Abstract:
We examine phases of the Shraiman-Siggia model of lightly-doped, square lattice quantum antiferromagnets in a self-consistent, two-loop, interacting magnon analysis. We find magnetically-ordered and quantum-disordered phases both with and without incommensurate spin correlations. The quantum disordered phases have a pseudo-gap in the spin excitation spectrum. The quantum transition between the magnetically ordered and commensurate quantum-disordered phases is argued to have the dynamic critical exponent $z=1$ and the same leading critical behavior as the disordering transition in the pure $O(3)$ sigma model. The relationship to experiments on the doped cuprates is discussed.

Abstract:
We study the finite temperature crossovers in the vicinity of a zero temperature quantum phase transition. The universal crossover functions are observables of a continuum quantum field theory. Particular attention is focussed on the high temperature limit of the continuum field theory, the so-called ``quantum-critical'' region. Basic features of crossovers are illustrated by a simple solvable model of dilute spinless fermions, and a partially solvable model of dilute bosons. The low frequency relaxational behavior of the quantum-critical region is displayed in the solution of the transverse-field Ising model. The insights from these simple models lead to a fairly complete understanding of the system of primary interest: the two-dimensional quantum rotor model, whose phase transition is expected to be in the same universality class as those in antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin models. Recent work on the experimental implications of these results for the cuprate compounds is briefly reviewed.

Abstract:
The constraints on the scaling properties of conserved charge densities in the vicinity of a zero temperature ($T$), second-order quantum phase transition are studied. We introduce a generalized Wilson ratio, characterizing the non-linear response to an external field, $H$, coupling to any conserved charge, and argue that it is a completely universal function of $H/T$: this is illustrated by computations on model systems. We also note implications for transitions where the order parameter is a conserved charge (as in a $T=0$ ferromagnet-paramagnet transition).

Abstract:
We consider finite temperature properties of the Ising chain in a transverse field in the vicinity of its zero temperature, second order quantum phase transition. New universal crossover functions for static and dynamic correlators of the ``spin'' operator are obtained. The static results follow from an early lattice computation of McCoy, and a method of analytic continuation in the space of coupling constants. The dynamic results are in the ``renormalized classical'' region and follow from a proposed mapping of the quantum dynamics to the Glauber dynamics of a classical Ising chain.

Abstract:
A systematic method for the computation of finite temperature ($T$) crossover functions near quantum critical points close to, or above, their upper-critical dimension is devised. We describe the physics of the various regions in the $T$ and critical tuning parameter ($t$) plane. The quantum critical point is at $T=0$, $t=0$, and in many cases there is a line of finite temperature transitions at $T = T_c (t)$, $t < 0$ with $T_c (0) = 0$. For the relativistic, $n$-component $\phi^4$ continuum quantum field theory (which describes lattice quantum rotor ($n \geq 2$) and transverse field Ising ($n=1$) models) the upper critical dimension is $d=3$, and for $d<3$, $\epsilon=3-d$ is the control parameter over the entire phase diagram. In the region $|T - T_c (t)| \ll T_c (t)$, we obtain an $\epsilon$ expansion for coupling constants which then are input as arguments of known {\em classical, tricritical,} crossover functions. In the high $T$ region of the continuum theory, an expansion in integer powers of $\sqrt{\epsilon}$, modulo powers of $\ln \epsilon$, holds for all thermodynamic observables, static correlators, and dynamic properties at all Matsubara frequencies; for the imaginary part of correlators at real frequencies ($\omega$), the perturbative $\sqrt{\epsilon}$ expansion describes quantum relaxation at $\hbar \omega \sim k_B T$ or larger, but fails for $\hbar \omega \sim \sqrt{\epsilon} k_B T$ or smaller. An important principle, underlying the whole calculation, is the analyticity of all observables as functions of $t$ at $t=0$, for $T>0$; indeed, analytic continuation in $t$ is used to obtain results in a portion of the phase diagram. Our method also applies to a large class of other quantum critical points and their associated continuum quantum field theories.

Abstract:
I review two classes of strong coupling problems in condensed matter physics, and describe insights gained by application of the AdS/CFT correspondence. The first class concerns non-zero temperature dynamics and transport in the vicinity of quantum critical points described by relativistic field theories. I describe how relativistic structures arise in models of physical interest, present results for their quantum critical crossover functions and magneto-thermoelectric hydrodynamics. The second class concerns symmetry breaking transitions of two-dimensional systems in the presence of gapless electronic excitations at isolated points or along lines (i.e. Fermi surfaces) in the Brillouin zone. I describe the scaling structure of a recent theory of the Ising-nematic transition in metals, and discuss its possible connection to theories of Fermi surfaces obtained from simple AdS duals.

Abstract:
I begin with a proposed global phase diagram of the cuprate superconductors as a function of carrier concentration, magnetic field, and temperature, and highlight its connection to numerous recent experiments. The phase diagram is then used as a point of departure for a pedagogical review of various quantum phases and phase transitions of insulators, superconductors, and metals. The bond operator method is used to describe the transition of dimerized antiferromagnetic insulators between magnetically ordered states and spin-gap states. The Schwinger boson method is applied to frustrated square lattice antiferromagnets: phase diagrams containing collinear and spirally ordered magnetic states, Z_2 spin liquids, and valence bond solids are presented, and described by an effective gauge theory of spinons. Insights from these theories of insulators are then applied to a variety of symmetry breaking transitions in d-wave superconductors. The latter systems also contain fermionic quasiparticles with a massless Dirac spectrum, and their influence on the order parameter fluctuations and quantum criticality is carefully discussed. I conclude with an introduction to strong coupling problems associated with symmetry breaking transitions in two-dimensional metals, where the order parameter fluctuations couple to a gapless line of fermionic excitations along the Fermi surface.

Abstract:
Transport measurements in the hole-doped cuprates show a "strange metal" normal state with an electrical resistance which varies linearly with temperature. This strange metal phase is often identified with the quantum critical region of a zero temperature quantum critical point (QCP) at hole density x=x_m, near optimal doping. A long-standing problem with this picture is that low temperature experiments within the superconducting phase have not shown convincing signatures of such a optimal doping QCP (except in some cuprates with small superconducting critical temperatures). I review theoretical work which proposes a simple resolution of this enigma. The crossovers in the normal state are argued to be controlled by a QCP at x_m linked to the onset of spin density wave (SDW) order in a "large" Fermi surface metal, leading to small Fermi pockets for x

Abstract:
In an earlier work, Damle and the author (Phys. Rev. B in press; cond-mat/9705206) demonstrated the central role played by incoherent, inelastic processes in transport near two-dimensional quantum critical points. This paper extends these results to the case of a quantum transition in an anyon gas between a fractional quantized Hall state and an insulator, induced by varying the strength of an external periodic potential. We use the quantum field theory for this transition introduced by Chen, Fisher and Wu (Phys. Rev. B 48, 13749 (1993)). The longitudinal and Hall conductivities at the critical point are both $e^2/ h$ times non-trivial, fully universal functions of $\hbar \omega / k_B T$ ($\omega$ is the measuring frequency). These functions are computed using a combination of perturbation theory on the Kubo formula, and the solution of a quantum Boltzmann equation for the anyonic quasiparticles and quasiholes. The results include the values of the d.c. conductivities ($\hbar \omega /k_B T \to 0$); earlier work had been restricted strictly to T=0, and had therefore computed only the high frequency a.c. conductivities with $\hbar \omega / k_B T \to \infty$.

Abstract:
We review recent work on a continuum, classical theory of thermal fluctuations in two dimensional superconductors. A functional integral over a Ginzburg-Landau free energy describes the amplitude and phase fluctuations responsible for the crossover from Gaussian fluctuations of the superconducting order at high temperatures, to the vortex physics of the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition at lower temperatures. Results on the structure of this crossover are presented, including new results for corrections to the Aslamazov-Larkin fluctuation conductivity.