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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 20941 matches for " Subodh Kumar "
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Effects of Anthropogenic Pollution on Mangrove Biodiversity: A Review  [PDF]
Subodh Kumar Maiti, Abhiroop Chowdhury
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.412163
Abstract:

Mangrove ecosystem is a very unique ecosystem in the Earth, which is under threat due to habitat loss, aquaculture expansion, overharvesting and increase of pollution load. In this review paper, world-wide status of mangrove habitat loss, role of mangrove to act as a sink of pollutants and carbon capture (carbon sequestration), accumulation and biomagnifications of heavy metals is discussed. Emphasis has been given to understand the effect of heavy metals, organic and inorganic pollutants on the mangroves and the natural ability of this ecosystem to tolerate the pollution load. Lastly the guidelines of mangrove research for the developing countries are also suggested.

Early Results of Mitral Valve Replacement in Severe Pulmonary Artery Hypertension—An Institutional Prospective Study  [PDF]
Nirmal Kumar, Prashant Sevta, Subodh Satyarthy, Saket Agarwal, Vithal Kumar Betigeri, Deepak Kumar Satsangi
World Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery (WJCS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjcs.2013.32011
Abstract: Introduction: In patients undergoing surgery for mitral valve replacement (MVR) for valvular heart disease, pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) has been considered a major risk factor. In this prospective study, we have studied the early hemodynamic changes and post-operative outcomes of MVR among patients with severe PAH. Methods: 68 consecutive patients who underwent mitral valve replacement for severe rheumatic mitral valve disease with severe PAH (pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) > 50 mmHg) were studied prospectively for immediate postoperative hemodynamics and outcomes. The mean age of the patients was 32.1 years. 32 (47.05%) patients had mitral stenosis, 13 (19.11%) had mitral regurgitation and 23 (33.82%) had mixed lesions. Patients were divided into two groups based on preoperative pulmonary artery pressures. In 56 patients (82.35%, group I) PAP was sub-systemic or systemic, with a mean of 58.4 mmHg. Twelve patients (17.65%, group II) had supra-systemic PAP with a mean of 82.4 mmHg. Results: After mitral valve replacement, the PAP and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) decreased significantly in group I to near normal levels. In group II also the PAP and PVR decreased significantly but significant residual PAH remained. Operative mortality was 3.5% in group I and 16.6% in group II. Conclusions: MVR is safe and effective at the presence of severe PAH as long as the PAP is below or equal to systemic pressures. With suprasystemic PAP, MVR carries a high risk of mortality and the patient continues to have severe PAH in the postoperative period.

EFFECT OF RF LINEWIDTH ON BER PERFORMANCE OF 64-QAM ROF
Subodh Bansal,Parvin Kumar Kaushik
International Journal of Advanced Technology & Engineering Research , 2012,
Abstract: The optical and wireless communication systems integration will activate the potential capacity of photonic technology for providing the expected growth in interactive video, voice communication and data traffic services that are cost effec-tive and a green communication service. The last decade growth of the broadband internet projects the number of active users will grow to over 2 billion globally by the end of 2014. Enabling the abandoned capacity of photonic signal processing is the promising solution for seamless transporta-tion of the future consumer traffic demand. One emerging technology applicable in high capacity, broadband millime-ter-wave access systems is Radio over Fiber also called Fi-ber To The Air (FTTA). In this paper, Optical SSB signal is specifically selected as it has tolerance for power degrada-tion due to dispersion effects over a length of fiber and BER (bit error rate) is evaluated in terms of RF line width and percentage of received power.
Tracing the signature of various frontal systems in stable isotopes (oxygen and carbon) of the planktonic foraminiferal species Globigerina bulloides in the Southern Ocean (Indian Sector)
Neloy Khare Subodh,Kumar Chaturvedi
Oceanologia , 2012,
Abstract: Twenty-five surficial sediment samples, collected on board ORV Sagar Kanya during her 199th and 200th cruises along a north-south transect betweenlatitudes 9.69°N and 55.01°S, and longitudes 80°E and 40°E were studied for isotopic variations (values of Δ18O and Δ13C) of the indicator planktonic species Globigerina bulloides. The results indicate that from latitudes 9.69°N to 15°S both these isotopes (Δ18O and Δ13C) fluctuated significantly. Between latitudes from around15°S to 30-35°S Δ18O values steadily increased, whereas $delta^{13}$C showed a decreasing trend. However, to the south of latitudes 30-35°S, both isotope values showed a similar response with a gradual increase up to latitude 50°S,beyond which $delta^{18}$O continued to increase while $delta^{13}$C declined. The characteristic patterns of the values of both isotopes indicatesthat the signatures of different water masses are associated with various frontal systems and/or water masses across the transect. The signature ofthe Polar Front at around latitude 50^{circ}S shows the specific response of the isotopic values (Δ18O and Δ13C) ofG. bulloides. Such a response beyond 50°S latitude is ascribable to the general decrease in the ambient temperature, resultingin a continuous increase in Δ18O values, while Δ13C values decrease as a result of reduced photosynthesis in regions approaching higherlatitudes owing to low light penetration. To further corroborate our results, those of many such transects from geographically distinct regions need to bestudied for isotopic variations in the calcareous shells of planktonic foraminiferal species. The results have the potential to be used as a proxy to assess the movement of frontal systems in southern high latitude regions.
Performance Analysis of High Speed Hybrid CMOS Full Adder Circuits for Low Voltage VLSI Design
Subodh Wairya,Rajendra Kumar Nagaria,Sudarshan Tiwari
VLSI Design , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/173079
Abstract: This paper presents a comparative study of high-speed and low-voltage full adder circuits. Our approach is based on hybrid design full adder circuits combined in a single unit. A high performance adder cell using an XOR-XNOR (3T) design style is discussed. This paper also discusses a high-speed conventional full adder design combined with MOSCAP Majority function circuit in one unit to implement a hybrid full adder circuit. Moreover, it presents low-power Majority-function-based 1-bit full addersthat use MOS capacitors (MOSCAP) in its structure. This technique helps in reducing power consumption, propagation delay, and area of digital circuits while maintaining low complexity of logic design. Simulation results illustrate the superiority of the designed adder circuits over the conventional CMOS, TG, and hybrid adder circuits in terms of power, delay, power delay product (PDP), and energy delay product (EDP). Postlayout simulation results illustrate the superiority of the newly designed majority adder circuits against the reported conventional adder circuits. The design is implemented on UMC?0.18? m process models in Cadence Virtuoso Schematic Composer at 1.8?V single-ended supply voltage, and simulations are carried out on Spectre S. 1. Introduction It is time we explore the well-engineered deep submicron CMOS technologies to address the challenging criteria of these emerging low-power and high-speed communication digital signal processing chips. The performance of many applications as digital signal processing depends upon the performance of the arithmetic circuits to execute complex algorithms such as convolution, correlation, and digital filtering. Fast arithmetic computation cells including adders and multipliers are the most frequently and widely used circuits in very-large-scale integration (VLSI) systems. The semiconductor industry has witnessed an explosive growth of integration of sophisticated multimedia-based applications into mobile electronics gadgetry since the last decade. However, the critical concern in this arena is to reduce the increase in power consumption beyond a certain range of operating frequency. Moreover, with the explosive growth, the demand, and the popularity of portable electronic products, the designers are driven to strive for smaller silicon area, higher speed, longer battery life, and enhanced reliability. The XOR-XNOR circuits are basic building blocks in various circuits especially arithmetic circuits (adders & multipliers), compressors, comparators, parity checkers, code converters, error-detecting or
Floral Biology, Floral Resource Constraints and Pollination Limitation in Jatropha curcas L.
Ashoke Bhattacharya,Kalyani Datta,Subodh Kumar Datta
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: The present study deals with the floral biology, floral visitors and pollination of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae). Forenoon pattern of anthesis with subsequent pollen release was noticed. Each male flower produced 1617 100 pollen with P:O ratio as 539:1. The stigmas become receptive 2 h after anthesis with morphological differentiation. Nectar secretion coincided with pollen presentation schedule and stigma receptive duration. Each female flower produced higher amount (4.54 ± 0.82 μL) of nectar than male flower (1.92 ± 0.44 μL) in 1200 h. Fifty percent of female flowers set fruit with 53% fecundity rate, 32% apomixis rate and 2:3 seed-ovule ratio. The flowers attracted the insect visitors of Hymenoptera (Apis dorsata, A. florea, A. mellifera, Eumenes conica and Vespa sp.) and Coleoptera (Beetles). Among the different insect visitors Apis spp. were most frequent. It has been observed that the different grades of sucrose have an influence on insect behaviour, flower visits duration, pollen removal and deposition on stigmas by honeybees (Apis spp.). Highest number of pollen grains were transported and deposited on stigmas by A. dorsata when flowers were treated with 0.9 M sucrose, whereas, it was lowest by A. florea in 1.5 M sucrose treated flowers.
NEW DESIGN METHODOLOGIES FOR HIGH-SPEED MIXED-MODE CMOS FULL ADDER CIRCUITS
Subodh Wairya,Rajendra Kumar Nagaria,Sudarshan Tiwari
International Journal of VLSI Design & Communication Systems , 2011,
Abstract: This paper presents the design of high-speed full adder circuits using a new CMOS mixed mode logicfamily. The objective of this work is to present a new full adder design circuits combined with current modecircuit in one unit to implement a full adder cell. This paper also discusses a high- speed hybrid majorityfunction based 1-bit full adder that uses MOS capacitors (MOSCAP) in its structure with conventionalstatic and dynamic CMOS logic circuit. The static Majority function (bridge) design style enjoys a highdegree of regularity and symmetric higher density than the conventional CMOS design style as well aslower power consumption by using bridge transistors. This technique helps in reducing powerconsumption, propagation delay, and area of digital circuits while maintaining low complexity of mixedmodelogic designs. Dynamic CMOS circuits enjoy area, delay and testability advantages over staticCMOS circuits. Simulation results illustrate the superiority of the new designed adder circuits against thereported conventional CMOS, dynamic and majority function adder circuits, in terms of power, delay,power delay product (PDP) and energy delay product (EDP). The design is implemented on UMC 0.18μmprocess models in Cadence Virtuoso Schematic Composer at 1.8 V single ended supply voltage andsimulations are carried out on Spectre S.
Comparative Performance Analysis of XOR-XNOR Function Based High-Speed CMOS Full Adder Circuits For Low Voltage VLSI Design
Subodh Wairya,Rajendra Kumar Nagaria,Sudarshan Tiwari
International Journal of VLSI Design & Communication Systems , 2012,
Abstract: This paper presents comparative study of high-speed, low-power and low voltage full adder circuits. Our approach is based on XOR-XNOR design full adder circuits in a single unit. A low power and high performance 9T full adder cell using a design style called “XOR (3T)” is discussed. The designed circuit commands a high degree of regularity and symmetric higher density than the conventional CMOS design style as well as it lowers power consumption by using XOR (3T) logic circuits. Gate Diffusion Input (GDI) technique of low-power digital combinatorial circuit design is also described. This technique helps inreducing the power consumption and the area of digital circuits while maintaining low complexity of logic design. This paper analyses, evaluates and compares the performance of various adder circuits. Severalsimulations conducted using different voltage supplies, load capacitors and temperature variation demonstrate the superiority of the XOR (3T) based full adder designs in term of delay, power and powerdelay product (PDP) compared to the other full adder circuits. Simulation results illustrate the superiority of the designed adder circuits against the conventional CMOS, TG and Hybrid full adder circuits in terms of power, delay and power delay product (PDP).
Dimensions of Hallucinations and Delusions in Affective and Nonaffective Illnesses
Ranju Kumari,Suprakash Chaudhury,Subodh Kumar
ISRN Psychiatry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/616304
Abstract: The aim of the study was to examine the dimensions of hallucinations and delusions in affective (manic episode, bipolar affective disorder, and depressive episode) and nonaffective disorders (schizophrenia, acute and transient psychotic disorders, and unspecified psychosis). Sixty outpatients divided equally into two groups comprising affective and nonaffective disorders were taken up for evaluation after screening, as per inclusion and exclusion criteria. Scores of 3 or above on delusion and hallucinatory behavior subscales of positive and negative syndrome scale were sufficient to warrant rating on the psychotic symptom rating scales with which auditory hallucination and delusion were assessed on various dimensions. Insight was assessed using the Beck cognitive insight scale (BCIS). There were no significant differences between the two groups on age, sex, marital status, education, and economic status. There were significant differences in total score and emotional characteristic subscale, cognitive interpretation subscale, and physical characteristic subscale of auditory hallucination scales in between the two groups. Correlation between BCIS-total and total auditory hallucinations score was negative (Spearman Rho ?0.319; ). Hallucinating patients, more in nonaffective group, described a negative impact of hallucinating voices along with emotional consequences on their lives which lead to distress and disruption. 1. Introduction Hallucinations may be viewed as incomprehensible experiences that the person describes or interprets, and that perception is accompanied by feelings, such as urgency, certainty, and vividness. Delusion is a false belief based on incorrect inference about external reality and its explanations are in conflict with the evidence. Both phenomena are often a cause of distress, preoccupation, and significant interference in daily functioning. Junginger and Frame [1] have argued that the important characteristic of voices perceived as outside the head is not their location per se but rather the person’s delusional attribution that they are aliens. In this context, relations between hallucinations and delusions need to be examined more carefully. The majority of hallucinations are examples of secondary delusions since the person is always trying to interpret or make sense of the anomalous experiences and that leads to secondary delusions. Evidence of the coexistence of hallucinations and delusions suggests that these two symptoms may share common ground in terms of the psychological factors underlying their presence [2–5]. The
Feasible methodology for optimization of a novel reversible binary compressor
Neeraj Kumar Misra,Mukesh Kumar Kushwaha,Subodh Wairya,Amit Kumar
Computer Science , 2015, DOI: 10.5121/vlsic.2015.6401
Abstract: Now a day reversible logic is an attractive research area due to its low power consumption in the area of VLSI circuit design. The reversible logic gate is utilized to optimize power consumption by a feature of retrieving input logic from an output logic because of bijective mapping between input and output. In this manuscript, we design 4 2 and 5 2 reversible compressor circuits using a new type of reversible gate. In addition, we propose new gate, named as inventive0 gate for optimizing a compressor circuit. The utility of the inventive0 gate is that it can be used as full adder and full subtraction with low value of garbage outputs and quantum cost. An algorithm is shown for designing a compressor structure. The comparative study shows that the proposed compressor structure outperforms the existing ones in terms of garbage outputs, number of gates and quantum cost. The compressor can reduce the effect of carry (Produce from full adder) of the arithmetic frame design. In addition, we implement a basic reversible gate of MOS transistor with less number of MOS transistor count.
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