Abstract:
A molecular gas system in three dimensions is numerically studied by the energy conserving molecular dynamics (MD). The autocorrelation functions for the velocity and the force are computed and the friction coefficient is estimated. From the comparison with the stochastic dynamics (SD) of a Brownian particle, it is shown that the force correlation function in MD is different from the delta-function force correlation in SD in short time scale. However, as the measurement time scale is increased further, the ensemble equivalence between the microcanonical MD and the canonical SD is restored. We also discuss the practical implication of the result.

Abstract:
If quenched to zero temperature, the one-dimensional Ising spin chain undergoes coarsening, whereby the density of domain walls decays algebraically in time. We show that this coarsening process can be interrupted by exerting a rapidly oscillating periodic field with enough strength to compete with the spin-spin interaction. By analyzing correlation functions and the distribution of domain lengths both analytically and numerically, we observe nontrivial correlation with more than one length scale at the threshold field strength.

Abstract:
We consider a single Josephson junction in the presence of time varying gate charge, and examine the nonequilibrium work done by the charge control in the framework of fluctuation theorems. We obtain the probability distribution functions of the works performed by forward protocol and by its time reversed protocol, which from the Crooks relation gives the estimation of the free energy changes \Delta F =0. The reliability of \Delta F estimated from the Jarzynksi equality is crucially dependent on protocol parameters, while Bennett's acceptance ratio method confirms consistently \Delta F=0. The error of the Jarzynski estimator either grows or becomes saturated as the duration of the work protocol increases, which depends on the protocol rapidity determining the existence of the oscillatory motion of the phase difference across the junction. The average of the work also shows similar behaviors and its saturation value is given by the relative weight of the oscillatory trajectory with respect to running trajectories with constant acceleration. We discuss non-negativity of the work average and its relation to heat and entropy production associated with the circuit control.

Abstract:
We study the diffusion phenomena on the negatively curved surface made up of congruent heptagons. Unlike the usual two-dimensional plane, this structure makes the boundary increase exponentially with the distance from the center, and hence the displacement of a classical random walker increases linearly in time. The diffusion of a quantum particle put on the heptagonal lattice is also studied in the framework of the tight-binding model Hamiltonian, and we again find the linear diffusion like the classical random walk. A comparison with diffusion on complex networks is also made.

Abstract:
Phase transition in its strict sense can only be observed in an infinite system, for which equilibration takes an infinitely long time at criticality. In numerical simulations, we are often limited both by the finiteness of the system size and by the finiteness of the observation time scale. We propose that one can overcome this barrier by measuring the nonequilibrium temporal relaxation for finite systems and by applying the finite-time-finite-size scaling (FTFSS) which systematically uses two scaling variables, one temporal and the other spatial. The FTFSS method yields a smooth scaling surface, and the conventional finite-size scaling curves can be viewed as proper cross sections of the surface. The validity of our FTFSS method is tested for the synchronization transition of Kuramoto models in the globally-coupled structure and in the small-world network structure. Our FTFSS method is also applied to the Monte-Carlo dynamics of the globally-coupled q-state clock model.

Abstract:
Monte Carlo simulation study of a classical spin model with Dzylosinskii-Moriya interaction and the spin anisotropy under the magnetic field is presented. We found a rich phase diagram containing the multiple spin spiral (or skyrme crystal) phases of square, rectangular, and hexagonal symmetries in addition to the spiral spin state. The Hall conductivity $\sigma_{xy}$ is calculated within the $sd$ model for each of the phases. While $\sigma_{xy}$ is zero in the absence of external magnetic field, applying a field strength $H$ larger than a threshold value $H_c$ leads to the simultaneous onset of nonzero chirality and Hall conductivity. We find $H_c = 0$ for the multiple spin spiral states, but $H_c > 0$ for a single spin spiral state regardless of the field orientation. Relevance of the present results to MnSi is discussed.

Abstract:
For an understanding of a heat engine working in the microscopic scale, it is often necessary to estimate the amount of reversible work extracted by isothermal expansion of the quantum gas used as its working substance. We consider an engine with a movable wall, modeled as an infinite square well with a delta peak inside. By solving the resulting one-dimensional Schr\"odinger equation, we obtain the energy levels and the thermodynamic potentials. Our result shows how quantum tunneling degrades the engine by decreasing the amount of reversible work during the isothermal expansion.

Abstract:
An allometric height-mass exponent $\gamma$ gives an approximative power-law relation $< M> \propto H^\gamma$ between the average mass $< M>$ and the height $H$, for a sample of individuals. The individuals in the present study are humans but could be any biological organism. The sampling can be for a specific age of the individuals or for an age-interval. The body-mass index (BMI) is often used for practical purposes when characterizing humans and it is based on the allometric exponent $\gamma=2$. It is here shown that the actual value of $\gamma$ is to large extent determined by the degree of correlation between mass and height within the sample studied: no correlation between mass and height means $\gamma=0$, whereas if there was a precise relation between mass and height such that all individuals had the same shape and density then $\gamma=3$. The connection is demonstrated by showing that the value of $\gamma$ can be obtained directly from three numbers characterizing the spreads of the relevant random Gaussian statistical distributions: the spread of the height and mass distributions together with the spread of the mass distribution for the average height. Possible implications for allometric relations in general are discussed.

Abstract:
Competition is a main tenet of economics, and the reason is that a perfectly competitive equilibrium is Pareto-efficient in the absence of externalities and public goods. Whether a product is selected in a market crucially relates to its competitiveness, but the selection in turn affects the landscape of competition. Such a feedback mechanism has been illustrated in a duopoly model by Lambert et al., in which a buyer's satisfaction is updated depending on the {\em freshness} of a purchased product. The probability for buyer $n$ to select seller $i$ is assumed to be $p_{n,i} \propto e^{ S_{n,i}/T}$, where $S_{n,i}$ is the buyer's satisfaction and $T$ is an effective temperature to introduce stochasticity. If $T$ decreases below a critical point $T_c$, the system undergoes a transition from a symmetric phase to an asymmetric one, in which only one of the two sellers is selected. In this work, we extend the model by incorporating a simple price system. By considering a greed factor $g$ to control how the satisfaction depends on the price, we argue the existence of an oscillatory phase in addition to the symmetric and asymmetric ones in the $(T,g)$ plane, and estimate the phase boundaries through mean-field approximations. The analytic results show that the market preserves the inherent symmetry between the sellers for lower $T$ in the presence of the price system, which is confirmed by our numerical simulations.

Abstract:
In a number of classical statistical-physical models, there exists a characteristic dimensionality called the upper critical dimension above which one observes the mean-field critical behavior. Instead of constructing high-dimensional lattices, however, one can also consider infinite-dimensional structures, and the question is whether this mean-field character extends to quantum-mechanical cases as well. We therefore investigate the transverse-field quantum Ising model on the globally coupled network and the Watts-Strogatz small-world network by means of quantum Monte Carlo simulations and the finite-size scaling analysis. We confirm that both the structures exhibit critical behavior consistent with the mean-field description. In particular, we show that the existing cumulant method has a difficulty in estimating the correct dynamic critical exponent and suggest that an order parameter based on the quantum-mechanical expectation value can be a practically useful numerical observable to determine critical behavior when there is no well-defined dimensionality.