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Role of Temperature and Carbon Nanotube Reinforcement on Epoxy based Nanocomposites  [PDF]
Subhranshu Sekhar Samal
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2009.81003
Abstract: This paper presents the synthesis of epoxy based Multiwalled Carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) reinforced composites by method of sonication. The variation in the nature of reinforcement (Aligned & Randomly oriented MWNTS) has resulted in the improvement of mechanical properties like flexural modulus, tensile strength and hardness. A small change in chemical treatment of the nanotubes has a great effect in the mechanical and morphological properties of nanocomposites due to effective load transfer mechanism and state of dispersion. The change in properties has been verified by optical microscopy and Scanning electron microscopy. Apart from that the prepared composites has been treated under different temperatures (like hot water, room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature) and the change in mechanical as well as morphological nature has been verified by SEM of Fractographic surface this proved the elasticity and ductility of the composites.
Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites- A Review  [PDF]
Subhranshu Sekhar Samal, Smrutisikha Bal
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2008, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2008.74028
Abstract: This paper provides an overview of recent advances reported in literature in ceramics matrix composites research in the context of reinforcement with carbon nanotubes. Current state of research has indicated the potential of these nanocomposites but at the same time, has illustrated the significant challenges in processing and improving properties. Fundamental work in processing, characterization and analysis is important before the structural properties of this new class of nanocomposites can be optimized. The fields of the nanocomposite materials have received a lot of attention and close scrutiny of scientists and engineers in recent years. This scrutiny results from the simple premise that using building blocks with dimensions in the nanometer range makes it possible to design and create new materials with unprecedented flexibility. The driving force behind the fabrication of novel nanocomposites is to achieve high functional properties for high end applications.
Sonochemical Coating of Ag-TiO2 Nanoparticles on Textile Fabrics for Stain Repellency and Self-Cleaning- The Indian Scenario: A Review  [PDF]
Subhranshu Sekhar Samal, P. Jeyaraman, Vinita Vishwakarma
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2010.96036
Abstract: Surface modification is an important element of textile manufacturing. The final properties of a textile material are critical in determining how they perform for their given end use. More recently, botany and nanotechnology have united to explore not only the beauty and cleanliness of the leaf, but also its lack of contamination and bacteria, despite its dwelling in dirty ponds. On the basis of lotus leaf concept scientist developed a new concept “Self cleaning textile” the textile surface which can be cleaned itself without using any laundering action. In this paper, the role of silver- Titania nanoparticles synthesized and deposited on different types of fabrics using ultrasound irradiation under an atmosphere of argon gas and decreasing both the cavitational threshold and intensity of ultrasound power has been reviewed. The excellent antibacterial activity of the Ag–Titania fabric composite against Escherichia coli (gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive) cultures also reviewed with reference to Indian scenario.
Safety and Risk Associated with Nanoparticles - A Review  [PDF]
Vinita Vishwakarma, Subhranshu Sekhar Samal, N. Manoharan
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2010.95031
Abstract: The emerging field of nanotechnology has created risk for environment and human health. Nanoparticles are not a recent discovery. It has existed for many years. Today synthesis of nanoparticles takes place for many applications in various field of science, technology, medicine, colloid technologies, diagnostics, drug delivery, health impacts, food, personal care applications etc. In spite of this, toxicology of nanoparticles is poorly understood as there are no sufficient methods to test nanoparticles for health, safety and environmental impacts, especially in the size range lower than 50nm.
An Integrated Geoscientific Approach to Define Zones of Gold Mineralization
—A Case Study in North Sudan

Bijay K. Mishra, N. Sulekha Rao, Sudeep Rautray, Subhranshu Pattanayak
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2014.45014

The study area is located in Bayuda desert lying about 400 km from Khartoum in the state of River Nile, North Sudan. The present study aimed to identify gold mineralized zones through an integrated geoscientific approach. The approach integrated the results of geospatial studies, geological mapping, field observations and geochemical data. Remote sensing studies using ASTER and Quickbird data helped to identify the zones of chloritic, sericitic and phyllic alteration signatures and gossan rich zones. Geological mapping and field observations confirmed the presence of gold mineralization along the quartz veins which shared the litho contacts of biotite muscovite schist, biotite muscovite gneiss and silicate gneiss. These gold bearing potential areas were found to be structurally controlled and most of the mineralizations were along the proximity of shear-zones, faults and folds. The gold assay values obtained from the chemical analysis of stream sediment and pitting-trenching samples also confirmed the results of remote sensing and geological mapping. Integration of all these data helped to identify drill holes’ locations in the study area for further exploration. This focused plan facilitated cost and time optimization in exploration activities.

Study of the structure and dynamics of complex biological networks
Areejit Samal
Quantitative Biology , 2008,
Abstract: In this thesis, we have studied the large scale structure and system level dynamics of certain biological networks using tools from graph theory, computational biology and dynamical systems. We study the structure and dynamics of large scale metabolic networks inside three organisms, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Staphylococcus aureus. We also study the dynamics of the large scale genetic network controlling E. coli metabolism. We have tried to explain the observed system level dynamical properties of these networks in terms of their underlying structure. Our studies of the system level dynamics of these large scale biological networks provide a different perspective on their functioning compared to that obtained from purely structural studies. Our study also leads to some new insights on features such as robustness, fragility and modularity of these large scale biological networks. We also shed light on how different networks inside the cell such as metabolic networks and genetic networks are interrelated to each other.
Conservation of high-flux backbone in alternate optimal and near-optimal flux distributions of metabolic networks
Areejit Samal
Quantitative Biology , 2009,
Abstract: Constraint-based flux balance analysis (FBA) has proven successful in predicting the flux distribution of metabolic networks in diverse environmental conditions. FBA finds one of the alternate optimal solutions that maximizes the biomass production rate. Almaas et al have shown that the flux distribution follows a power law, and it is possible to associate with most metabolites two reactions which maximally produce and consume a give metabolite, respectively. This observation led to the concept of high-flux backbone (HFB) in metabolic networks. In previous work, the HFB has been computed using a particular optima obtained using FBA. In this paper, we investigate the conservation of HFB of a particular solution for a given medium across different alternate optima and near-optima in metabolic networks of E. coli and S. cerevisiae. Using flux variability analysis (FVA), we propose a method to determine reactions that are guaranteed to be in HFB regardless of alternate solutions. We find that the HFB of a particular optima is largely conserved across alternate optima in E. coli, while it is only moderately conserved in S. cerevisiae. However, the HFB of a particular near-optima shows a large variation across alternate near-optima in both organisms. We show that the conserved set of reactions in HFB across alternate near-optima has a large overlap with essential reactions and reactions which are both uniquely consuming (UC) and uniquely producing (UP). Our findings suggest that the structure of the metabolic network admits a high degree of redundancy and plasticity in near-optimal flow patterns enhancing system robustness for a given environmental condition.
GIS Based Identification and Assessment of Groundwater Quality Potential Zones in Puri City, India  [PDF]
Ritesh Vijay, Dipal Samal, P. K. Mohapatra
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.36054
Abstract: Puri city is situated on the east coast of India and groundwater is the only source available to meet the potable water supply of the city. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of anthropogenic activities on groundwater quality and to identify the groundwater potential zones for drinking water production using GIS. Major sources of groundwater contamination in the city were open discharges of domestic sewage, inadequate sewerage system, open defecation, septic tanks, soak pits, contaminated water pools and unorganized solid waste dumping. Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed during post and pre monsoon to evaluate the drinking water quality as per Indian standards. The groundwater zones were prepared based on weighted index overlay analysis by assigning the weights based on the drinking water standards under different classes of individual water quality parameters. Finally, the potential zones were identified and assessed as suitable, moderately suitable and unsuitable for domestic purpose. Based on groundwater quality and geospatial analysis, measures were suggested to protect groundwater resources.
Experiencing Participation in Health Care: “Through the Eyes of Older Adults”  [PDF]
Samal Algilani, Inger James, Annica Kihlgren
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2016.61007
Abstract: Background: Patient participation is well understood by health care professionals but not many studies have focused on the older adults and their perceptions of patient participation. Aim and Objectives: To report an analysis of the concept of participation from the perspective of the older adult. Design: Concept analysis. Methods: An integrative review approach was undertaken and the searches were limited from January 2003 to December 2014, guiding question was; “what constitutes patient participation according to the older adult?” Results: Through the eyes of the older adults, a two-way communication should be initiated by the staff. Equality and sharing power between older adults and staffs was perceived as a precondition. Been given time was an essential issue, implying that older adults wished to have enough time from staffs and be in the right context surrounded by the appropriate environment in order to experience participation. Conclusion: In order to experience participation for older adults, it is important that the health care professionals are aware of how and in what ways they can contribute to participation among older adults. The need or wish to create participation is not enough; the health care professional needs to see and understand participation through the older adult’s eyes. Thus, a person-centered nursing approach is relevant for the health care professional in order to both give and maintain the experience of participation to the older adult.
Isolation and Identification of Shoot-Tip Associated Endophytic Bacteria from Banana cv. Grand Naine and Testing for Antagonistic Activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense  [PDF]
Aparna Chandra Sekhar, Pious Thomas
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.67101
Abstract: Endophytic bacteria colonizing the shoot-tips of banana cv. Grand Naine were isolated and tested for the antagonistic activity against the Panama wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). Pre-isolation, the suckers were given extensive disinfection treatments and the homogenate from the excised shoot-tip portion was plated on nutrient agar (NA) and trypticase soy agar (TSA). This yielded altogether 47 isolates: 26 on NA and 21 on TSA, respectively, from the 10 suckers collected during August to February. The number of bacterial isolates obtained per sucker varied from one to 15 based on colony characteristics registering up to 10 distinct species per shoot-tip based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The 47 isolates belonged to 19 genera and 25 species under the phylogenetic classes of Actinobacteria, α- and γ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Actinobacteria constituted the predominant phylum (55% isolates) with the constituent genera of Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Curtobacterium, Kocuria, Kytococcus, Micrococcus, Naumanella, Rothia and Tessaracoccus spp. and an unidentified isolate belonging to the family Frankiaceae. Proteobacteria constituted the second major phylum (Brevundimonas, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Serratia and Sphingomonas spp.) followed by Firmicutes (Bacillus and Staphylococcus spp.). Antagonistic activity of the endophytes against Foc was tested through agar plate assays (pit and spot applications on fungal lawn) employing potato dextrose agar and NA. Endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (isolate GNS.13.2a) which was associated with a single sucker showed significant growth
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