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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 915 matches for " Sue Nicolson "
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Ecophysiology of Desert Arthropods and Reptiles
Sue Nicolson
African Zoology , 2012,
Abstract: This is the second book of a Springer series on the adaptations of desert organisms (the first was R.T. Wilson's Ecophysiology of the Camelidal! and Desert Ruminants in 1989). It is entirely appropriate to deal with arthropods and reptiles together: both are in a sense pre-adapted to desert living because they possess relatively waterproof integuments, excrete insoluble nitrogenous waste, are ectotherms with low metabolic rates, and are small enough to escape from enviromnental extremes. Both groups are highly successful in deserts throughout the world, and desert lizards in particular have had a major influence on the discipline of ecophysiology.
Bee food: the chemistry and nutritional value of nectar, pollen and mixtures of the two
Sue Nicolson
African Zoology , 2012,
Abstract: Bees are herbivorous insects, consuming nectar and pollen throughout their life cycles. This paper is a brief review of the chemistry of these two floral resources and the implications for bee nutrition. Nectar is primarily an energy source, but in addition to sugars contains various minor constituents that may, directly or indirectly, have nutritional significance. Pollen provides bees with the protein, lipids, vitamins and minerals that are essential for larval rearing. Chemical analyses of pollen have tended to focus on the protein component of bee-collected pollens as an index of nutritional quality. However, the substantial nectar content of such samples (~ 50% dry mass) should not be ignored, especially in view of current interest in measuring the nutritional quality of floral resources for bees.
Membrane Lipid Replacement: Clinical Studies Using a Natural Medicine Approach to Restoring Membrane Function and Improving Health  [PDF]
Garth L. Nicolson
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2016.72015
Abstract: Functional oral supplements containing cell membrane glycerolphospholipids and antioxidants have been used to safely replace damaged membrane lipids that accumulate during aging and in various clinical conditions. This approach differs from other dietary and intravenous interventions in the composition of phospholipids and the presence of fructooligosaccharides that protect the phospholipids against oxidation and bile and enzymatic damage. Various chronic clinical conditions are characterized by membrane phospholipid oxidative damage, resulting in loss of cellular function. Recent clinical trials have shown the benefits of Membrane Lipid Replacement in replenishing damaged membrane lipids and restoring mitochondrial function, resulting in reductions in fatigue in aged subjects and patients with a variety of clinical diagnoses. Recent in vitro experiments with nonphysiological concentrations of phospholipids did not result in enhancement of mitochondrial electron transport enzyme activities. This can be explained by the use of the wrong phospholipid fatty acids, over-dilution of membrane constituents and mitochondrial swelling. A similar phenomenon was seen when human sperm were incubated in vitro with high concentrations of glycerolphospholipids and their motility was assessed. Only lower, more physiological concentrations of glycerolphospholipids stimulated sperm motility. Additional studies are needed to determine the functional effects of Membrane Lipid Replacement on other cellular membranes, such as the plasma membrane and other intracellular membranes of various cells and tissues.
"Towards establishing ecology as a science instead of an art": the work of John T. Curtis on the plant community continuum
M. Nicolson
Web Ecology (WE) , 2001, DOI: 10.5194/we-2-1-2001
Abstract: Until the 1950s, American plant ecology was dominated by the community-unit theory – that plants grow together in definite communities which constitute the proper subject matter for ecological research. Only H. A. Gleason proposed the alternative "individualistic hypothesis". In the 1950s the nature of the plant community was re-examined in a number of field studies. John Curtis led a re-assessment of ecological theory. This paper provides a historical analysis of aspects of his work. Born in 1913, Curtis did his doctorate at the Univ. of Wisconsin, under Benjamin Duggar, receiving a fine training in physiological research. In 1941, he made a career shift toward community ecology. Dubious of the validity of the concept of the plant community, Curtis began an intensive investigation of the vegetation of Wisconsin. American ecology was in an insecure position, isolated from the mainstream of biological science. Curtis’s ambition was reform – to establish ecology as "a science rather than an art". The improvement of research methodology was a major concern. Curtis and his colleagues found that the best way to arrange the data from their study stands was into a sequence of continuous variation, each dominant gradually peaking in frequency along a continuum. There were no distinct "associations" of species. By the 1970s, the continuum, which Curtis presented as a vindication of Gleason, was accepted as a generally valid description of mature vegetation.
Management of Obesity in Practice
Clemency Nicolson
Australasian Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Clemency Nicolson practicing dietician argues that solution to obesity lies in our individual relationship with food rather than any quick fix.
Lipid Replacement Therapy with a Glycophospholipid Formulation with NADH and CoQ10 Significantly Reduces Fatigue in Intractable Chronic Fatiguing Illnesses and Chronic Lyme Disease Patients  [PDF]
Garth L. Nicolson, Robert Settineri, Rita Ellithorpe
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.33034
Abstract: Objectives: A preliminary open label study was initiated to determine if a combination oral supplement containing a mixture of phosphoglycolipids, coenzyme Q10 and microencapsulated NADH could affect fatigue levels in long-term patients with intractable fatigue. Fatigue was determined by the validated Piper Fatigue Scale before, during and after the trial. Participants included 58 patients (30 females and 28 males) with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis, chronic Lyme disease or other fatiguing illnesses, such as fibromyalgia syndrome or Gulf War illness. These patients had been symptomatic for an average of 17.1 ± 0.6 years, had been seen by many physicians (15.2 ± 0.7) and had used many other supplements and drugs (35.4 ± 2.7) without apparent reductions in their fatigue. Results: Participants in the study responded to the combination test supplement, showing a 30.7% reduction in overall fatigue within 60 days (P< 0.001). Analysis of subcategories of fatigue indicated that there were significant improvements in the ability to complete tasks and activities as well as significant improvements in mood and cognitive abilities. Regression analysis of the data indicated that reductions in fatigue were gradual, consistent, and occurred with a high degree of confidence (R2 = 0.960). The data also suggested that further reductions were likely if the participants had continued the supplement beyond the 8-week trial. Males responded slightly better to the combination supplement than females, and the patients with the most severe forms of fatigue responded slightly better than those with milder fatigue, independent of their diagnosis. Conclusions: The combination supplement was a safe and effective method to significantly reduce fatigue in long-term patients with intractable chronic fatigue.
Both Pre- and Postsynaptic Activity of Nsf Prevents Degeneration of Hair-Cell Synapses
Weike Mo, Teresa Nicolson
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027146
Abstract: Vesicle fusion contributes to the maintenance of synapses in the nervous system by mediating synaptic transmission, release of neurotrophic factors, and trafficking of membrane receptors. N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) is indispensible for dissociation of the SNARE-complex following vesicle fusion. Although NSF function has been characterized extensively in vitro, the in vivo role of NSF in vertebrate synaptogenesis is relatively unexplored. Zebrafish possess two nsf genes, nsf and nsfb. Here, we examine the function of either Nsf or Nsfb in the pre- and postsynaptic cells of the zebrafish lateral line organ and demonstrate that Nsf, but not Nsfb, is required for maintenance of afferent synapses in hair cells. In addition to peripheral defects in nsf mutants, neurodegeneration of glutamatergic synapses in the central nervous system also occurs in the absence of Nsf function. Expression of an nsf transgene in a null background indicates that stabilization of synapses requires Nsf function in both hair cells and afferent neurons. To identify potential targets of Nsf-mediated fusion, we examined the expression of genes implicated in stabilizing synapses and found that transcripts for multiple genes including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) were significantly reduced in nsf mutants. With regard to trafficking of BDNF, we observed a striking accumulation of BDNF in the neurites of nsf mutant afferent neurons. In addition, injection of recombinant BDNF protein partially rescued the degeneration of afferent synapses in nsf mutants. These results establish a role for Nsf in the maintenance of synaptic contacts between hair cells and afferent neurons, mediated in part via the secretion of trophic signaling factors.
Water Relations of Terrestrial Arthropods/N.F. Hadley
S.W. Nicolson
African Zoology , 2011,
Pathogenic Mycoplasma Infections in Chronic Illnesses: General Considerations in Selecting Conventional and Integrative Treatments  [PDF]
Garth L. Nicolson
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2019.1010041
Abstract: The presence of pathogenic mycoplasmas in various chronic illnesses and their successful suppression using conventional and integrative medicine approaches are reviewed. Evidence gathered over the last three decades has demonstrated the presence of pathogenic mycoplasma species in the blood, body fluids and tissues from patients with a variety of chronic clinical conditions: atypical pneumonia, asthma and other respiratory conditions; oral cavity infections; urogenital conditions; neurodegenerative and neurobehavioral diseases; autoimmune diseases; immunosuppressive diseases; inflammatory diseases; and illnesses and syndromes of unknown origin, such as fatiguing illnesses. Only recently have these small intracellular bacteria received attention as possible causative agents, cofactors or opportunistic infections or co-infections in these and other conditions. Their clinical management is often inadequate, primarily because of missed diagnosis, under- and inadequate treatment and the presence of persister or dormant microorganisms due to biofilm, resistence and other mechanisms. Pathogenic Mycoplasma species infections have been suppressed slowly by anti-microbial and integrative treatments, resulting in gradual reductions in morbidity, but not in every patient. Even if mycoplasmas are not a cause or an initial trigger for many chronic illnesses, they appear to play important roles in the inception, progression, morbidity and relapse of chronic illnesses in rather large patient subsets. Ignoring such infections can result in failure to achieve eventual patient recovery, even with application of potentially curative treatments.
Reduction of Pain, Fatigue, Gastrointestinal and Other Symptoms and Improvement in Quality of Life Indicators in Fibromyalgia Patients with Membrane Lipid Replacement Glycerolphospholipids and Controlled-Release Caffeine  [PDF]
Garth L. Nicolson, Robert Settineri, Gonzalo Ferreira, Paul Breeding
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2018.97051
Abstract: Objectives: A preliminary, open label study was initiated to determine if oral wafers containing a combination of membrane glycerolphospholipids and controlled-release caffeine could reduce self-reported pain, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms and improve quality of life (QOL) indicators in fibromyalgia patients. Methods: Pain, fatigue and other symptoms were determined using validated, patient survey forms completed over an 8-day test period and compared to baseline values. Participants included 21 patients (15 females and 6 males) of average age of 48.5 ± 9.8 years with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia. These patients consumed four daily chewable wafers containing glycerolphospholipids (4.8 g) and one controlled-released caffeine (184 mg) wafer that maintained caffeine levels at approximately one cup of coffee for over 8 h. Results: Participants in the study responded to the combination test supplement within days. By the end of the study there were significant overall improvements (36.1%, p < 0.001), reductions in pain (27.2%, p < 0.001), fatigue (37.8%, p < 0.001), gastrointestinal symptoms (54.7%, p < 0.001) and improved ability to complete tasks and participate in activities (quality of life indicators) (39.1%, p < 0.001). Regression analysis of the data using a generalized mixed-effects model and calculating R2 values indicated that reductions in pain, fatigue and gastrointestinal symptoms and improvements in quality of life indicators were consistent, and occurred with a low degree of variance. Males responded slightly better to the combination supplement than females but for most parameters these differences were not significant. Conclusions: The combination membrane lipid replacement glycerolphospholipid supplement with controlled-release caffeine was safe and effective and significantly reduced pain, fatigue and gastrointestinal symptoms as well as improved QOL indicators in fibromyalgia patients.
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