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The Role of Natural and Human-Mediated Pathways for Invasive Agricultural Pests: A Historical Analysis of Cases from Brazil  [PDF]
Marcelo Lopes-da-Silva, Marcio Martinello Sanches, Andréa Ramos Stancioli, Giliardi Alves, Regina Sugayama
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.57067

Information about the geographic distribution of agricultural pests is the basis for all pest-related agricultural and environmental protection policies. However, often the pest’s records are incomplete and uncertain. Even with limitations, the pest records are needed for any country to organize a system for agriculture protection and to mobilize surveillance efforts. The first point is to identify the imminence of biological invasions, which can be accomplished through the collection of data on pest distribution. The basic information to evaluate the predictability of an invasion is geographic distribution and the identification of pathway types associated with the potential invader. Thus, the level of the risk of introduction is assessed more objectively. In this article, cases of introduction of pests were analyzed from published reports in Brazil in terms of their geographic distribution at the time of their introduction. Taking into consideration the country’s extensive terrestrial borders, this study attempts to elucidate the role played by different pathways in each bioinvasion. This analysis recognized the limitations of the historical method and underlying uncertainties of each invasion event. Human-mediated pathways were the main source of agricultural pest invasions in Brazil and the country was more a disperser than a receptor of exotic agricultural pests and diseases in South America. A new geographical hotspot (Northern South America and Caribbean Region) for possible invasions was identified.

Potential of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin (Ascomycetes, hypocreales) in the control of Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) and its compatibility with chemical insecticides
Anhalt, FA.;Azevedo, JL.;Sugayama, RL.;Specht, A.;Barros, NM.;
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-69842010000500003
Abstract: several insects are harmful to apples grown in brazil, especially the leafroller bonagota salubricola (lepidoptera, tortricidae), usually controlled with chemical insecticides. the purpose of the present study was to investigate the use of metarhizium anisopliae strains in the control of the apple leafroller, by assessing their virulence to b. salubricola larvae in bioassays with suspensions of 2 x 105 to 2 x 109 conidia/ml as well as their relationship with protease expression. the most effective strain underwent a compatibility test with chemical insecticides. the m. anisopliae e6 strain showed a good performance, with up to 88% mortality and a lt50 of 1.66 days. the virulence was positively correlated with a higher enzymatic activity. the e6 strain was compatible with tebufenozide, evidencing its potential to control b. salubricola.
7q36 deletion and 9p22 duplication: effects of a double imbalance
Pelegrino Karla de,Sugayama Sofia,Catelani Ana,Lezirovitz Karina
Molecular Cytogenetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1755-8166-6-2
Abstract: The etiology of mental retardation/developmental delay (MRDD) remains a challenge to geneticists and clinicians and can be correlated to environmental and genetic factors. Chromosomal aberrations are common causes of moderate to severe mental retardation and may represent 10% of these occurrences. Here we report the case of a boy with development delay, hypoplasia of corpus callosum, microcephaly, muscular hypotonia, and facial dysmorphisms. A deletion of 7q36.1 → 36.3 and duplication of 9p22.3 → 23 was detected as a result of an unbalanced translocation of paternal origin. Breakpoint delimitation was achieved with array comparative genomic hybridization assay. Additional multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analyzes confirmed one copy loss of 7q36.3 region and one copy gain of 9p24.3 region. Patient resultant phenotype is consistent with the already described findings for both 7q deletion and 9p duplication syndromes.
Evaluation of the immune humoral response of Brazilian patients with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome
Sugayama, S.M.M.;Arslanian, C.;Sales, M.M.;Carneiro-Sampaio, M.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2010007500119
Abstract: rubinstein-taybi syndrome (rts) is a rare developmental disorder characterized by craniofacial dysmorphisms, broad thumbs and toes, mental and growth deficiency, and recurrent respiratory infections. rts has been associated with crebbp gene mutations, but ep300 gene mutations have recently been reported in 6 individuals. in the present study, the humoral immune response in 16 rts patients with recurrent respiratory infections of possible bacterial etiology was evaluated. no significant differences between patients and 16 healthy controls were detected to explain the high susceptibility to respiratory infections: normal or elevated serum immunoglobulin levels, normal salivary iga levels, and a good antibody response to both polysaccharide and protein antigens were observed. however, most patients presented high serum igm levels, a high number of total b cell and b subsets, and also high percentiles of apoptosis, suggesting that they could present b dysregulation. the crebbp/p300 family gene is extremely important for b-cell regulation, and rts may represent an interesting human model for studying the molecular mechanisms involved in b-cell development.
Cardiac findings in 31 patients with Noonan's syndrome
Bertola Débora Romeo,Chong Ae Kim,Sugayama Sofia M. M.,Albano Lilian Maria José
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia , 2000,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cardiac findings in 31 Noonan syndrome patients. METHODS: Thirty-one (18 males and 13 females)patients from 26 families affected with Noonan's syndrome were evaluated from the cardiac point of view with electrocardiography and echodopplercardiography. RESULTS: Twenty patients had some type of cardiac abnormality. The most frequent was pulmonary valve stenosis followed by hypertrophic myocardiopathy, commonly associated with valve defects. Upper deviation of the QRS axis was observed in 80% of these patients. CONCLUSION: In view of the high frequency and diversity of cardiac abnormalities present in Noonan syndrome, cardiac evaluation with electrocardiography and echocardiography should be performed in all patients diagnostically suspected of having this disease.
Williams-Beuren syndrome: cardiovascular abnormalities in 20 patients diagnosed with fluorescence in situ hybridization
Sugayama Sofia Mizuho Miura,Moisés Regina Lúcia,Wag?nfur Jaqueline,Ikari Nana Miura
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia , 2003,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cardiovascular findings and clinical follow-up of patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome. METHODS: We studied 20 patients (11 males, mean age at diagnosis: 5.9 years old), assessed for cardiovascular abnormalities with electrocardiography and Doppler echocardiography. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to confirm the diagnosis of the syndrome. RESULTS: Elastin gene locus microdeletion was detected in 17 patients (85%) (positive FISH), and in 3 patients deletion was not detected (negative FISH). Sixteen patients with a positive FISH (94%) had congenital cardiovascular disease (mean age at diagnosis: 2,3 years old). We observed isolated (2/16) supravalvular aortic stenosis and supravalvular aortic stenosis associated (11/16) with pulmonary artery stenosis (4/11); mitral valve prolapse (3/11); bicuspid aortic valve (3/11); aortic coarctation (2/11), thickened pulmonary valve (2/11); pulmonary valvular stenosis (1/11); supravalvular pulmonary stenosis (1/11); valvular aortic stenosis (1/11); fixed subaortic stenosis (1/11); pulmonary artery stenosis (2/16) associated with pulmonary valvar stenosis (1/2) and with mitral valve prolapse (1/2); and isolated mitral valve prolapse (1/16). Four patients with severe supravalvular aortic stenosis underwent surgery (mean age: 5.7 years old), and 2 patients had normal pressure gradients (mean follow-up: 8.4 years). CONCLUSION: A detailed cardiac evaluation must be performed in all patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome due to the high frequency of cardiovascular abnormalities.
Clinical and radiological aspects in Melnick-Needles syndrome
Albano Lilian M. J.,Chong A. Kim,Lee Vivian K.,Sugayama Sofia M. M.
Revista do Hospital das Clínicas , 1999,
Abstract: Melnick-Needles syndrome is an X-linked dominant bone dysplasia, lethal in males, characterized by a typical facies and characteristic radiological findings: including sclerosis of skull base and mastoids, S-shaped appearance of tibia; cortical irregularities with a ribbon appearance of the ribs. About 48 well-documented cases have been reported, most of them were sporadic. Parental transmission has been published in only 11 kindreds. We are presenting the first Brazilian family with mother-daughter transmission.The proposita presented the typical clinical and radiological features with characteristic facies, severe thoracic cage restriction and pulmonary hypertension. Her mother was more mildly affected.
Noonan syndrome: a clinical and genetic study of 31 patients
Bertola Débora Romeo,Sugayama Sofia M. M.,Albano Lilian Maria José,Chong Ae Kim
Revista do Hospital das Clínicas , 1999,
Abstract: Noonan syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome, inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. We studied 31 patients (18 males and 13 females) affected by this disorder regarding their clinical and genetic characteristics. The most frequent clinical findings were short stature (71%); craniofacial dysmorphisms, especially hypertelorism, ptosis, downslanting of the palpebral fissures; short or webbed neck (87%); cardiac anomalies (65%), and fetal pads in fingers and toes (70%). After studying the probands' first-degree relatives, we made the diagnosis of Noonan syndrome in more than one family member in three families. Therefore, the majority of our cases were sporadic.
Williams Syndrome: development of a new scoring system for clinical diagnosis
Sugayama, Sofia Mizuho Miura;Leone, Cláudio;Chauffaille, Maria de Lourdes Lopes Ferrari;Okay, Thelma Suely;Kim, Chong Ae;
Clinics , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1807-59322007000200011
Abstract: objective: to develop a scoring system based on clinical findings to assist pediatricians in the diagnosis of william syndrome and to delineate when the fluorescent in-situ hybridization test to detect the microdeletion at 7q11.23 may be needed. methods: the fluorescent in-situ hybridization test was performed on 20 patients presenting william syndrome suggestive clinical features. eleven studies were selected from the literature in which there were 2 groups: patients with positive or negative fluorescent in-situ hybridization tests. forty-two clinical characteristics were compared to those reported in the literature to determine which ones were associated with the affected patients (ie, bearing deletions) using meta-analysis. the 2-tailed fisher exact test were used so that the frequency of findings observed in fluorescent in-situ hybridization positive and fluorescent in-situ hybridization negative patients could be compared in the present study together with the patients from the literature. we developed a scoring system based on clinical findings and their significant associations with patients with positive fluorescent in-situ hybridization tests. from themean and standard-deviation values of the data from our patients, we determined the cut-off score that that indicated the need for a fluorescent in-situ hybridization test to confirm diagnosis. results: seventeen patients were fluorescent in-situ hybridization positive, and 3 were fluorescent in-situ hybridization negative. the more discriminative findings among fluorescent in-situ hybridization positive patients were the following: typical facies, low birth weight, feeding difficulties, constipation, supravalvar aortic stenosis, mental retardation, and friendly personality. the distribution of the points among the 20 patients ranged from 19 to 28 points with a mean value of 23.3 out of a possible total of 31 points. the cut-off score that indicated the need for a fluorescent in-situ hybridization test was 20.
Renal and urinary findings in 20 patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome diagnosed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)
Sugayama, Sofia Mizuho Miura;Koch, Vera Hermina Kalika;Furusawa, érica Arai;Leone, Cláudio;Kim, Chong Ae;
Revista do Hospital das Clínicas , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0041-87812004000500008
Abstract: purpose: williams-beuren syndrome is a rare multiple anomalies/mental retardation syndrome caused by deletion of contiguous genes at chromosome region 7q11.23. the aim of this work was to determine the frequency and the types of renal and urinary tract anomalies in 20 patients with williams-beuren syndrome. methods: the fluorescence in situ hybridization test using a lsi williams syndrome region dna probe was performed for all 20 patients to confirm the diagnosis of williams-beuren syndrome. a prospective study was performed in order to investigate renal and urinary aspects using laboratory assays to check renal function, ultrasonography of the kidneys and urinary tract, voiding cystourethrogram and urodynamics. results: deletion of the elastin gene (positive fluorescence in situ hybridization test) was found in 17 out of 20 patients. renal alterations were diagnosed in 5 of 17 (29%) the patients with the deletion and in 1 of 3 patients without the deletion. fourteen patients with the deletion presented dysfunctional voiding. arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 3 patients with deletions and 1 of these presented bilateral stenosis of the renal arteries. conclusions: due to the high incidence of renal and urinary abnormalities in williams-beuren syndrome, performing a systematic laboratory and sonographic evaluation of the patients is recommended.
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