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Identification of Artificial Recharge Sites in Manchi Basin, Eastern Rajasthan (India) Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques  [PDF]
Subah Rais, Akram Javed
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2014.62017

The present study is an attempt to prepare a water resource development action plan for Manchi basin in Eastern Rajasthan (India) using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Satellite data have proven to be very useful for surface study, especially in the preparation of land use/land cover and geomorphological map. Morphometric parameters are analyzed to understand the basin characteristics and its influence on the water resources for instance bifurcation ratio indicates high surface run off and low recharge in SB-I, IV, V. Low drainage density ranges from 2.41 (SB-IV) to 2.99 (SB-V) km/km2, with an average of 2.72 km/km2 showing permeable strata, dense vegetation and low relief. Analysis of shape parameters i.e. elongation ratio and circularity ratio suggest that Manchi basin is elongated in shape. Whereas, slope, geology and geomorphological mapping is done to demarcate groundwater potential zones for future exploration in the study area. Slope is inversely proportional to infiltration. Therefore, sub-basin areas having gentle slope permits less runoff and more infiltration as in alluvial plains and vice versa where hills and ridges are present. The integrated study helps in designing suitable sites for constructing water harvesting structures. Check dams, percolation tanks and nala bund are proposed at 1st, 2nd or 3rd drainage orders at SB-I and SB-IV with ravenous land (open scrub), uncultivated land, open forest & exposed rock present. Nala bund & check dam are proposed at SB-II & SB-V whereas, at SB-III check dams & percolation tanks are proposed so as to conserve the natural resources present in the basin. Finally, the best feasible water harvesting structures have been proposed within the sub-basins area using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

H(.,.)- φ - η - Accretive Operators and Generalized Variational-Like Inclusions  [PDF]
Rais Ahmad, Mohammad Dilshad
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2011.14035
Abstract: In this paper, we generalize H(.,.) accretive operator introduced by Zou and Huang [1] and we call it H(.,.)- φ - η - accretive operator. We define the resolvent operator associated with H(.,.)- φ - η - accretive operator and prove its Lipschitz continuity. By using these concepts an iterative algorithm is suggested to solve a generalized variational-like inclusion problem. Some examples are given to justify the definition of H(.,.)- φ - η - accretive operator.
Granulometric Analysis of Rajmahal Inter-Trappen Sedimentary Rocks (Early Cretaceous), Eastern India, Implications for Depositional History  [PDF]
Aparna Sinha, Sarwar Rais
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2019.103015
Abstract: Rajmahal trap along with its Inter-trappean sedimentary rocks is found exposed in the eastern part of India (24°00'E - 25°15'N; 87°20'E - 87°15'E). Ten representative samples of Inter-trappean sandstone selected from the study area have been subjected to granulometric analysis. The result of the grain size analysis indicates that these sandstone specimens are very fine to fine grained with unimodal grain size distribution. They are dominantly fine skewed and generally mesokurtic in nature. The linear discriminant function plots of various grain size parameters suggest that these sandstones appear to have been deposited either in shallow marine or lacustrine environment. On multigroup multivariate discriminant functions V1 - V2 diagram majority of the samples fall in the beach depositional environment, indicating that most of the sediments were reworked by wave processes before deposition. The C-M pattern diagram shows that the sediment deposition took place in beach environment by rolling or suspension of sediments; hence the clastics were deposited in low energy condition.
A Design of a PID Self-Tuning Controller Using LabVIEW  [PDF]
Mohammad A. K. Alia, Tariq M. Younes, Shibel Al Subah
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2011.43018
Abstract: In this paper a trial has been made to design a simple self-tuning LabVIEW-based PID controller. The controller uses an open-loop relay test, calculates the tuned parameters in an open loop mode of operation before it updates controller parameters and runs the process as a closed-loop system. The controller reacts on a persistent offset error value as a result of load disturbance or a set point change. Practical results show that such a controller may be recommended to control a variety of industrial processes. A GUI was developed to facilitate control-mode selection, the setting of controller parameters, and the display of control system variables. GUI makes it possible to put the controller in manual or self-tuning mode.
Penile Cancer in Liberia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  [PDF]
Edet Ikpi, Solomane Konneh, Bashir Yunusa, Ansumana Camara, Alberta Clark, Sean Subah, David Alele, Monica Sroden
Health (Health) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/health.2018.108086
Abstract: Background: Penile cancer is uncommon in Liberia with no record of its occurrence so far in the literature. Its occurrence worldwide is significantly affected by cultural or religious practices like childhood circumcision. Smoking, poor penile hygiene and inflammatory processes in the presence of smegma increase the risk of its occurrence. Objective: To review the first case of penile cancer treated in Liberia. Materials and Method: Case report. Case Presentation/Report: Our index patient is a 65-year old man referred from a peripheral centre in acute urinary retention. He also presented with a year history of progressively expanding ulcerative penile lesion affecting the glans and penile shaft. Local examination of the genitalia revealed an ulcerated lesion extending from the glans up to the mid shaft of the penis. The penobulbar urethra was free of induration. The external urethral meatus was infiltrated by the lesion. The scrotum and testes were normal and digital rectal examination revealed a moderately enlarged benign prostate. Bilateral inguinal lymph node enlargement was elicited. A diagnosis of advanced penile cancer with benign prostatic hyperplasia was made. The patient had partial penectomy, reconstruction of new external urethral meatus and inguinal lymphadenectomy. The specimen was histologically confirmed to be Squamous cell Carcinoma of the penis; the resection margins and lymph nodes biopsied were found to be adequate and tumor free respectively. Patient’s post operative recovery was uneventful and he was discharged after a week. His follow up status after 6 months has remained satisfactory. Conclusion: Though rare, penile cancer does occur in Liberia and specialist staff with capacity for diagnosing and surgical intervention remains critical to patients’ outcome. Early intervention improves the chances of better outcome; counseling is critical to prevent treated patient lapsing into depression.
Comparison of Alternative Strategies for Multilevel Optimization of Hierarchical Systems  [PDF]
Saber DorMohammadi, Masoud Rais-Rohani
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.330204
Abstract: The augmented Lagrangian penalty formulation and four different coordination strategies are used to examine the nu- merical behavior of Analytical Target Cascading (ATC) for multilevel optimization of hierarchical systems. The coordination strategies considered include augmented Lagrangian using the method of multipliers and alternating direction method of multipliers, diagonal quadratic approximation, and truncated diagonal quadratic approximation. Properties examined include computational cost and solution accuracy based on the selected values for the different parameters that appear in each formulation. The different strategies are implemented using two- and three-level decomposed example problems. While the results show the interaction between the selected ATC formulation and the values of associated parameters, they clearly highlight the impact they could have on both the solution accuracy and computational cost.
Estimation of GFR by MDRD Formula and Its Correlation to Cockcroft-Gault Equation in Five Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease  [PDF]
Absar Ali, Naila Asif, Zunaira Rais
Open Journal of Nephrology (OJNeph) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojneph.2013.31006
Abstract: Background: Purpose of our study was to find out correlation between estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula and Glomerular Filtration Rate by Cockcroft-Gault equations, in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and to see whether they can be used interchangeably. Methods: We conducted a cross section study of 70 patients presented to the nephrology clinic over a period of one year. We compared the Glomerular Filtration Rate by these two formulas in five stages of Chronic Kidney Disease. Abbreviated 4 variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula was used.Results: Age range was 15 - 79 years; Male 49%, Female 51%. The correlation (r) between eGFR by MDRD and eGFR by Cockcroft-Gault equation for CKD stages 1 to 5 was 0.64; 0.31; 0.32; 0.67; and 0.45 respectively. The correlation (r) between creatinine clearance by 24 hour urine collection and MDRD formula was 0.84 (P: 0.001). The correlation (r) between creatinine clearance by 24 hour urine collection Cockcroft-Gault equation was 0.79 (P: 0.001). Conclusion: We conclude that Cockcroft-Gault equation correlates best with MDRD formula at CKD stages 4 and one. Cockcroft-Gault equation underestimated eGFR in stages 1, 2 and 3 of chronic Kidney Disease.
Quantification of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Buffalo Milk Samples of Delhi City, India  [PDF]
Mohd Aslam, Sumbul Rais, Masood Alam
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.49111

The ill effects of green revolution include residues of extensively used chemical pesticides in various environmental components. The present study was designed to analyze the levels of organochlorine pesticide residues along with chemical composition in buffalo milk samples collected from different localities of Delhi. Milk monitoring can yield information about the kinds and quantities of pesticides in the environment as well as in our daily diet. In this study, the residue of three different organochlorine pesticides, namely Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and Endosulfan have been reported. Residues of Lindane exceeded the Maximum Residual Limit values in 50% of the samples is a cause of serious concern. The p,p-DDT was detected in 70% of the samples with p,p’-DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) in 80% of the milk samples of different parts of Delhi state. DDD (Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) another metabolite of p,p’-DDT was detected in 65% of the milk samples. The analysis indicates that DDT is the major contaminants in different parts of Delhi state. α and β endosulfan were detected in 35% and 40% of the samples analyzed. The statistical correlation shows no significant correlation between chemical compositions of the samples. The presence of multiple chemicals in virtually all samples of buffalo milk raises new questions about the possible toxicological impacts of chemical mixtures on an infant’s developing nervous and immune systems and reproductive organs.

Characterization of Series Resistance and Mobility Degradation Parameter and Optimizing Choice of Oxide Thickness in Thin Oxide N-Channel MOSFET
Noureddine Maouhoub,Khalid Rais
Active and Passive Electronic Components , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/713129
Abstract: We present two methods to extract the series resistance and the mobility degradation parameter in short-channel MOSFETs. The principle of the first method is based on the comparison between the exponential model and the classical model of effective mobility and for the second method is based on directly calculating the two parameters by solving a system of two equations obtained by using two different points in strong inversion at small drain bias from the characteristic ( ). The results obtained by these techniques have shown a better agreement with data measurements and allowed in the same time to determine the surface roughness amplitude and its influence on the maximum drain current and give the optimal oxide thickness. 1. Introduction Accurate model parameter extraction is crucial for modeling modern MOSFET devices. Extensive work abounds in the literature dedicated to this subject. Free-carrier mobility degradation and source-and-drain series resistance are two parameters of special importance for MOSFET characterization that are particularly cumbersome to extract independently from each other. Both of these parameters produce similar effects on the device’s transfer characteristics, ( ), a fact that complicates their accurate extraction. Several ingenious procedures have been proposed to circumvent this difficulty [1–5]. Another method was proposed to extract these parameters from the drain current versus gate voltage characteristics in the saturation region using several devices of different mask channel lengths [6]. An alternative procedure was recently proposed to extract the source-and-drain series resistance independently of mobility degradation by using bias conditions under which the channel carrier mobility is kept constant [7]. Another recent works presented direct fitting and direct calculating methods in strong inversion and by exploiting the characteristic ( ) [8, 9]. In what follows we present a two procedures to be applied to the strong inversion ( ) characteristics of a single transistor, measured at a small drain bias. It is based on the exploiting of exponential model of effective mobility. The procedure has been validated using data from a single experimental short channel device. The drain current, , at very small drain bias, can be expressed in terms of intrinsic voltages as where is the channel width, is the channel length, is the oxide capacitance, is the effective free-carrier mobility, is the intrinsic gate voltage, the intrinsic drain voltage, and is the threshold voltage. If the source-and-drain series resistance is
Structural Health Monitoring of Steel Pipes under Different Boundary Conditions and Choice of Signal Processing Techniques
Rais Ahmad,Tribikram Kundu
Advances in Civil Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/813281
Abstract: Guided wave technique is an efficient method for monitoring structural integrity by detecting and forecasting possible damages in distributed pipe networks. Efficient detection depends on appropriate selection of guided wave modes as well as signal processing techniques. Fourier analysis and wavelet analysis are two popular signal processing techniques that provide a flexible set of tools for solving various fundamental problems in science and engineering. In this paper, effective ways of using Fourier and Wavelet analyses on guided wave signals for detecting defects in steel pipes are discussed for different boundary conditions. This research investigates the effectiveness of Fourier transforms and Wavelet analysis in detecting defects in steel pipes. Cylindrical Guided waves are generated by piezo-electric transducers and propagated through the pipe wall boundaries in a pitch-catch system. Fourier transforms of received signals give information regarding the propagating guided wave modes which helps in detecting defects by selecting appropriate modes that are affected by the presence of defects. Continuous wavelet coefficients are found to be sensitive to defects. Several types of mother wavelet functions such as Daubechies, Symlet, and Meyer have been used for the continuous wavelet transform to investigate the most suitable wavelet function for defect detection. This research also investigates the effect of different boundary conditions on wavelet transforms for different mother wavelet functions. 1. Introduction Early forecasting of the degradation process caused by adverse environmental effects or mechanical damages in pipe network systems can avoid many catastrophic accidents. Now a days, the detection of the existing defects in pipes is one of the major challenges for the structural health monitoring of pipes. Propagation of cylindrical guided waves through pipes for damage detection is becoming an increasingly popular technique for pipe inspection. Gazis [1, 2] first analytically solved the propagation of harmonic waves in an infinitely long elastic hollow cylinder. Many investigators [3, 4] used guided wave modes for detecting wall thinning defects in cylindrical pipes. Rose and coworkers [5, 6] designed a special probe which can be used both as a transmitter and a receiver during the pipe inspection. Guo and Kundu [7, 8] designed a new transducer holder mechanism for pipe inspection using cylindrical guided waves. Using those transducer holders Na et al. [9, 10] generated cylindrical guided waves for detecting delaminations between steel bars
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