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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 119 matches for " Sudesh Pawaria "
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Immunotherapy of Tumors with α2-Macroglobulin-Antigen Complexes Pre-Formed In Vivo
Sudesh Pawaria, Laura E. Kropp, Robert J. Binder
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050365
Abstract: The cell surface receptor CD91/LRP-1 binds to immunogenic heat shock proteins (HSP) and α2M ligands to elicit T cell immune responses. In order to generate specific immune responses, the peptides chaperoned by HSPs or α2M are cross-presented on MHC molecules to T cells. While the immunogenic HSPs naturally chaperone peptides within cells and can be purified as an intact HSP-peptide complex, the peptides have had to be complexed artificially to α2M in previous studies. Here, we show that immunogenic α2M-peptide complexes can be isolated from the blood of tumor-bearing mice without further experimental manipulation in vitro demonstrating the natural association of tumor antigens with α2M. The naturally formed immunogenic α2M-peptide complexes are effective in prophylaxis and therapy of cancer in mouse models. We investigate the mechanisms of cross-presentation of associated peptides and co-stimulation by APCs that interact with α2M. These data have implications for vaccine design in immunotherapy of cancer and infectious disease.
CD91-Dependent Modulation of Immune Responses by Heat Shock Proteins: A Role in Autoimmunity
Robert J. Binder,Yu Jerry Zhou,Michelle N. Messmer,Sudesh Pawaria
Autoimmune Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/863041
Abstract: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) have been known for decades for their ability to protect cells under stressful conditions. In the 1980s a new role was ascribed for several HSPs given their ability to elicit specific immune responses in the setting of cancer and infectious disease. These immune responses have primarily been harnessed for the immunotherapy of cancer in the clinical setting. However, because of the ability of HSPs to prime diverse immune responses, they have also been used for modulation of immune responses during autoimmunity. The apparent dichotomy of immune responses elicited by HSPs is discussed here on a molecular and cellular level. The potential clinical application of HSP-mediated immune responses for therapy of autoimmune diseases is reviewed. 1. Introduction: HSPs in Immunity Expression of HSPs is generally upregulated in cells in response to a variety of stressful conditions including nonphysiological temperature, nutrient deprivation, and hypoxia [1]. It is the inherent chaperoning function of HSPs that allows them to provide their cytoprotective function in assisting correct protein/polypeptide folding and preventing further protein denaturation. It has become evident over the past two decades that the chaperoning function of HSPs also plays a key role in several processes during the development of immune responses [2]. Within the cell, several HSPs act as chaperones of peptides that are ultimately presented by MHC I and MHC II molecules. Thus, the HSPs in the cytosol and in the endoplasmic reticulum form a relay line for the transport of peptides from their formation by the proteasome to the MHC I heavy chain (HC). This is discussed in the next subheading. As the HSPs are some of the most abundant proteins in cells, their liberation into the extracellular environment has been shown to be a key indicator of loss of cellular integrity and they are rapidly recognized by the cellular sentinels of the immune system. Such recognition allows for cross-priming of the potential antigens that the HSPs chaperone. The efficiency of this pathway predicted a cell surface receptor on the cross-presenting cells and that receptor has now been shown to be CD91. These events are discussed in the next two subheadings. The isolation of HSPs (and the associated peptides) from tumor cells or cells infected with pathogens therefore provides a single entity that primes immune responses specific for the chaperoned peptides and thus for the cell that harbored these antigens. This application has been tested in a vast number of rodent models of cancer and
Kimura’s Disease—A Rare Cause of Head and Neck Swelling  [PDF]
Kiran Rao, Sudesh Kumar
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2014.34037
Abstract:

Kimura’s disease (KD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder with unknown etiology, most commonly manifesting as painless unilateral cervical lymphadenopathy or subcutaneous masses in the head or neck region. The disease is characterized by a triad of painless subcutaneous masses in the head or neck region, blood and tissue eosinophilia, and markedly elevated serum immunoglobulin E levels. Kimura’s disease is an unusual vascular tumor that typically occurs at 20 to 30 years of age. There has been no documented case of malignant transformation; however, recurrence rates after excision may be as high as 25%. Surgery and medical therapy are useful for treatment. We present a 14 years old male developed a unilateral cervical mass associated with KD. It was a recurrence of disease. As a complete excisional resection of the mass already done 1 year back at some other centre, we decided to give medical treatment for Kimura’s disease.

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Aerosols in Sonepat—A National Capital Region of India  [PDF]
Sudesh Chaudhary, Naresh Kumar
Open Journal of Air Pollution (OJAP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2017.62006
Abstract: Considering the mounting evidences of the effects of air pollution on health, the present study was undertaken to assess the ambient air quality status in Sonepat region. The PM10 aerosol samples were collected from three sampling sites (DCRUST: Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, University campus, Sector 14: residential cum commercial area, and traffic intersection along National Highway number 1) during January to July 2014 and studied for air quality, metal concentrations and their monthly variations. In addition, free fall dust samples were studied for soluble cations. PM10 concentration was found to be ranging from 120.00 μg/m3 to 569.59 μg/m3, 66.56 μg/m3 to 312.45 μg/m3 and 80.95 μg/m3 to 262.47 μg/m3 at NH-1, Sector-14 and DCRUST respectively. The concentrations of Na+,\"\", K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ at sector 14 Sonepat were 52.115 ppm, 6.755 ppm, 13.989 ppm, 105.845 ppm and 72.574 ppm, respectively. At DCRUST site, the concentrations of Na+, , K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ were 207.583 ppm, 0.550 ppm, 50.573 ppm, 90.659 ppm and 85.024 ppm, respectively. The heavy metals concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cr at NH-1 was 36 ppm, 17.5 ppm and 95.7 ppm, respectively. The concentration of Zn, Cu and Cr at NH-1 was found to be varying from not detected to 19.7 ppm, 2.1 ppm to 16.54 ppm and 7.24 ppm to 24.1 ppm, respectively. Thus, it was recommended that an integrated assessment of air pollution and health risk should be carried out in Sonepat region at regular intervals of time.
A Partitioning Strategy for OODB
Sudesh Rani
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2011,
Abstract: An effective strategy for distributing data across multiple disks is crucial to achieving good performance in a parallel object-oriented database management system. During query processing, a large amount of data need to be processed and transferred among the processing nodes in the system. A good data placement strategy should be able to reduce the communication overheads, and, at the same time, to provide the opportunity for exploiting different types of parallelism in query processing, such as intra-operator parallelism, inter-operator parallelism, and inter-query parallelism. However, there exists a conflict between these two requirements. While minimizing interprocessor communication favors the assignment of the whole database to a small number of processors, achieving higher degree of parallelism favors the distributions of the database evenly among a large number of processors. A trade-off must be made to obtain a good policy for mapping the database to the processors.We need good heuristics to solve this and more complicated database allocation problems. In this paper, we propose some heuristics for partitioning an OODB so that the overall execution time can be reduced.
To study tumor motion and planning target volume margins using four dimensional computed tomography for cancer of the thorax and abdomen regions
Deshpande Sudesh
Journal of Medical Physics , 2011,
Abstract: In this study, four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scanning was performed during free breathing on a 16-slice Positron emission tomography PET /computed tomography (CT) for abdomen and thoracic patients. Images were sorted into 10 phases based on the temporal correlation between surface motion and data acquisition with an Advantage Workstation. Gross tumor volume gross tumor volume (GTV) s were manually contoured on all 10 phases of the 4DCT scan. GTVs in the multiple CT phases were called GTV4D. GTV4D plus an isotropic margin of 1.0 cm was called CTV4D. Two sets of planning target volume (PTV) 4D (PTV4D) were derived from the CTV4D, i.e. PTV4D 2cm = CTV4D plus 1 cm setup margin (SM) and 1 cm internal margin (IM) and PTV4D 1.5cm = CTV4D plus 1 cm SM and 0.5cm IM. PTV3D was derived from a CTV3D of the helical CT scan plus conventional margins of 2 cm. PTV gated was generated only selecting three CT phases, with a total margin of 1.5 cm. All four volumes were compared. To quantify the extent of the motion, we selected the two phases where the tumor exhibited the greatest range of motion. We also studied the effect of different PTV volumes on dose to the surrounding critical structures. Volume of CTV4D was greater than that of CTV3D. We found, on an average, a reduction of 14% volume of PTV4D 1.5cm as compared with PTV3D and reduction of 10% volume of PTV gated as compared with PTV4D 1.5cm . We found that 2 cm of margin was inadequate if true motion of tumor was not known. We observed greater sparing of critical structures for PTVs drawn taking into account the tumor motion.
A Study on the Bi-Rayleigh ROC Curve Model
Sudesh Pundir
Bonfring International Journal of Data Mining , 2012, DOI: 10.9756/bijdm.1358
Abstract: Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves are used to describe and compare the accuracy of diagnostic test or the ability of a continuous biomarker in discriminating between the subjects into healthy or diseased cases in medical field. The most familiar form of ROC curve is Bi-normal (Gaussian) ROC curve model, which assumes that the test scores or a monotone transformation of the test scores are from two normal populations (i.e. healthy and diseased). It may not be true all the time, it may violate the assumptions of normal distribution in some situations and also we cannot adopt the model as it is when the sample size is small. In this paper, we have proposed ROC curve model for Rayleigh distribution which can be used even when sample size is small. The properties of Bi-Rayleigh ROC model are studied and Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) are derived. The proposed model is supported by real life example as well as simulation studies. The confidence interval for the population parameter is studied with simulation studies of varying sample sizes. It is found that Bi-Rayleigh ROC model provides better accuracy of classification than the conventional bi-normal ROC model.
Customized Foot Orthosis Development by 3D Reconstruction of the CT Images  [PDF]
Sathish Kumar Paul, Sudesh Sivarasu, Lazar Mathew
Engineering (ENG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2012.410088
Abstract: Clinicians can provide a means to better distribute the pressure around the foot, and can also correct the biomechanics of the foot by using a customized shoe insole. If detected early enough, orthopedic insoles can correct or prevent further complications. In this study the 3 Dimensional (D) model of the foot was used to fabricate a customized orthosis. The Computed Tomography (CT) images of patient’s foot having no muscle weakness and joint restriction were acquired. The gray intensities corresponding to the bones of the foot from the CT images were 3 dimensionally reconstructed. The 3D model of the foot was then imported into the CAD Software. Boolean operations were carried out in between the 3D foot model and a solid rectangular surface to create a customized foot orthosis. The exact contours and shape of the subject’s foot was acquired using the computerized method of fabricating an orthosis. The novel idea described in this study support, automating the process of designing a customized orthosis with the impression got from the 3 dimensionally modeled feet, thereby reducing the modeling time considerably. The simple technique used in this process will help in giving comfort and stability to the patient’s feet while walking.
Automatic Evaluation of Test Strips for Anti-Ganglioside Antibodies in Patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome Using EUROLineScan Software  [PDF]
Chetana Vaishnavi, Chitralekha Behura, Sudesh Prabhakar
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.413099
Abstract: Campylobacter jejuni infection has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) due to production of humoral immune response against neural antigens. A case-control study was performed in a tertiary care teaching hospital for the estimation of anti-ganglioside antibodies in GBS patients and their controls. Blood samples were collected from 59 GBS cases, 58 neurological controls (NC) and 60 non-neurological control (NNC) patients for automatic estimation of IgG and IgM antibodies to seven gangliosides using EUROLineScan software. Antibodies of IgG class for GM1 were highly significant in GBS (p = 0.000) and NC (p = 0.031) compared to NNC. However GBS group was not significant (p = 0.413) compared to NC. For GM2 ganglioside, GBS and NC groups were significant (p = 0.000) compared to NNC, but GBS group was not significant (p = 0.999) compared to NC. For GM3 ganglioside, GBS and NC groups were significant (p = 0.000) compared to NNC; but GBS group was insignificant (p = 0.858) compared to NC with similar trend for all other ganglioside antibodies. When IgM class of antibodies was evaluated for GM1, GBS group was not significant (p = 0.604) whereas NC group was significant (p = 0.000) compared to NNC. GBS group was not significant compared to NC (p = 0.011). The trend was the same for GM2 antibodies. For GM3, GBS group was significant (p = 0.010) and NC was near significant (p = 0.055) compared to NNC. However GBS group was not significant (p = 0.808) compared to NC. No groups were significant (p > 0.05) in relation to the remaining gangliosides except for GQ1b where GBS group (p = 0.001) and NC group were significant (p = 0.000) compared to NNC. GBS group was also significant (p = 0.001) compared to NC and NNC. Anti-gangliosides antibodies were present in highly significant levels in the GBS group, though they were also present in the non-paralytic neurological control patients compared to the non-neurological control group.
RE-SEARCHING SECONDARY TEACHER TRAINEES IN DISTANCE EDUCATION AND FACE-TO-FACE MODE: Study of Their Background Variables, Personal Characteristics and Academic Performance
Mamta GARG,Sudesh GAKHAR
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2011,
Abstract: The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and socio-economic status. Distance trainees outperformed the on-campus trainees on their preference for left-hemispheric styles of learning and thinking, budgeting time, learning motivation, overall study habits, academic motivation, attitude towards education, work methods, interpersonal relations, and on their perception about relevance of course content of theory papers in B.Ed., but on-campus trainees outperformed distance trainees on preference for right-hemispheric learning styles, need for achievement, motivation for sports, attitude towards teaching profession, child-centered practices, teachers, overall attitude towards teaching along with their perception for development of teaching skills and attitude, personality development during B.Ed. course. In academic performance distance trainees lag behind the on-campus trainee in their marks in theory papers, skills in teaching and in aggregate.
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