary to female predominance in adults. Most common presenting symptom was right upper quadrant pain followed by vomiting and nausea similar to presentation of symptomatic gallstones in adults. 4 patients had a positive family history of cholithiasis in the first degree relatives; 25 (65.7%) patients had no underlying risk factor for gallstones contrary to presumption that gallstones in children are mostly secondary to some hematological disorder or other predisposing factors. Chronic cholecystities was found in 81% of patients with gallstones and composition of gallstones retrieved was different from those of adult gallstones with calcium carbonate gallstones relatively common in children but composition of black and brown stones was almost similar to adult stones. Conclusion: Gallstone disease was increasingly gaining recognition in peadiatic practice due to significant documented increase in non-heamolytic cases

Development of HPTLC Qualitative Finger Printing Profile of Almond Oil in Marketed Herbal Cream
Safeena Sheikh,Suhail Asghar,Showkat Ahmad
International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Science , 2013,
Abstract: The almond oil is lightweight, golden-brown oil which is extracted from sweet almond nuts. Almondoil is derived form almond fruits; is a type of nut oil and used as natural remedy in many of the externaland internal diseases. It is saponifies easily and yields a mild soap with good lather. It can be used as alarge percentage of the fats or as oil added at trace. Oil extracted from almond kernels is non-drying,the oil is edible, but is used largely in the manufacture of certain pharmaceuticals like creams, lotions,lotion bars, hair oils, balms, scrubs, massage oils and soaps. Sweet almond oil is a great emollient forsoftening and conditioning the skin.It is a rich sorce of antioxidants A rapid and simple highperformance thin layer chromatographic method is developed for the qualitative finger printingstandardization of marketed herbal cream containing almond oil extracted from almonds (Prunusamygdalus var. dulcus). The separation was achieved by using Benzene: Methanol (7.5:1.5 v/v) asmobile phase and aluminium backed silica coated TLC plates F254 as stationary phase; the developedplates were dried at 60oC after development. The separated bands on TLC plates were scanned over thewavelength of 560nm using tungsten as a lamp and in absorbance/reflectance mode after derivatizationwith fresh anisaldehyde sulfuric acid reagent dry the plates at 120.
Surface tension with Normal Curvature in Curved Space-Time
Himanshu kumar,Sharf Alam,Suhail Ahmad
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s10714-012-1464-y
Abstract: With an aim to include the contribution of surface tension in the action of the boundary, we define the tangential pressure in terms of surface tension and Normal curvature in a more naturally geometric way. First, we show that the negative tangential pressure is independent of the four-velocity of a very thin hyper-surface. Second, we relate the 3-pressure of a surface layer to the normal curvature and the surface tension. Third, we relate the surface tension to the energy of the surface layer. Four, we show that the delta like energy flows across the hyper-surface will be zero for such a representation of intrinsic 3-pressure. Five, for the weak field approximation and for static spherically symmetric configuration, we deduce the classical Kelvin's relation. Six, we write a modified action for the boundary having contributions both from surface tension and normal curvature of the surface layer. Also we propose a method to find the physical action assuming a reference background, where the background is not flat.
Isolated Blunt Traumatic Diaphragmatic Rupture in a Case of Situs Inversus  [PDF]
Raiees Ahmad, Malik Suhail, Alfer Nafae, Qayoom Khan, Pervaze Salam, Shahnawaz Bashir, Yawar Nisar
Surgical Science (SS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2015.63021
Abstract:

Situs inversus, a very rare congenital anomaly of reversal site of thoracic and abdominal organs, can be very problematic to surgeon while dealing with a case of trauma in emergency. Surgical procedures are considered difficult, complex and more challenging in patients with this condition due to the anatomical difference and position of organs. We came across an interesting and very rare case of isolated blunt traumatic diaphragmatic injury in a case of situs inversus. Traumatic injuries of the diaphragm are uncommon and isolated blunt traumatic injuries of diaphragm are very rare. Our case is very unique of its kind of situs inversus with isolated right sided diaphragmatic rupture in a 60-year-old male patient presenting 4 hours after blunt trauma to chest and abdomen.

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